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  • 1.
    Dardar, Raghad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Industrial Experiences of Building a Safety Case in Compliance with ISO 262622012In: 23RD IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SOFTWARE RELIABILITY ENGINEERING WORKSHOPS (ISSREW 2012), 2012, p. 349-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 26262 functional safety standard provides appropriate development processes, requirements and safety integrity levels specific for the automotive domain. One crucial requirement consists of the creation of a safety case, a structured argument, which inter-relates evidence and claims, needed to show that safety-critical systems are acceptably safe. The standard is currently not mandatory to be applied to safety critical systems installed in heavy trucks; however, this is likely to be changed by 2016. This paper describes the experience gathered by applying the standard to the Fuel Level Estimation and Display System, a subsystem that together with other subsystems plays a significant role in terms of global system safety for heavy trucks manufactured by Scania. More specifically, exploratory and laborious work related to the creation of a safety case in compliance with ISO 26262 in an inexperienced industrial setting is described, and the paper ends with presenting some lessons learned together with guidelines to facilitate the adoption of ISO 26262.

  • 2.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Architecture-Based Verification of Dependable Embedded Systems2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality assurance of dependable embedded systems is becoming increasingly difficult, as developers are required to build more complex systems on tighter budgets. As systems become more complex, system architects must make increasingly complex architecture design decisions. The process of making the architecture design decisions of an intended system is the very first, and the most significant, step of ensuring that the developed system will meet its requirements, including requirements on its ability to tolerate faults. Since the decisions play a key role in the design of a dependable embedded system, they have a comprehensive effect on the development process and the largest impact on the developed system. Any faulty architecture design decision will, consequently, propagate throughout the development process, and is likely to lead to a system not meeting the requirements, an unacceptable level of dependability and costly corrections.

    Architecture design decisions are in turn critical with respect to quality and dependability of a system, and the cost of the development process. It is therefore crucial to prevent faulty architecture design decisions and, as early as practicable, detect and remove faulty decisions that have not successfully been prevented. The use of Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) helps developers to cope with the increasing complexity by formal and standardized means of communication and understanding. Furthermore, the availability of a formal description enables automated and formal analysis of the architecture design.

    The contribution of this licentiate thesis is an architecture quality assurance framework for safety-critical, performance-critical and mission-critical embedded systems specified by the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). The framework is developed through the adaption of formal methods, in particular traditional model checking and model-based testing techniques, to AADL, by defining formal verification criteria for AADL, and a formal AADL-semantics. Model checking of AADL models provides evidence of the completeness, consistency and correctness of the model, and allows for automated avoidance of faulty architecture design decisions, costly corrections and threats to quality and dependability. In addition, the framework can automatically generate test suites from AADL models to test a developed system with respect to the architecture design decisions. A successful test suite execution provides evidence that the architecture design has been implemented correctly. Methods for selective regression verification are included in the framework to cost-efficiently re-verify a modified architecture design, such as after a correction of a faulty design decision. 

  • 3.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fixed-Priority Preemptive Scheduling Semantics of AADL in UPPAAL Timed Automata2012Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Quality Assurance for Dependable Embedded Systems2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Architectural engineering of embedded computer systems comprehensively affects both the development processes and the abilities of the systems. Rigorous and holistic verification of architectural engineering is consequently essential in the development of safety-critical and mission-critical embedded systems, such as computer systems within aviation, automotive, and railway transportation, where even minor architectural defects may cause substantial cost and devastating harm. The increasing complexity of embedded systems renders this challenge unmanageable without the support of automated methods of verification, to reduce the cost of labor and the risk of human error.

    The contribution of this thesis is an Architecture Quality Assurance Framework (AQAF) and a corresponding tool support, the Architecture Quality Assurance Tool (AQAT). AQAF provides a rigorous, holistic, and automated solution to the verification of critical embedded systems architectural engineering, from requirements analysis and design to implementation and maintenance. A rigorous and automated verification across the development process is achieved through the adaption and integration of formal methods to architectural engineering. The framework includes an architectural model checking technique for the detection of design faults, an architectural model-based test suite generation technique for the detection of implementation faults, and an architectural selective regression verification technique for an efficient detection of faults introduced by maintenance modifications.

