mdh.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
12 1 - 50 of 68
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.Sweden.
    External conditions have a significant impact on the air flow in tunnels using transverse ventilation for smoke extraction2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008 the City of Stockholm Traffic Administration conducted a series of full scale tests, with heat and smoke generation equivalent to that from a fire in a small car, in one of their urban tunnels with transverse ventilation. The primary goal of the tests was to verify how the ventilation system worked and also to provide an opportunity for the local fire brigade and consultants in this field to see what one could expect in a similar situation. A total of four different tests were carried out at two different locations in the tunnel. Methanol was chosen as fuel and the smoke was produced from smoke machines. The ventilation conditions were set according to a pre-set function to simulate both low and high traffic conditions and the fire ventilation was activated 10 minutes after ignition of the simulated car fire. The result of the tests illustrated a variety of phenomena where the external conditions and the general design of the tunnel had a significant impact on the air flow. These aspects determined the direction of airflow in the tunnel regardless of the pre-set ventilation settings. The ventilation settings for the different traffic cases had a significant impact on the stratification of smoke in the event of a fire.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Quantified in Large-Scale Fire Experiments2012Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 513-528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of large-scale fire experiments with detailed quantitative analysis

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) including PAH congener distribution

    have been conducted by SP. This data is reviewed here and is further assessed with

    regard to toxicity applying a Toxic Equivalency Factor (TEF) model for estimation

    of cancer potential. The PAH yield data from the large-scale fire experiments is also

    compared to emission factors from other combustion sources. The study shows that

    full-scale fire experiments with different products exhibit a large variation in total

    PAH yields. Fires with products containing flame retardants were shown to produce

    the highest yields and generally a more toxic mixture of PAHs than fires with nonflame

    retarded products. The distribution of individual PAH congeners is generally

    quantitatively dominated by low molecular weight PAHs, whereas a small number of

    medium to high molecular weight PAHs are most important in determining the toxicity

    of the PAH mixture. The large-scale fire experiments indicate that fires normally

    produce orders of magnitudes higher yields compared to, e.g. modern residential

    combustion devices. The relative distribution of individual PAHs, which determines

    the toxicity of the PAH mix, is similar for the fires and open burning data studied, in

    that benzo(a)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene dominate the toxicity of the mix as a

    whole.

  • 3. Claesson, Alexander
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Lindström, Johan
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Laboratory fire experiments with a 1/3 train carriage mockup2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of six fire tests were conducted in a mock-up of a subway carriage that is about 1/3 of a full wagon length. They were carried out under a large scale calorimeter in a laboratory environment. The aim of the tests was to investigate the initial fire growth in a corner scenario using different types of ignition sources that could lead to a flashover situation. The ignition sources used were either a wood crib placed on a corner seat or one liter of petrol poured on the corner seat and the neighboring floor together with a backpack. The amount of luggage and wood cribs in the neighborhood of the ignition source was continuously increased in order to identify the limits for flashover in the test-setup. The tests showed that the combustible boards on parts of the walls had a significant effect on the fire spread. In the cases where the initial fire did not exceed a range of 400 – 600 kW no flashover was observed. If the initial fire grew up to 700 – 900 kW a flashover was observed. The maximum heat release rate during a short flashover period for this test set-up was about 3.5 MW. The time to reach flashover was highly dependent on the ignition type, wood cribs or backpack and petrol.

  • 4.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    School of Transportation Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Effect of tunnel cross section on gas temperatures and heat fluxes in case of large heat release rate2016Inngår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 93, s. 405-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests with liquid and solid fuels in model tunnels (1:20) were performed and analysed in order to study the effect of tunnel cross section (width and height) together with ventilation velocity on ceiling gas temperatures and heat fluxes. The model tunnel was 10 m long with varying width (0.3 m, 0.45 m and 0.6 m) and height (0.25 m and 0.4 m). Test results show that the maximum temperature under the ceiling is a weak function of heat release rate (HRR) and ventilation velocity for cases with HRR more than 100 MW at full scale. It clearly varies with the tunnel height and is a weak function of the tunnel width. With a lower tunnel height, the ceiling is closer to the base of continuous flame zone and the temperatures become higher. Overall, the gas temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing tunnel dimensions, and increases with the increasing longitudinal ventilation velocity. The HRR is also an important factor that influences the decay rate of excess gas temperature, and a dimensionless HRR integrating HRR and other two key parameters, tunnel cross-sectional area and distance between fuel centre and tunnel ceiling, was introduced to account for the effect. An equation for the decay rate of excess gas temperature, considering both the tunnel dimensions and HRR, was developed. Moreover, a larger tunnel cross-sectional area will lead to a smaller heat flux.

