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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Pelle
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sverrison, A
    NEW DESIGN PROCESS MODELS FOR THE AUDIO VISUAL INDUSTRY: A DESIGN SCIENCE APPROACH2010In: Proceedings of the 11th International Design Conference DESIGN 2010 / [ed] Stal - Le Cardinal Julie, FSB-The Design Society , 2010, p. 223-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a project that aims to come up with a suggestion for guide-lines and new work- flow models concerning the demand of tailored content that influence every design process of moving images as well as the distribution of creative decisions within contemporary production organizations in the audio-visual industry. In this context we define creativity as the social and psychological process that enable people to generate new ideas and concepts or to come up with new associations between existing ideas and concepts. From a theoretical perspective, the purpose of this paper is to discuss new design processes and workflows in the production of moving images in order to establish a general comprehension describing contemporary digital production chains for moving images. A purpose of the project is to find and analyze the weak and problematic links of the production chain, in order to suggest a solution for the problems, namely a flexible workflow model for the production of moving images. By flexibility we mean an ability to adapt to new challenges and changes, both external and internal. We have recently initiated this unique collaborative research project that focuses on how small and mid-sized audio-visual production enterprises in Sweden have developed and are developing new design processes due to a number of recent socio-economic and technological challenges. For the first time a number of the front-line production companies in Sweden participates in a scientific research project on common issues. Research questions to be addressed: - Has digitalization of film/TV production increased the flexibility and responsiveness of the production system? - Does this lead to more diffuse or better-defined work-roles among individual film/TV-workers? - Do new workflows and the distribution of creativity lead to an actual decentralization of creative decisions and responsibility in the design process of moving images?

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Pelle
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Audiovisuella designprocesser och digitala verktyg2014In: Audiovisuellt: Ljud och Bild: En artikelsamling med bidrag från projektet Audiovisuella medier / [ed] Árni Sverrisson, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Y
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Dalarna University.
    Design Management Support for the Audiovisual IndustryIn: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, E-ISSN 1875-8959Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency.2014In: Analyzing Cognitive Processes during Design: Proceedings of the HBiD 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study aims at illuminating human visual behavior in the interaction with pictorial instructions. The study is a multi disciplinary effort and is informed by the connection between gaze and attention as well as certain aspects of the Visual Literacy field and reveals a few basic visual behavior tendencies related to certain specific pictorial instruction types. By doing so, it is also an evaluation of the usefulness of a methodological framework consisting of six measures.The analysis of this paper is primarily based on eye-tracking data. In addition, an observed assembly that generated video and sound recordings is also part of the method. In the study 12 Film/TV- production students (out of which there is complete data from 9 informants) interacted with three types of types of visual instructions of the same assembled object, a solar powered toy.

  • 5.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    A Film Editor’s Visual Intentions and Use of Perceptual Phenomena in Designing Film Edits: An Observational Study2017In: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the role of perception in film editing, considered as audiovisual design work. The study is an observation of a film editor editing a documentary film sequence, where the perceptual phenomena at stake at edit points are scrutinized, with reference to perception theory. The results show that the film editor’s design goal is to achieve perceptual precision for each edit, either for continuity or for discontinuity, accordingly. The more perceptual phenomena per edit, the more time and the more processing the editor has to spend on the edit until satisfied with the result. This knowledge is of importance to inexperienced film editors in order to make the editing process faster and more precise and thus shorten production time. In the wider design context, other design activities are indicated to find inspiration for future research in this study, regarding perceptual phenomena and gaze framing during design processes.

  • 6.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Editorial intentions and viewer perceptions: An audiovisual methodology for studying film editing and eye movements2016In: Visual Methodologies, ISSN 2040-5456, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 13-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an audio-visual methodology, VOSMET, designed to address activities of the craft of film editing, with a focus on the use of perception, and its implications. The methodology employs 13 different visual aspects and five different audio aspects, starting with video-recording observations of an editor, and ending with the analysis of eye-tracking data from film viewers. Craft research needs methodologies that address craft activities and cognitive approaches. Design practices share a similar need for reaching deeper understanding. It is neither established how film editors achieve perceptual precision in continuity editing in practice. The VOSMET methodology simultaneously captures bodily actions, utterances, software events, and keystrokes, along with the audiovisual material under processing, and uses graphics to distinguish between what takes place. The methodology also contributes by grasping what a film editor attends to, how this attention functions, as well as how perceptual factors are handled by the film editor. Finally, the methodology can evaluate editorial intentions against film viewer perceptions.

