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  • 1.
    Alderisi, Giuliana
    et al.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Probabilistic Scheduling and Adaptive Relaying for WirelessHART Networks2015In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a way to probabilistically guarantee reliable packet delivery in WirelessHART based networks suitable for industrial control systems. We propose a new scheduling scheme, called Iterative Probabilistic Scheduling with Adaptive Relaying (IPS-AR), which consists of a static part (IPS) and a dynamic part (AR). IPS takes into account the channel characteristics and exploits relaying to achieve a minimum reliability threshold as requested by the supported industrial application. In the AR part, each relay node decides the packet to be sent based on online assessment of both the number of consecutive errors experienced by previous packets belonging to the same flow, as well as the number of copies of the packet currently available at the other relay nodes. This enables IPS-AR to achieve the desired reliability level while using the available re-sources in terms of time and bandwidth more efficiently.

  • 2.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tran, Hung Vinh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Reliability and Fairness for CANT Communication Based on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access2019In: 2019 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS WORKSHOPS (ICC WORKSHOPS), IEEE , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, communication using unmanned aerial vehicles (LAVO as relay nodes has been considered beneficial for a number of applications. Moreover, nomorthogonM multiple access (NONIA) with users being assigned different signal passer levels while sharing the same tune-frequency domain has been found effective to enhance spectrum utilization and provide predictable access to the channel. Thus, in this paper we consider an UAV communication system with NOMA and propose a solution to find the optimal values for the user's power allocation coefficients (PA(s) needed to achieve the required levels of communication reliability. We present a closed-form expression for the PAC of each user and also propose an algori for finding the optimal altitude of the UAV required to satisfy the fairness condition for all users. Finally, we provide numerical mutinies and compare the results tar three types of communication environments.

  • 3.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tran, Hung Vinh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Reliability and Fairness for UAV Communication Based on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops), 2019, no 53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, communication using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as relay nodes has been considered beneficial for a number of applications. Moreover, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with users being assigned different signal power levels while sharing the same time-frequency domain has been found effective to enhance spectrum utilization and provide predictable access to the channel. Thus, in this paper we consider an UAV communication system with NOMA and propose a solution to find the optimal values for the user’s power allocation coefficients (PACs) needed to achieve the required levels of communication reliability. We present a closed-form expression for the PAC of each user and also propose an algorithm for finding the optimal altitude of the UAV required to satisfy the fairness condition for all users. Finally, we provide numerical examples and compare the results for three types of communication environments.

  • 4.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cooperative Communication for Increased Reliability in Industrial Wireless Networks2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing wireless networks into distributed industrial systems may enable new or improved application areas and also great cost reductions due to lower complexity of installation and maintenance, compared to existing wired solutions. However, signals travelling through wireless channels are affected by pathloss, fading and shadowing, and, as a result, packet errors are both time-varying and more frequent than in e.g., existing wired fieldbuses. Packet errors or delays occurring in industrial systems can, in critical situations, lead to damage of expensive equipment or even danger to human life. Thus, wireless networks can be accepted for use in industrial networks only when sufficient levels of reliability and timeliness can be guaranteed.

    Relaying is a technique that has the potential to increase reliability with maintained delay. Having different geographical locations, and thus different wireless channel qualities, some nodes may overhear transmitted packets even in cases when the intended receiver did not, and then cooperate by relaying these packets to their final destination.

    This thesis deals with design of relaying strategies aiming to increase reliability in deadline-constrained industrial applications using wireless networks. The influence of several different parameters, such as positions of relay nodes, number of erroneous packets at the relay node and at the destination respectively, as well as the number of available time slots before the deadline, are evaluated to determine the best acting strategy for each relay node. Moreover, it is shown that when a specific relay node has the opportunity to aid more than one source node, performance can be improved even further if the relay node combines several packets, using Luby coding or packet aggregation, and instead relays such combined packets. Given the methods proposed in this thesis, the reliability in industrial wireless networks can be enhanced considerably, without increasing the delay, such that message deadlines still are kept.