  • 5.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research.
    Fratzich, Håkan
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Strömgren, Michael
    SP Fire Research.
    Performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety: Proposalof new Swedish framework2014Inngår i: Case Studies in Fire Safety, ISSN 2214-398X, Vol. 1, s. 18-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a proposal of new Swedish framework for performance-based design ofroad tunnel fire safety derived from Swedish and European regulation. The overall purposeof the guideline is to protect life, health, property, environment, and key societal functionsfrom fire. The guideline is structured into five key groups of requirements: #1 Proper managementand organisation, #2 to limit the generation and spread of fire and smoke, #3 toprovide means for safe self-evacuation, #4 to provide means and safety for the rescue service,and #5 to ensure load-bearing capacity of the construction. Each group contains ahybrid of prescriptive requirements, performance-based requirements, and acceptablesolutions. Prescriptive requirements must be fulfilled, however, it is the choice of thedesign team to either adopt the proposed acceptable solutions, or to design alternativesolutions by verifying that performance-based requirements are satisfied. For verificationof performance-based requirements through risk analysis the operational, epistemic, andaleatory uncertainties are considerable. Therefore, a scenario-based risk analysis with severalspecified input variables and methods is recommended for verification of #3 and #5.Indispensable complements are scenario exercises, emergency exercises and similar methodsthat validate the design and highlight organisational aspects. The proposed designguide has been developed by the authors together with the advisory group establishedfor the work.

  • 6. Hogland, William
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Marques, M.
    Persson, Henry
    Storage of organic materials, solid waste and biofuels - Risks for fires and fire fighting2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes together with the increased scarcity of raw material and natural resources place pressure on politicians, industry and society to optimize energy utilization and material recovery. The recycling and sorting of the solid waste and the need for long and short term storage is therefore steadily increasing as is the development of different types of storageand transportation of biofuels. Many of these stores are or will be located close to settlements, town districts and buildings of high monetary value which will increase the potential risk with associated fires and their effect on public health. Methods for the handling and storing organic materials are many, but whether after a short or long time, these all have a propensity to end up with self ignition. Sweden has increased the number of incinerators for solid waste by almost 40 % during the new millennium. Further, numerous upgrades of old incinerators have been carried out and a large volume of storage of waste fuels is needed. This paper presents experience from storage of waste fuels, risks of fire, and issues associated with fire fighting, emissions, and financial impact. Discussions of future trends for the storage of organic material, waste and biofuels as well as the risk of energy and material loss and environmental pollution by smoke and danger for health are included as well as the need for further knowledge and research.

  • 7.
    Holmstedt, Göran
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Yan, Z.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bengtson, Staffan
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Bengt
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Determination of Uncertainty of Different CFD Codes by Means of Comparison with Experimental Fire Scenarios2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article will summarise the evaluation of four CFD software codes (CFX, FDS4, SMAFS and SOFIE). Evaluation was performed by means of comparing the simulation data with experimental scenarios. The scenarios were chosen to represent scenarios frequently assessed using firesafety design based on performance. The greatest difficulty during validation of CFD-codes is to find well documented relevant experiments. It is true that many large scale experiments including smoke spread have been published but many of them are not described sufficiently and are therefore impossible to use for validation. It is very unusual that data on reproducibility and repeatability is available. After an extensive discussion between the participants in the project five scenarios were chosen. Scenarios 1A (large room with vents), and scenarios 1B1 and 1B2 (corridor with vents) were well documented experiments (repeatability) with ceiling vents and ceiling jets performed earlier at SP in Borås. Scenario 2 is a tunnel fire taken from an experimental study in Boston, US. Scenario 3 is an atrium fire taken from an experimental study in Japan. Lack of well documented fires in retail premises lead us to perform a series of tests in 1/2 scale, 4.1 and 4.2 at SP in Borås. Scenario 5 is an experimentalstudy from Australia including smoke spread from a fire room to an adjacent corridor and a room. The conditions for the simulations included information about the scenarios given above. No information about experimental results was available until the results from the simulations had been sent in to the project manager. The intention was to imitate the working conditions for a consultant as far as possible when using a CFD-simulation to estimate fire safety. In this manner the simulations are dependent on many factors such as the CFD-code used, judgement of input data of the scenarios done by the operator, operator skill etc. The results from the evaluation of the CFD codes showed that the simulation results generally were a good description of the experimental fires studied, but that limitations and specific properties of the different codes, together with the operator factor, can strongly influence the results. The detailed results of all comparisons are given in the final report of the project. It was not possible to include these detailed evaluations in this conference paper but these results are available in the main report as well as in future scientific articles.