  • 7.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Editorial intentions and viewer perceptions: Audiovisual methods for studying film editing and eye movements2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation describes the methods used in a research project on continuity film editing and its effects on viewer perception.  Film editing is considered a form of audiovisual design work in which visual perception plays a significant role. The study analyzes audiovisual design work in terms of nine different visual aspects and four different audio aspects. The audio aspects are the making of a soundtrack to a documentary film sequence, recordings of conversations during observations, and the viewing of the film sequence, as well as an analysis of those recordings. The visual aspects include the editing of the documentary film sequence, recordings of the editor at work (together with an observing researcher) generating video images of the work, and a continuous screen-recording including computer keystrokes. An altered second version of the film in which the edits were altered was created, and both versions were used as stimuli in an eye tracking study with 30 participants. Finally, eye-tracking data was analyzed in terms of eye-movements, and areas of interest, in order to determine the importance of perceptual precision. When perceptual precision is poor, the viewer’s eyes make extra movements to adjust or miss the area of interest, or the viewer’s cognitive load increases. Examples are given in the presentation, and it is suggested that these methods make it possible to identify key audiovisual factors that a film editor considers, which constitute viewer-friendly and viewer-challenging (i.e. ’smooth’ and ‘harsh’) moving image editing. This knowledge has not been documented experimentally before, and understanding how perceptual precision determines viewer-friendly or viewer-challenging film editing is a key factor in helping inexperienced film editors learn how to achieve their audiovisual intentions. It also contributes to the academic understanding of perceptual considerations in design work.

  • 8.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Dalarna University.
    Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme for this doctoral thesis focuses on how a film editor strives actively to perceptually frame and direct the film viewer’s gaze across film edits. The editor’s (audio-)visual intentions concerning the film viewing correspond to perceptual considerations that the editor makes during film editing.

    Film editing in this thesis is considered as a kind of design work, foremost motivated by the possibilities of many new approaches, questions, and answers that a design perspective brings, stretching well beyond what previously adopted perspectives have done.

    The research questions asked, as well as the presented results, are discussed with regard to design theory, established film production field knowledge, and perception research. Apart from considering audiovisual perception in a film editing context, film editing is also discussed as audiovisual design, and tentative implications for the role of perception in other kinds of design work are pointed out.

    The results of my analyses are that there is reason to consider parts of film production as design work; that properties of an audiovisual material affect the creative space; that perceptual considerations are a significant part of the film editor’s treatment of the audiovisual material; that film viewers’ response to film edits varies with the shape of the edits; and that this variation is possible to link with the film editor’s intention regarding the edits, as well as to the degree of fulfillment of the intention.

    I conclude that perceptual precision at the edit point is decisive for attaining a desired film-viewing decoding of a film sequence, and that when the perceptual precision is low, it is likely that the perceived continuity of the film fails.

    The contribution of this doctoral thesis is that it drives the investigation of actual appliance of perception as audiovisual knowledge in film editing. Hence, it also adds to the more general discussion on perception as part of audiovisual thinking, and how audiovisual knowledge is formed.

    The thesis contributes to the area of Innovation and Design through its mix of methods, since the main study considers the creation of new artefacts, the thinking going on during that process, as well as human responses to the artefacts. Conclusively, the thesis provides a thorough example of how a design research perspective can add to the understanding of film production, and its trades and activities.

  • 9.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University.
    Kvalitetsbedömning inom högre medieproduktionsutbildning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University.
    Media Production or Audiovisual Design?2013In: / [ed] Ali Simsek, Agah Gumus, Fahme Dabaj, 2013, p. 128-134Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Media production includes many moments of creative work that would be best addressed as audiovisual design. The two paradigmatic understandings of design, ‘design-as-problem-solving’ (Simon, 1996), and ‘design-as-meaning-creation’ (Krippendorf, 1995), have bearing on those work-moments. The issues dealt with during those media production work-moments, as well as the problems to solve and the characteristics of the work-processes in use, resemble issues, problems and process characteristics familiar within design work (Sato & Poggenpohl, 2009).From a perspective of communication, audiovisual communication preferably is addressed as multimodal (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) where both strata, design and production, are considered to make important impact on a message.This paper discusses the theoretical implications of considering media production as audiovisual communication during its process of being created, where design is an integrated part of that process. The benefits of considering media production as audiovisual design are proposed from a design research perspective, and are compared with other perspectives.