  • 5.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Relaying for Industrial Wireless Networks2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in wireless technology for industrial applications has increased dramatically over the last few years. Wireless communication can reduce cost and complexity, enable mobility and provide much higher flexibility than its wired counterparts. However, to be considered for use in practice, wireless systems must provide sufficient levels of timeliness and reliability as required by industrial applications, while keeping reasonable levels of complexity as well as interoperability with existing wired networks. Wireless channels, characterized by pathloss, noise, multipath fading and shadowing, imply a particular challenge to fulfill the requirements on timely and reliable communication. To this end, this thesis work proposes and evaluates a number of techniques able to increase the reliability of wireless communication systems without causing excessive or unpredictable delays. In addition, all proposed solutions are implementable on top of commercially available devices, i.e., they require no large alteration of the standard IEEE 802.15.4 and minimal changes to the current infrastructure to be compatible with existing industrial communication systems. First, the characteristics of industrial communication environments are determined. Then, suitable models to approximate them are selected, since the effectiveness of different error control schemes able to increase reliability depends on the type of wireless channel encountered. Next, different possibilities for reliability improvements in wireless industrial networks, while subject to strict timing constraints, are evaluated. Based on this, relaying that has been proven to be beneficial for traditional wireless networks is evaluated for applicability in industrial systems. Finally, several different relaying strategies that are implementable at the link layer on top of existing chipsets are developed and evaluated. Depending on the specific type of industrial application and its corresponding performance metrics, relaying is combined with network coding, forward error control codes, packet aggregation and packet combining techniques – all of which support increased reliability with maintained delay, at reasonable complexity investments. To complete the framework, scheduling schemes tailored to various relaying protocols are also developed.

  • 6.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Designing a Bandwidth Management Scheme for Heterogeneous Virtualized Networks2018In: International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation - Work in Progress Session ETFA-WiP'18, 2018, p. 1079-1082, article id 8502450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With envisioned increased density and complexity of future industrial networks, software defined networking (SDN) and network virtualization are considered to be promising techniques for network organization and management. Thus, in this paper we look at heterogeneous software defined networks consisting of several virtual slices and present a bandwidth control algorithm, which is designed to provide control over shared bandwidth both in wired and wireless parts of the network. The designed algorithm has been implemented in real hardware and in this paper we present the initial test results.

  • 7.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bergblomma, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Štimac, Barbara
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Design of Channel Measurement Guidelines for Characterization of Wireless Industrial Environments2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing reliable and timely communication in wireless industrial systems requires careful design of error control schemes able to tackle the bit error patterns typically occurring in these environments. As most error control schemes target some specific characteristics of a wireless channel, the selection of channel model is crucial for proper performance assessment. There are a number of widely used channel models, but the question of the most appropriate choice of model for industrial environments still remains largely open. Not many indoor measurement campaigns have focused on industrial environments with their own specific characteristics. In this paper we present a set of measurement guidelines aiming to characterize industrial environments such that suitable channel models can be selected to properly evaluate error control schemes targeting reliable and timely wireless communications in industrial environments. 

  • 8.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Contract-Based Assurance for Wireless Cooperative Functions of Vehicular Systems2017In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 8391-8396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation of vehicular systems is the stepping stone towards both road and indoor smart transportation systems. It aims at increasing transportation efficiency and safety compared to the stand-alone vehicular systems. The usage of wireless communication as the foundation of such safety-critical cooperation needs to be embraced with all its benefits and flaws compared to the wired communication. The cooperative functions need to be designed to adapt to the varying reliability of the wireless communication channels such that both the stand-alone vehicles as well as the smart transportation system formed by their cooperation are deemed sufficiently safe. In this paper we build upon a contract-based runtime monitoring architecture and propose a methodology for assuring adaptive behaviour of transportation with respect to the wireless communication channel failures. More specifically, we elaborate how safety analysis of the interaction of the wirelessly connected vehicles can be used as the basis for derivation of the adaptive modes and the corresponding contracts. Furthermore, we discuss how such contracts can be used as the basis for assurance of the adaptive wireless cooperation. We illustrate the proposed methodology on a smart transportation system of a factory.