  • 8. Holmstedt, Göran
    et al.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Yan, Z.
    Bengtson, Staffan
    Hägglund, Bengt
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Blomqvist, Per
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Validation of CFD codes2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of CFD (computional fluid dynamics) software

    packages within fire performance based engineering

    and risk assessment is increasing substantially.

    An important part in the process is the

    quality assurance. For this reason the Swedish

    Rescue Services Agency (SRV) sponsored a

    unique research project. Within the project different

    codes for smoke spread and evacuation

    have been evaluated. This poster will focus on

    the evaluation of four CFD software codes.

  • 9. Ibrahim, M. Asim
    et al.
    Hogland, William
    Elmberg, E.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Persson, Henry
    Nammari, D. R.
    Storage Techniques for Municipal Solid Waste, Frequency of Fires, and Their Related Emissions2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to gather the missing information regarding storage techniques (i.e., loose compact, hard compact, cylindrical bales, rectangular bales) and self-ignition in storage sites for organic recyclable and solid-waste fuels from a life-cycle perspective. There is a need to compile and analyze information regarding self-ignition events because there is a lack of such studies. Its importance is evident from the fact that millions of euros are lost every year in Sweden because of spontaneous fires. These fires cause loss of valuable material and injuries to people, and they are also associated with intense environmental pollution, in particular in the form of smoke and water pollution. This study is based on a questionnaire survey among the members of the Swedish waste management association (Avfall Sverige), whose members service 95% of the Swedish population. The response to the survey was 60%. A total of 96 major surface fires have been reported in the past 10 years at storage sites. 74% of these 96 fire incidents were due to self-ignition, 11% were due to known causes other than self-ignition and 15% were due to unknown reasons. In reference to the type of storage, 50% of these 96 fire incidents took place at sites that store both household and industrial waste, 20% at sites that store only industrial waste, and 30% at sites that store household, industrial, and agricultural waste. Regarding the most frequent cause of fire at any storage site, 33% of respondents relate the fire incidents with extreme hot weather conditions, 8% of respondents report that fire incidents at their storage site are mostly an aftereffect of rainfall, 13% relate the fire incidents with cold weather in December, and 46% of respondents experienced the fire incidents throughout the whole year. Furthermore, detailed statistics were collected regarding different storage techniques followed for municipal solid waste (MSW) in relation to contents and final destination processing plant. It was found that loose compact storage is the most popular way of storing MSW, followed by cylindrical bales. Based on data covering the last 10 years, the average annual amount of emissions of dioxins is (upper/lower bound) TCDD 0.03/0.12 g, PAH 0.98/3.7 tons, PCB 1.66/6.31 g, Hg 16.51/62.59 g, and VOC 18/68 tons from MSW storage fires in Sweden. Estimated emissions of dioxins from fires in waste storage sites correspond to emissions from the incineration of about 0.017 million tons of waste (Avfall Sverige data for 2008). In total, Sweden incinerated 0.35 million tons per annum during the period studied.

  • 10.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Appel, Glenn
    SP Brandteknik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.
    Persson, Henry
    SP Brandteknik.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Combustion Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste Bales2013Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 109-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion behaviour of municipal solid waste bales is a rarely studied topic hitherto. However, there is dire need to devote research on the topic because baling as a storage methodology is getting popular among waste management companies and fire episodes in such storage sites can have devastating economic, environmental and social implications. In this study, thickness of low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic sheets (12 layers, 6 layers and no layer) and type of ignition source (pilot ignition, thermal radiation) were investigated to see their effect on combustion behaviour of bales. In total eleven tests with a single bale in each test were performed. It has been found that the bales not wrapped with LDPE plastic sheets may pose higher hazards for adjacently stored material to catch fire as the value of maximum heat release rate observed for them was higher than those wrapped with LDPE plastic sheets. Furthermore, it has been found that LDPE plastic wrapping do not contribute significantly to the combustion of bales when exposed only to thermal radiation from an adjacent fire. However, it plays a significant role in ignition of bales in case exposed to a pilot flame ignition source. Molten LDPE plastic trapped between the adjacently stored bales was found to be another important factor influencing the combustion of bales.