    An integrated solution provides traceability and coherency between the verification processes and the different artifacts under analysis, which is essential for obtaining reliable results, for meeting certification provisions, and for performing impact analyses of maintenance modifications. The Architecture Quality Assurance Tool (AQAT) implements the theory of AQAF and enables an effortless adoption into industrial practices. Empirical results from an industrial study present a high fault detection rate at both the design level and the implementation level as well as an efficient selective regression verification process. Furthermore, the results of a scalability evaluation show that the solution is scalable to complex many-core embedded systems with multithreading.

  • 5.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Risk-based decision-making fallacies: Why present functional safety standards are not enough2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 153-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional safety of a system is the part of its overall safety that depends on the system operating correctly in response to its inputs. Safety is defined as the absence of unacceptable/unreasonable risk by functional safety standards, which enforce safety requirements in each phase of the development process of safety-critical software and hardware systems. Acceptability of risks is judged within a framework of analysis with contextual and cultural aspects by individuals who may introduce subjectivity and misconceptions in the assessment. While functional safety standards elaborate much on the avoidance of unreasonable risk in the development of safety-critical software and hardware systems, little is addressed on the issue of avoiding unreasonable judgments of risk. Through the studies of common fallacies in risk perception and ethics, we present a moral-psychological analysis of functional safety standards and propose plausible improvements of the involved risk-related decision making processes, with a focus on the notion of an acceptable residual risk. As a functional safety reference model, we use the functional safety standard ISO 26262, which addresses potential hazards caused by malfunctions of software and hardware systems within road vehicles and defines safety measures that are required to achieve an acceptable level of safety. The analysis points out the critical importance of a robust safety culture with developed countermeasures to the common fallacies in risk perception, which are not addressed by contemporary functional safety standards. We argue that functional safety standards should be complemented with the analysis of potential hazards caused by fallacies in risk perception, their countermeasures, and the requirement that residual risks must be explicated, motivated, and accompanied by a plan for their continuous reduction. This approach becomes especially important in contemporary developed autonomous vehicles with increasing computational control by increasingly intelligent software applications.

  • 6.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kristina, Lundqvist
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Regression verification of AADL models through slicing of system dependence graphs2014In: QoSA 2014 - Proceedings of the 10th International ACM SIGSOFT Conference on Quality of Software Architectures (Part of CompArch 2014), 2014, p. 103-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design artifacts of embedded systems are subjected to a number of modifications during the development process. Verified artifacts that subsequently are modified must nec- essarily be re-Verified to ensure that no faults have been introduced in response to the modification. We collectively call this type of verification as regression verification. In this paper, we contribute with a technique for selective regression verification of embedded systems modeled in the Architec- ture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). The technique can be used with any AADL-based verification technique to eficiently perform regression verification by only selecting verification sequences that cover parts that are afiected by the modification for re-execution. This allows for the avoid- ance of unnecessary re-verification, and thereby unnecessary costs. The selection is based on the concept of specification slicing through system dependence graphs (SDGs) such that the efiect of a modification can be identified.