  • 9.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Adopting FEC and Packet Combining to Increase the Performance of IWSNs Using Relaying2015In: International Conference on Computing and Network Communications CoCoNet'15, 2015, p. 90-97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial networks can benefit significantly from introduction of wireless communication. However, wireless systems suffer from much higher packet error rates than wired networks do, making it difficult to obtain sufficient reliability within application deadlines. One promising approach to increase the reliability of wireless communication systems without causing excessive additional delays is to exploit spatial diversity. However, often in industrial networks it is not possible to place the relay nodes optimally. Due to this not even relay nodes located close to the source are able to receive the source packets missing at the destination correctly and consequently they cannot assist by relaying. Therefore, to benefit even further from relaying, additional measures should be taken both to increase the number of the correct packets at the relay nodes and to allow the destination to recover more correct packets. Consequently, the focus of this work is schemes enabling relaying, forward-error-correction (FEC) and packet combining without causing additional delays or complexity such that it is possible to use off the shelf transceivers. The results show that the introduction of FEC and packet combining does improve performance by enabling relay nodes to help more often. However, the exact gain depends on the specific FEC scheme used and, in particular, the size of the preamble and other fields that must be left uncoded, but still be received correctly, to be able to use FEC on the received packet.

  • 10.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Halmstad University.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Increased Reliability of Reduced Delay in Wireless Industrial Networks Using Relaying and Luby Codes2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing reliable and timely communication in wireless industrial networks is crucial. Previous research has shown that relaying can aid in achieving this goal. We consider the case when relay resources are sparse such that each relay needs to aid e.g., three different sensor nodes and propose to combine relaying with Luby codes. We let the relay node construct a Luby coded packet using the three source packets as input. The destination can then use the Luby coded packet to recover an erroneous or lost source packet regardless of which source that packet belonged to. The performance evaluation shows that our proposed scheme significantly increases the number of correctly received packets before the corresponding deadlines, or alternatively that high reliability can be maintained even if fewer time slots are allocated for retransmissions, thus lowering the delay.

  • 11.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Effects of Relay Behavior and Position in Wireless Industrial Networks2012In: 2012 9th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems, May 21-24, 2012 Lemgo, Germany: Proceedings, 2012, p. 183-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In wireless industrial networks, providing reliable and timely communication is crucial. Previous research has shown that relaying can be used to achieve this goal. However, we have found that different types of wireless channels encountered in industrial environments affect the benefits as well as the best behavior and position of relay nodes. We consider two types of behavior: the relay node always retransmits or it only retransmits if it has obtained a correct copy of the packet. We evaluate different positions of the relay node by conducting simulations for two types of fading channels: with and without line of sight. The results clearly show that the benefits, the best behavior and position of a relay node depends on the wireless channel, whether or not the bit errors appear randomly or in bursts and also on the distance between the source and the final destination.

  • 12.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Willig, Andreas
    Univ Canterbury, Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bjoerkman, Mats
    Halmstad Univ, Halmstad, Sweden.
    On the Role of Feedback for Industrial Wireless Networks Using Relaying and Packet Aggregation2014In: 2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY (ICIT), 2014, p. 743-748Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be accepted for use in industrial applications, wireless technologies must offer similar performance in terms of reliability and timeliness as provided by current wired solutions. Wireless channels, introducing time-varying packet error rates, impose a significant challenge to fulfill these requirements. One way to improve reliability in industrial wireless networks is to use relaying, whereas packet aggregation is a method that can reduce delay. Hence, in this paper, we propose to use a combination of relaying and packet aggregation. Based on the type of feedback provided by the controller, the relay node can choose the most suitable way to use its allocated time slots such that more packets can reach the controller before their deadlines. The results show that allowing this kind of flexibility at the relay node results in performance improvements. The more flexibility, the greater the gain, and thus further improvements can be made by adjusting the schedule to take different types of feedback into account.

  • 13.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Willig, Andreas
    University of Canterbury, Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    On the Role of Feedback for Industrial Networks Using Relaying and Packet Aggregation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To be accepted for use in industrial applications, wireless technologies must offer similar performance in terms of reliability and timeliness as provided by current wired solutions. Wireless channels, introducing time-varying packet error rates, impose a significant challenge to fulfill these requirements. One way to improve reliability in industrial wireless networks is to use relaying, whereas packet aggregation is a method that can reduce delay. Hence, in this paper, we propose to use a combination of relaying and packet aggregation. Based on the type of feedback provided by the controller, the relay node can choose the most suitable way to use its allocated time slots such that more packets can reach the controller before their deadlines. The results show that allowing this kind of flexibility at the relay node results in performance improvements. The more flexibility, the greater the gain, and thus further improvements can be made by adjusting the schedule to take different types of feedback into account.