  • 11.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    LTH.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Claesson, Alexander
    SP.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    SP.
    Fridolf, Karl
    LTH.
    Åkerstedt, Rolf
    SL.
    Nyman, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Forsén, Rickard
    FOI.
    Janzon, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Meyer, Gero
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Bryntse, Anders
    FOI.
    Carlberg, Tobias
    FOI.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    FHS.
    Palm, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    The Metro Project: Final report2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the METRO project. The different parts of theproject – design fires, evacuation, integrated fire control, smoke control, extraordinarystrain onconstructions and fire- and rescue operations – are presented separately.

    The most complicated and expensive part of the project was the performance of thelarge scale fire and explosion tests in the Brunsberg tunnel, where the maximum heatrelease rates measured from the metro wagon was 77 MW.

    The main results from the project are new recommendations regarding design firesin mass transport systems, identification of key factors for fire and smoke spread in tunnelsand at stations as well as regarding the difficulties for disabled persons to evacuatefrom trains in tunnels, new recommended types of way guiding systems, safer design incase of explosions in trains and evaluation of the fire and rescue services’ possibilitiesand limitations in underground mass transport systems.

  • 12.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research.
    Tunnel Fire Dynamics2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Brandspridning mellan industrilokaler2008Inngår i: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, nr 6, s. 57-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Effects of longitudinal ventilation on fire growth and maximum heat release rate2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis, based on two different series of model scale tests, of the effects of ventilation on maximum heat release rate and fire growth rates is presented. In both model scale test series, wood cribs of different porosity, size and numbers were used.   Both ambient free burn tests and tests inside a model-scale tunnel were performed. The tunnels varied from 0.3 m to 0.6 m in width and from 0.2 m to 0.4 m in height. The longitudinal velocity varied between 0.22 m/s and 1.12 m/s.   

    The tests show that for a higher porosity wood crib and higher velocities than 0.45 m/s, an increasing ventilation rate increases the maximum heat release rate in the range of 1.3 to 1.7 times the value measured outside the tunnel under ambient conditions. For the lower porosity wood crib and higher velocities, the corresponding increase in the maximum heat release rates was 1.8 and 2.2, respectively.  For the case with a velocity of 0.67 m/s, the linear fire growth rate increased by a factor of 5–10 times compared to the free burn case, depending on the dimensions of the tunnel cross-section.

  • 15.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Technology, Borås, Sweden .
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Technology, Borås, Sweden .
    Fire Spread between Industrial Premises2011Inngår i: Fire Safety Science 2011, 2011, s. 1305-1317Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on investigating models for calculating the risks of fire spread from an industrial building to adjacent buildings. The basic parameters necessary to determine the risk of fire spread are the flame height and the incident heat flux. There is limited information found about flame heights from industrial buildings where the fire breaks through the ceiling. Calculation methods for flame heights and incident heat fluxes are discussed and compared to model-scale data and large-scale data. A series of model-scale tests with flames through openings in a building where flashover has occurred are presented and compared to flame height correlations. This paper provides new data and a better understanding of the necessary input for such calculations. The model-scale tests show a good correspondence between a simple method to calculate heat flux from a point source and experimental data.

  • 16.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.
    Heat Release Rates in Tunnel Fires: a Summary2011Inngår i: The Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety / [ed] A. Beard and R. Carvel, ICE Publishing , 2011, 2, s. 309-327Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    The large scale test programme in the METRO project2011Inngår i: Eurotransport, nr 6, s. 62-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    LTH Brandteknik.
    Kumm, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Fire incidents during construction work of tunnels2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summaries guidelines and solutions related to fire safety in underground facilities during the construction phase. Development of different fire scenarios in underground facilities under construction are presented. Based on different design fire scenarios evacuation analysis was carried out. The incident situation of the fire services are discussed and proposals for solutions discussed. Numerous tunnel sites under construction were visited and conclusions obtained from the visits are presented. Test with a large scale tire of a front wheel loader was conducted in order to obtain input for the design fire of construction vehicle. Recommendations for constructors and authorities as well as for fire services are given. These recommendations are based on the work carried out during the project.

