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  • 1.
    Eldh, S.
    et al.
    Radio System and Technology, Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden. Dept. Math and Comp. Science, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden .
    Andersson, K.
    Radio System and Technology, Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ermedahl, A.
    Radio System and Technology, Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Wiklund, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Radio Base Systems, Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Towards a Test Automation Improvement Model (TAIM)2014In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. Softw. Test., Verif. Valid. Workshops, ICSTW, 2014, p. 337-342Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In agile software development, industries are becoming more dependent on automated test suites. Thus, the test code quality is an important factor for the overall system quality and maintainability. We propose a Test Automation Improvement Model (TAIM) defining ten key areas and one general area. Each area should be based on measurements, to fill the gap of existing assessments models. The main contribution of this paper is to provide the outline of TAIM and present our intermediate results and some initial metrics to support our model. Our initial target has been the key area targeting implementation and structure of test code. We have used common static measurements to compare the test code and the source code of a unit test automation suite being part of a large complex telecom subsystem. Our intermediate results show that it is possible to outline such an improvement model and our metrics approach seems promising. However, to get a generic useful model to aid test automation evolution and provide for comparable measurements, many problems still remain to be solved. TAIM can as such be viewed as a framework to guide the research on metrics for test automation artifacts.

  • 2.
    Wiklund, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Impediments for Automated Software Test Execution2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated software test execution is a critical part of the modern software development process, where rapid feedback on the product quality is expected. It is of high importance that impediments related to test execution automation are prevented and removed as quickly as possible. An enabling factor for all types of improvement is to understand the nature of what is to be improved. The goal with this thesis is to further the knowledge about common problems encountered by software developers using test execution automation, in order to enable improvement of test execution automation in industrial software development. The research has been performed through industrial case studies and literature reviews. The analysis of the data have primarily been performed using qualitative methods, searching for patterns, themes, and concepts in the data. 

    Our main findings include: (a) a comprehensive list of potential impediments reported in the published body of knowledge on test execution automation, (b) an in-depth analysis of how such impediments may affect the performance of a development team, and (c) a proposal for a qualitative model of interactions between the main groups of phenomena that contribute to the formation of impediments in a test execution automation project. In addition to this, we contribute qualitative and quantitative empirical data from our industrial case studies. 

    Through our results, we find that test execution automation is a commonly under-estimated activity,  not only in terms of resources but also in terms of the complexity of the work. There is a clear tendency to perform the work ad hoc, down-prioritize the automation in favor of other activities,  and ignore the long-term effects in favor of short-term gains. This is both a technical and a cultural problem that need to be managed by awareness of the problems that may arise, and also have to be solved in the long term through education and information. We conclude by proposing a theoretical model of the socio-technical system that needs to be managed to be successful with test execution automation.

  • 3.
    Wiklund, Kristian
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, SE-16480 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, SE-16480 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Can We Do Useful Industrial Software Engineering Research in the Shadow of Lean and Agile?2013In: 2013 1ST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CONDUCTING EMPIRICAL STUDIES IN INDUSTRY (CESI), IEEE , 2013, p. 67-+Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The software industry is rapidly changing from traditional ways of working to lean and agile development methods using self-organized feature development teams that are performing a much larger part of the development process than before. Face to face communication will replace many of the design artifacts used for work-in-progress, such as defect reports and feature system design specifications. This type of data will cease to exist when the feature is developed or the problem is solved, and will not be readily available to researchers. As a consequence, software engineering research in industry will have to rely primarily on participatory and observational methods.

  • 4.
    Wiklund, Kristian
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Can we do useful industrial software engineering research in the shadow of Lean and Agile?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The software industry is rapidly changing from traditional ways of working to lean and agile development methods using self-organized feature development teams that are performing a much larger part of the development process than before. Face to face communication will replace many of the design artifacts used for work-in-progress, such as defect reports and feature system design specifications. This type of data will cease to exist when the feature is developed or the problem is solved, and will not be readily available to researchers. As a consequence, software engineering research in industry will have to rely primarily on participatory and observational methods.

  • 5. Wiklund, Kristian
    et al.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Technical Debt in Test Automation2012In: Proceedings - IEEE 5th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2012, IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 887-892Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated test execution is one of the more popular and available strategies to minimize the cost for software testing, and is also becoming one of the central concepts in modern software development as methods such as test-driven devel- opment gain popularity. Published studies on test automation indicate that the maintenance and development of test automation tools commonly encounter problems due to unforeseen issues. To further investigate this, we performed a case study on a telecommunication subsystem to seek factors that contribute to inefficiencies in use, maintenance, and development of the automated testing performed within the scope of responsibility of a software design team. A qualitative evaluation of the findings indicates that the main areas of improvement in this case are in the fields of interaction design and general software design principles, as applied to test execution system development.

  • 6.
    Wiklund, Kristian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Impediments for Automated Testing - An Empirical Analysis of a User Support Discussion Board2014In: Seventh IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation ICST 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 113-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand the challenges encountered by users and developers of automatic software testing, we have performed an empirical investigation of a discussion board used for support of a test automation framework having several hundred users. The messages on the discussion board were stratified into problem reports, help requests, development information, and feature requests. The messages in the problem report and help request strata were then sampled and analyzed using thematic analysis, searching for common patterns. Our analysis indicate that a large part of the impediments discussed on the board are related to issues related to the centralized IT environment, and to erroneous behavior connected to the use of the framework and related components. We also observed a large amount of impediments related to the use of software development tools. Turning to the help requests, we found that the majority of the help requests were about designing test scripts and not about the areas that appear to be most problematic. From our results and previous publications, we see a clear need to simplify the use, installation, and configuration of test systems of this type. The problems attributable to software development tools suggest that testers implementing test automation need more skills in handling those tools, than historically has been assumed. Finally, we propose that further research into the benefits of centralization of tools and IT environments, as well as structured deployment and efficient use of test automation, is performed.

  • 7.
    Wiklund, Kristian
    et al.
    Ericsson AB.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Impediments in Agile Software Development: An Empirical Investigation2013In: Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7983: 14th International Conference, PROFES 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings, Springer , 2013, p. 35-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report on a case study on development impediments encountered in the early phase of a transformation to agile methods in a software development organization. Drawing from literature and anecdotal evidence, it was assumed that the majority of the impediments were related to software testing. To investigate this, we performed a case study seeking qualitative and quantitative evidence from task boards, interviews, and observations. Our analysis indicates that the major challenge in the transformation undertaken by the studied organization was coordination and communication in the large, and that testing was the major challenge only when the unit of analysis was restricted to the teams in the department.

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