  • 14.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Willig, Andreas
    University of Canterbury, UK.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Halmstad University.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scheduling for source relaying with packet aggregation in industrial wireless networks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1855-1864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in wireless communication systems for industrial applications has grown significantly over the last years. More flexible, easier to install and maintain, wireless networks present a promising alternative to the currently used wired systems. However, reliability and timeliness requirements at present met by wired networks also need to be fulfilled by wireless solutions. Packet errors introduced when packets travel through wireless channels imply a significant challenge to fulfill these requirements. Relaying has been recognized to improve the reliability in industrial wireless networks without causing additional delay. Furthermore, the recent results have shown that relaying combined with packet aggregation significantly outperforms simple relaying. However, it is not always cost efficient to introduce additional relay nodes into an industrial network and hence, in this paper, we propose using a combination of relaying and packet aggregation at the source nodes. The results show that when relaying and aggregation are used at the source nodes, the transmission schedule plays a crucial role. A schedule adapting to the varying channel conditions improves performance substantially. By carefully choosing which packet to aggregate, even further improvements can be achieved.

  • 15.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Willig, Andreas
    University of Canterbury, Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scheduling transmissions in industrial networks using source relaying and packet aggregation2015In: 11th IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems WFCS'15, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless networks present a promising alternative to the currently used wired systems as they are more flexible, easier to install and maintain. However, requirements on reliability and timeliness which at present are met by wired networks, also need be fulfilled by wireless solutions.Relaying and packet aggregation have been recognised as viable tools to do this. However, introducing additional relay nodes into an industrialnetwork is costly. Hence, in this paper we propose to use a combination of relaying and packet aggregation performed by the source nodes themselves. The results show that our proposal improves performance considerably, but also that the transmission schedule plays a crucial role. A schedule adapting to the varying channel conditions, improves the performance substantially. By carefully choosing which packet to aggregate, even further improvements can be achieved.

  • 16.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    The Challenge of Safety Tactics Synchronization for Cooperative Systems2019In: International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018, 2019, p. 50-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given rapid progress in integrating operational and industrial technologies and recent increase in the level of automation in safety-related systems, cooperative cyber-physical systems are emerging in a self-contained area requiring new approaches for addressing their critical properties such as safety and security. The notion of tactics is used to describe a relation between a system input and its corresponding response. Cooperative functionalities often rely on wireless communication and incoherent behavior of different wireless channels makes it challenging to achieve harmonization in deployment of systems' tactics. In this work we focus on safety tactics for cooperative cyber-physical systems as a response to inputs related to both safety and security, i.e., we are interested in security informed safety, and formulate a challenge of synchronization of safety tactics between the cooperating systems. To motivate the requirement on such synchronization we consider a car platoon, i.e., a set of cooperative vehicles, as an example and illustrate possible hazards arising from unsynchronized tactics deployment.

  • 17.
    Yue, Jing
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Lin, Zihuai
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Network coding for reliable downlink transmissions in industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks2016In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, Poznan, Poland, 2016, Vol. oct, p. 560-565, article id 7600967Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benefits, such as significant reduction of cost and complexity, brought by wireless communication make wireless networks more and more appealing for industrial applications. However, before wireless systems can be deployed in industrial networks, strict industrial requirements on reliability and timeliness must be fulfilled and thus protocols increasing the performance of wireless communication are needed. Data in industrial systems is typically transmitted in two directions: from sensor nodes to a controller (uplink transmission) and from the controller to actuators (downlink transmission). Several previous studies have looked at possibilities of performance increase in uplink transmissions from the sensors, while not that much work focused on downlink transmissions, which are equally important. Thus, this paper addresses the downlink transmission scenario and presents a new protocol introducing network coding into packet forwarding scheme. Simulation results show that packet reception rate can be increased when network coding is applied.

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