  • 19.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP, Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP, Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Brandsäkerhet i tunnlar under byggtiden2009Inngår i: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, nr 6, s. 52-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Li, Y. Z.
    Runehamar Tunnel Fire Tests2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Five large-scale fire tests, including one pool fire test and four HGV mock-up fire tests, were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in Norway in year 2003. Detailed information about these tests is presented. In addition, previous work on these tests and new analyses are presented in this report. Heat release rate, fire growth rate, gas temperature, flame length, radiation, fire spread, gas production, ventilation, backside wall temperature, pulsation and backlayering are investigated thoroughly. Simple theoretical models are developed to estimate and predict these parameters. The correlations developed can be used by engineers working on fire safety in tunnels.

  • 21.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.
    Li, Y.Z.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Model of ventilation flows during large tunnel fires2012Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 30, s. 64-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to describe the reduction in the longitudinal airflow velocity due to the fire and hot gases resistances in a large tunnel fire, a theoretical model, taking into consideration the pressure losses over the fire source and obstructions, the thermal stack effects, and the hydraulic resistance induced by the tunnel walls, fire protection boards and a HGV trailer mock-up, is developed and validated using the large-scale tests data from the fire tests performed in the Runehamar tunnel with longitudinal ventilation in Norway 2003. Two large mobile fan units were used to create a longitudinal flow within the tunnel and prevent smoke backlayering upstream of the fire. One fan was located outside the entrance of the tunnel and the other inside the tunnel. The fire load consisted of a mock-up simulating a heavy goods vehicle (HGV) trailer creating a maximum heat release rates in the range of 66–202 MW. Two methods of calculating the mean temperature related to the thermal expansion and stack effect are proposed and compared.

  • 22. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Industrial fires - A literature survey2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the results of an overview of industrial fires in manufacturing plants and warehouses are reported. The overview is based on data reported in international papers, technical reports, magazines and news media.

    Flame heights and other information from real fires have been listed and analysed. Correlations for the calculation of flame heights, effects of cross-winds, heat fluxes and ignition of materials are discussed. This study has focused on an investigation of the risk for fire spread from burning industrial building or warehouse to the other activities in their surroundings. The survey shows that there is very limited information concerning flame heights and methods to calculate fire spread from buildings where the fire has broken through a large hole in the ceiling.

  • 23.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsintitut.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsintitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds universitet.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms Brandförsvar.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund.
    Taktik och Metodik vid brand i Undermarksanläggningar (TMU) - Sammanfattningsrapport2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report compiles the results from the TMU-project. The focus is on fire-fighting performance, capability and organization in underground constructions. The emphasis was on large-scale testing with authentic fire conditions and fire-fighting equipment, development of tools for prediction of hazardous conditions and capabilities of  fire-fighting during different conditions, organizational management and tactics, education and development  of recommendations.  The project was divided into different work packages and these are presented in this final summary report. The test fires performed in the project created severe conditions for fire-fighters who moved in smoke for over 180 m before fighting fully developed fires in a range of 18 to 33 MW. The fires consisted of wood pallets placed in a semi-open steel container, simulating a train wagon fire. The walking speed and connection time for hoses and connections were registered and documented by infra-red cameras. The most important results from these tests is that the time taken to approach the fire depends on parameters as type of equipment, preparation, possibilities for use of infra-red (IR) cameras and the capacity of the extinguishing media. The heat radiation from the fire was found to be important to overcome in order to get close enough to fight the fire. Recommendations and tactics for fighting fires in underground constructions are given. 