  • 7.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Developing dependable software-intensive systems: AADL vs. EAST-ADL2011In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6652, Springer, 2011, p. 103-117Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dependable software-intensive systems, such as embedded systems for avionics and vehicles are often developed under severe quality, schedule and budget constraints. As the size and complexity of these systems dramatically increases, the architecture design phase becomes more and more significant in order to meet these constraints. The use of Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provides an important basis for mutual communication, analysis and evaluation activities. Hence, selecting an ADL suitable for such activities is of great importance. In this paper we compare and investigate the two ADLs - AADL and EAST-ADL. The level of support provided to developers of dependable software-intensive systems is compared, and several critical areas of the ADLs are highlighted. Results of using an extended comparison framework showed many similarities, but also one clear distinction between the languages regarding the perspectives and the levels of abstraction in which systems are modeled. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 8.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    AQAT: The Architecture Quality Assurance Tool for Critical Embedded Systems2017In: Proceedings - International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, ISSRE, Volume 2017, 2017, p. 260-270, article id 8109092Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Architectural engineering of embedded systems comprehensively affects both the development processes and the abilities of the systems. Verification of architectural engineering is consequently essential in the development of safety- and mission-critical embedded system to avoid costly and hazardous faults. In this paper, we present the Architecture Quality Assurance Tool (AQAT), an application program developed to provide a holistic, formal, and automatic verification process for architectural engineering of critical embedded systems. AQAT includes architectural model checking, model-based testing, and selective regression verification features to effectively and efficiently detect design faults, implementation faults, and faults created by maintenance modifications. Furthermore, the tool includes a feature that analyzes architectural dependencies, which in addition to providing essential information for impact analyzes of architectural design changes may be used for hazard analysis, such as the identification of potential error propagations, common cause failures, and single point failures. Overviews of both the graphical user interface and the back-end processes of AQAT are presented with a sensor-to-actuator system example.

  • 9.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Torelm, M.
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    AQAF: An architecture quality assurance framework for systems modeled in AADL2016In: Proceedings - 2016 12th International ACM SIGSOFT Conference on Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2016, 2016, p. 31-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture engineering is essential to achieve dependability of critical embedded systems and affects large parts of the system life cycle. There is consequently little room for faults, which may cause substantial costs and devastating harm. Verification in architecture engineering should therefore be holistically and systematically managed in the development of critical embedded systems, from requirements analysis and design to implementation and maintenance. In this paper, we address this problem by presenting AQAF: an Architecture Quality Assurance Framework for critical embedded systems modeled in the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). The framework provides a holistic set of verification techniques with a common formalism and semantic domain, architecture flow graphs and timed automata, enabling completely formal and automated verification processes covering virtually the entire life cycle. The effectiveness and efficiency of the framework are validated in a case study comprising a safety-critical train control system. 

  • 10.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Architecture-Based Regression Verification of AADL SpecificationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design artifacts of dependable embedded systems, and the systems themselves, are subjected to a number of modifications during the development process. Verified artifacts that subsequently are modified must necessarily be re-verified to ensure that no faults have been introduced in response to the modification. We collectively call this type of verification as regression verification. Studies show that regression testing alone consumes a vast amount of the total development cost. This is likely a result of unnecessary verification of parts that are not affected by the modification. In this paper, we propose an architecture-based selective regression verification technique for the development process of dependable embedded systems specified in the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). The selection of necessary regression verification sequences is based on the concept of specification slicing through System Dependence Graphs (SDGs). This allows for the avoidance of unnecessary re-verification, and thereby unnecessary costs.

  • 11.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Torelm, Martin
    Bombardier Transp., Sweden .
    Experience Report: Evaluating Fault Detection Effectiveness and Resource Efficiency of the Architecture Quality Assurance Framework and Tool2017In: Proceedings - International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, ISSRE. Volume 2017, 2017, p. 271-281, article id 8109093Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Architecture Quality Assurance Framework (AQAF) is a theory developed to provide a holistic and formal verification process for architectural engineering of critical embedded systems. AQAF encompasses integrated architectural model checking, model-based testing, and selective regression verification techniques to achieve this goal. The Architecture Quality Assurance Tool (AQAT) implements the theory of AQAF and enables automated application of the framework. In this paper, we present an evaluation of AQAT and the underlying AQAF theory by means of an industrial case study, where resource efficiency and fault detection effectiveness are the targeted properties of evaluation. The method of fault injection is utilized to guarantee coverage of fault types and to generate a data sample size adequate for statistical analysis. We discovered important areas of improvement in this study, which required further development of the framework before satisfactory results could be achieved. The final results present a 100% fault detection rate at the design level, a 98.5% fault detection rate at the implementation level, and an average increased efficiency of 6.4% with the aid of the selective regression verification technique.