  • 11.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Postproduction Agents: Audiovisual Design and Contemporary Constraints for Creativity2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving images and sounds are processed creatively after they have been recorded or computer generated. These processes consists of design activities carried out by workers that hold ‘agency’ through the crafts they exercise, because these crafts are defined by the Moving Image Industry and are employed in practically the same way regardless of company.

    This thesis explores what material constraints there are for such creativity in contemporary Swedish professional moving image postproduction. The central aspects concern digital material, workflow and design work as distributed activities. These aspects are coupled to production quality and efficiency at the postproduction companies where production takes place.

    The central concept developed in this thesis is ‘creative space’ which links quality and efficiency in moving image production to time for creativity, capacity of computer tools, user skills and constitution of digital moving image material. Creative spaces are inhabited by design agents, and might expand or shrink due to material factors. Those changes are coupled to parallel changes in quality and efficiency.

  • 12.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Visual Intention in Moving Image Editing and Eye-tracking Methodology: An exploratory study2010In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation 2010 / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Stefan Bertschi, Remo Burkhard, John Counsell, Mohammad Dastbaz, Martin Eppler, Camilla Forsell, Georges Grinstein, Jimmy Johansson, Mikael Jern, Farzad Khosrowshahi, Francis T. Marchese, Carsten Maple, Richard Laing, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trut, 2010, p. 381-387Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving images production teams’ skills in directing the visual perception of viewers have been confirmed lately through eye-tracking methodology. One interest lies in explaining the use of different techniques by the production team for its realization of visual intentions. These intentions are however many in most moving images. This paper undertakes the development of a method for grasping the film or video editors’ intentions with the editing of moving images, and has been carried out as an exploratory study. The method suggested considers conventions of the trade, observational study with running screen-dump and proximate interviews with editors on specific edits, as well as the testing of moving image sequences where the intention of each edit point is known. The test is conducted on viewers, with the use of eye-tracking techniques. The findings are that the method should be useful in distinguishing between when the editors’ grip on the audience is firm, and when it is rather vague. But the method also suggests new aspects of understanding the viewers’ gazes when watching moving images.

  • 13. Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Creative Space in Contemporary Swedish Moving Image Production2012In: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, E-ISSN 1875-8959, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of moving images is turning completely digital. This leads to new possibilities and new constraints for creativity within film and TV production chains.

    This paper describes professionals’ current comprehension of the consequences of the shift from celluloid to digital technologies, within the Swedish Moving Image Industry. New technologies bring new workflows, new design processes and new constraints.

    We aim to illuminate factors that affect design creativity in digital moving image production, by addressing questions about production related responses to the digital turn as well as the affects of such responses on creativity.

    Inspired by Ingar Brinck’s creativity theories (1999, 2007) we view aesthetic problem solving as a cognitive process and suggest creative spaces to be the critical phenomenon to manage. We also use organization theories, particularly the work of Katherine Miller (2011) to explain why creativity ought to be a primary management concern.

    The empirical material used is semi-structured interviews with management personnel in Swedish moving image production companies. Outcomes include that the variety of digital formats available today is hard for crafts people to overview. This has brought costly workflow constraints that largely limit creativity.

    We suggest a pre-production file format check-list as a tool to support design management.

  • 14.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Effects of Continuity or Discontinuity in Actual Film Editing2018In: Empirical Studies of the Arts, ISSN 0276-2374, E-ISSN 1541-4493, p. 222-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The film editor’s task in refining film edits by frame-by-frame matching is an important undertaking in perceptual precision. This article investigates whether the failure of a few frames jeopardizes the perceived continuity of a film. Thirty-three Swedish students were eye-tracked while watching two versions of the same documentary film sequence; one version was completed to continuity satisfaction by a film editor, while the other had some frames altered toward discontinuity. Gaze hits in Areas-of-Interest appointed by the film editor, saccade frequency, and pupil dilation after edit points were measured. No significant difference was found for hits in Areas-of-Interest, whereas saccade frequency and relative pupil size increased after edits in the altered version of the film sequence. Results indicate that the altered film sequence constrained viewers with possible cognitive effects, implying that frame-by-frame matching of film edits achieved by film editors is crucial to film continuity.