  • 24.
    Kim, Hak Kuen
    et al.
    Korea National Rescue Services, Korea.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Comparison of Road Tunnel Design Guidelines2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of the recent catastrophic fires intunnels much effort has been put into the work of preventing fires in tunnelsand limiting the consequences of fires when occurring. This study describes thelevel of fire safety of road tunnels at the tunnel design stage, as given inguidelines, standards, regulations, directives, etc. A number of road tunnelguidelines from different countries and organizations have been compared to eachother. The main focus of the comparison is the application criteria ofguidelines and installation spacing. The comparison provides several interestingdiscussion topics, including similarities or differences between detailed requirementsand the popularity type of each fire safety equipment or facility. The work canbe divided into three parts. First, how tunnels are categorized in thedifferent guidelines is described. Secondly, a description and comparison ofdifferent safety measures and how these relate to different tunnel categoriesis given. In the paper, the requirements for hand held extinguishers and the resistanceto fire for different equipment are given as examples. Finally, the work includessome recommendations for specific improvement to Korean guidelines.

  • 25. Kim, Hak Kuen
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Effective Firefighting Operations in Road Tunnels2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop operational procedures for fire brigades inroad tunnels. Although much progress has been achieved in various fields of fire safety intunnels, very little attention has been paid specifically to fire fighting in tunnels. Thisstudy is focused on obtaining more information concerning how effectively the firebrigade can fight road tunnel fires and what limitations and threats fire brigades may befaced with. This knowledge can help parties involved in tunnel safety to understandsafety issues and enhance the level of fire safety in road tunnels.

    The report is divided into three main parts. The first part consists of a review of relevantstudies and experiments concerning various key parameters for fire safety and emergencyprocedures. The history of road tunnel fires is then summarised and analyzed. Among allroad tunnel fires, three catastrophic tunnel fires are highlighted, focusing on the activitiesof fire brigades and the operation of technical fire safety facilities. In the second partspecific firefighting operations are developed. This has been based on previousexperience and new findings from experiments performed in the study. In the last part,information is given on how the proposed firefighting operations can be applied to themanagement of fire safety for road tunnels. Two proposals are developed and presented:fire scenarios for firefighting strategies and tunnel classification models for riskmanagement for fire brigades.

  • 26.
    Koppejan, Japp
    et al.
    Procede Biomass BV, The Netherlands.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Persson, Henry
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Larsson, Ida
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Arshadi, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Valencia-Reyes, E.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Melin, Staffan
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Howes, P.
    AEA Group, UK.
    Wheeler, P.
    Lend Lease, UK.
    Baxter, D.
    Joint Research Institute, European Commission, The Netherlands.
    Nikolaisen, L.
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Health and safety Aspects of Solid Biomass Storage, Transportation and Feeding2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication focuses on the health and safety issues of the supply chain of solid biofuels with the objective to highlight commonly used mitigation methodologies to promote a better working environment when dealing with solid biofuels. It has been compiled as a joint effort by experts active in Tasks 32, 36, 37 and 40 of the IEA Bioenergy Agreement, with their own specific fields of expertise. Only through this cooperation, it was possible to touch upon the full range of issues in one publication that one may come across when developing projects in which solid biomass fuels are produced, traded or used. 

    The properties of a biomass material and the intended use determine how the material should be safely transported and stored. Self-heating, off-gassing and dust explosions are significant challenges for the industry that have already resulted in significant losses of capital investments and even tragic loss of life. Likewise, exposure to biologically active material, such as moulds and spores may form a serious hazard for the health of workers involved. With the growth of the bioenergy sector, it is important not only that opportunities for bioenergy are implemented in an efficient economic manner, but also safely.

  • 27.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Zakirov, Artur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Indikatorer för att bedöma räddningstjänstens insatsförmåga: -med hänsyn till de lokala förhållandena2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det inledande stycket i Lagen om skydd mot olyckor (2003:778) står att bestämmelserna i lagstiftningen syftar till att bereda människors liv och hälsa samt egendom och miljö ett med hänsyn till de lokala förhållandena tillfredsställande och likvärdigt skydd mot olyckor. Denna rapport ger en översiktlig bild av lagstiftarens intentioner och fokuserar på faktorer som är avgörande för att kunna identifiera jämförbara kommuner och indikatorer för att bedöma om deras förmåga att genomföra räddningsinsatser är likvärdig. Indikatorerna har tagits fram för att senare kunna användas i ett utvecklat metodstöd för länsstyrelserna vid bedömningar av förändringar i de kommunala programmen för skydd mot olyckor.

    Projektet har utförts på uppdrag av Tillsynsenheten vid Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap.