  • 12.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Automated Verification of AADL-Specifications Using UPPAAL2012In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE), 2012, p. 130-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is used to represent architecture design decisions of safety-critical and real-time embedded systems. Due to the far-reaching effects these decisions have on the development process, an architecture design fault is likely to have a significant deteriorating impact through the complete process. Automated fault avoidance of architecture design decisions therefore has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of the development while increasing the dependability of the end product. To provide means for automated fault avoidance when developing systems specified in AADL, a formal verification technique has been developed to ensure completeness and consistency of an AADL specification as well as its conformity with the end product. The approach requires the semantics of AADL to be formalized and implemented. We use the methodology of semantic anchoring to contribute with a formal and implemented semantics of a subset of AADL through a set of transformation rules to timed automata constructs. In addition, the verification technique, including the transformation rules, is validated using a case study of a safety-critical fuel-level system developed by a major vehicle manufacturer.

  • 13.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    An Architecture-Based Verification Technique for AADL Specifications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality assurance processes of software-intensive systems are an increasing challenge as the complexity of these systems dramatically increases. The use of Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide an important basis for evaluation. The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is an ADL developed for designing software intensive systems. In this paper, we propose an architecture-based verification technique covering the entire development process by adapting a combination of model-checking and model-based testing approaches to AADL specifications. The technique reveals inconsistencies of early design decisions and ensures a system's conformity with its AADL specification. The objective and criteria (test-selection) of the verification technique is derived from traditional integration testing.

  • 14.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Melander, Bob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bandwidth measurement in wireless networks2006In: IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, 2006, p. 89-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For active, probing-based bandwidth measurements performed on top of the unifying IP layer, it may seem reasonable to expect the measurement problem in wireless networks, such as ad-hoc networks, to be no different than the one in wired networks. However, in networks with 802.11 wireless links we show that this is not the case. Our experiments show that the measured available bandwidth is dependent on the probe packet size (contrary to what is observed in wired networks). Another equally important finding is that the measured link capacity is dependent on the probe packet size and on the cross-traffic intensity. The study we present has been performed using a bandwidth measurement tool, DietTopp, that is based on the previously not implemented TOPP method. DietTopp measures the end-to-end available bandwidth of a network path along with the capacity of the congested link.

  • 15.
    Kienle, Holger
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Liability for Software in Safety-Critical Mechatronic Systems: An Industrial Questionnaire2012In: 2012 2nd International Workshop on Software Engineering for Embedded Systems, SEES 2012 - Proceedings, 2012, p. 44-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is very little research on how industry is dealing with the risk of legal liability when constructing safety- critical mechatronic systems that are also software intensive. In this paper we propose a case study approach with the goal to understand how liability concerns in this setting impact software development in industry. The approach takes into account that software development is embedded into a complex socio-technical context involving stakeholders from technical, managerial and legal backgrounds. We present first results of our case study from a questionnaire involving six companies that develop software- intensive, safety-critical systems in the vehicular and avionics domains. The results of the questionnaire shed light on current industrial practices and concerns. The results indicate that liability seems indeed a concern and that a more in-depth analysis of this topic would be desirable to better understand the strategies that are used by industry to address liability risks.

  • 16.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Formal Execution Semantics for Asynchronous Constructs of AADL2013In: MODELS 2012 Innsbruck - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Model Based Architecting and Construction of Embedded Systems, ACES-MB 2012, 2013, p. 43-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) has been widely accepted to support the development process of Distributed Real-time and Embedded (DRE) systems and ease the tension of analyzing the systems’ non-functional properties. The AADL standard prescribes the dispatching and scheduling semantics for the thread components in the system using natural language. The lack of formal semantics limits the possibility to perform formal verification of AADL specifications. The main contribution of this paper is a mapping from a substantial asynchronous subset of AADL into the TASM language, allowing us to perform resource consumption and schedulability analysis of AADL models. A small case study is presented as a validation of the usefulness of this work.

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