  • 15.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Film and TV Industry Responses to Research Results in a Workshop Setting2015In: IASDR2015 Interplay Proccedings / [ed] Vesna Popovic, Alethea Blacker, Ding-Bang Luh, Nithikul Nimkulrat, Ben Kraal, and Yukari Nagai, 2015, p. 1917-1931Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immediate return of results to the Swedish film and TV industry from researchers conducting ongoing research within the field is rather unusual. As a design research approach we, as researchers, adopted this method in order to disseminate results and confront a wider group of interest parties than those represented by our informants.

    The results from the research project, New Design Processes in the Audiovisual Industry, revealed that the transition from recording on celluloid with analogue film cameras to using high definition video cameras presented new cruxes for the film and TV industries (Eriksson & Swenberg, 2012). These cruxes preliminary concerned the choice of proper video codecs and file formats and how to configure them, in order to reinforce efficient workflow later in the production chain.

    Members of the industry and educators were invited to participate in public workshops, held at Dalarna University, where these results were presented along with expert solutions to the problems. Questionnaires were distributed among participants before the start of each workshop, as well as at the end. Seminars and panel discussions, both consisting of question and answer sessions for participants were video-recorded.

    The responses extrapolated from industrial representatives show an urgent need for discussion regarding the situation of digital cruxes within the film and TV industry. The Q & A sessions confirmed the widespread need for understanding several of the problems that had emerged. In the questionnaires, many industrial representatives expressed their appreciation for the opportunity to understand the nature of problems, how widespread they were, how to address them, and how to fill some of the most critical prevalent knowledge gaps.

  • 16.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Yvonne, Eriksson
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Workflow Management in Design Processes in Professional Audiovisual Production and Design Management Support2012In: / [ed] Dr. Wolfgang Reisig, Dr. Sang Suh, Society for Design and Process Science , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the need for design management support within the Audiovisual Industry, due to the increasing variety of video file formats and codecs available to professionals. The amount of video file formats and codecs are referred to as ‘the file format jungle’ by moving image professionals, and needs to be navigated by managerial staff that are not electronic engineers or technicians, but responsible for audio-visual design work within film and TV production.

    We have evaluated a prototype for a design management support tool that compares file formats and codecs for different production tools, with the help of Swedish moving image industry producers. The core principals of the support tool prototype are found to cohere with the needs for design management support within film and TV production, and the tool is therefore an option for commercial development.

  • 17.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Film and Television Production as Audiovisual Design2018In: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, no 1, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial film and television production (FTP) includes many elements of creative work on sounds and images that are best addressed as audiovisual design. Two paradigmatic understandings of design, “design-as-problem-solving” and “design-as-meaning-creation”, have a bearing on these elements. The issues dealt with during FTP work processes, as well as the problems to be solved and the characteristics of the work processes used, resemble issues, problems, and process characteristics within design work. From the perspective of audiovisual communication, both the design and production aspects of a process are considered to make an important impact on a message. In FTP, these aspects are blurred. This paper discusses the benefits of approaching FTP as creation of audiovisual communication, in which design is an integrated part of that process. The benefits of considering FTP as audiovisual design are proposed from a design research perspective.

  • 18.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Sverrisson, Árni
    Dalarna University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Agents, design and creativity: A postproduction analysisArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify major issues in production planning and collaboration in the making of assemblies of moving images and soundtracks (postproduction of film, TV-programs et cetera). We argue that worker creativity in the making of such assemblies is constrained by the digitalization of production technology. We also argue that the members of each craft that collaborate in the process have their own set of aesthetic and technical problems that need to be solved and that the possible solutions are constrained by the creative space accorded to each craft. Participants do not necessarily subscribe to this idea and any theoretical understanding of the process must also account for the variety of notions put forward by the agents. We give examples from the Swedish TV show, Värsta Språket, from interviews and technical writing in order to clarify and support these arguments.

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