  • 28.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Palm, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Storstockholms brandförsvar .
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Räddningsinsats i tunnelmiljö: Fullskaleförsök i Tistbrottet, Sala2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I oktober 2013 genomfördes sex fullskaliga brandförsök med kombinerat förflyttnings och släckmoment i Björka Minerals dolomitgruva i Tisbrottet i Sala. Tidigare har dessa två moment inte kombinerats under kontrollerade former där mätningar och observationer dokumenterats i så omfattande grad som i denna försöksserie. Rökdykarnas uppgift vid samtliga av försöken var att avancera in i tunneln och släcka branden. De sex olika försöken utgjordes av konventionell slangutläggning med slangkorgar respektive bärsele, utlägg med tomt system fram till brandplatsen, CAFS, skärsläckare och konventionell slangutläggning med hjälp av materielvagn och depåluft. Försöken visade att konventionell slangutläggning tar lång tid i anspråk, men att utlägg med tomt system och bärsele kan korta tiderna och minska belastningen. Försöken visade också att system med lägre vattenflöden hade möjligheter att slå ner branden, men att mängden vatten var avgörande för att undvika återantändning. Värmekameror är generellt inte anpassade för tunnelmiljöer och ett stort behov finns för vidare utveckling av både utrustning och utbildningsmaterial.

  • 29.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Söderström, Jenny
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    EPS insulated façade fires from a fire and rescue perspective2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the challenges the fire and rescue services can meet at façade fires involving EPS insulation during construction and use of a building. The EPS characteristics are discussed in respect to the fire and rescue operation and results from orientating fire tests performed at a fire and rescue services training and test field are presented. Types of evacuation solutions, involving the fire and rescue services, where façade fires can delay or completely rule out the possibilities for safe evacuation, are presented. The restrictions in the Swedish building codes regarding use of combustible insulation are analysed and reflections over the practical problems with following the instructions to keep an EPS insulated façade safe through the building’s whole lifespan are made. A number of occurred fires involving EPS are discussed and analysed from a fire and rescue perspective. Finally, recommendations are given for the fire and rescue services and future research fields are proposed.

  • 30. Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Per
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Persson, Henry
    Medium-scale reference tests and calculations of spontaneous ignition in wood pellets - the LUBA project2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass pellets is increasing. As a consequence, large indoor storage facilities are needed along the transportation chain. The increased production volumes, transportation, handling and storage of pellets result in increased risks. A number of fire incidents due to spontaneous ignition in wood pellets have been reported. Increased efforts concerning safety and quality assurance are, therefore, important. The aim of present work is to provide methods for estimating risks for self-heating from pellets stored in bulk quantities. This report compares medium scale tests of pellets in bulk with smaller screening test; micro calorimeter and crossing point. Two types of pellets; one “reactive” and one “less reactive” were compared. Kinetic parameters from the crossing point and micro calorimeter tests was used as input data for Frank-Kamenetskii calculations and compared with the medium scale test results. Calculations of the critical ambient temperature and time to self-ignition have also been preformed on four different types of representative types of full scale storages that either exist today or might be possible in the future.

     

    The results clearly reveal that results in medium scale can be predicted by using results from small scale screening methods like isothermal calorimetry or crossing point. The small scale test methods show the same indications as medium scale when comparing reactive and less active pellet types.

     

    The medium-scale tests were effective in separating the self-heating activity of the two types of pellets investigated.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Blomqvist, Per
    SP Brandteknik.
    Persson, Henry
    SP Brandteknik.
    Rahm, Michael
    SP Brandteknik.
    Assessment of the Self-heating Potential of Wood Pellets2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass pellets is increasing. As a consequence, large indoor storage facilities are needed along the transportation chain. The increased production volumes, transportation, handling and storage of pellets result in increased risks. A number of fire incidents due to spontaneous ignition in wood pellets have been reported. Increased efforts concerning safety and quality assurance are, therefore, important. The aim of the present work is to provide methods for estimating risks for self-heating from pellets stored in bulk quantities. The experimental work ranges from small-scale characterizations to medium-scale storage tests and includes several different types of pellets. One aim has been to develop small scale screening methods to assess the propensity for self-heating, thereby trying to define the specific type of “activity” occurring in the pellets as well as characterising it.

     

    Isothermal calorimetry (micro calorimeter) has been used as small scale screening test method and the results has then been validated with crossing point tests and in medium scale tests (1 m3). Thirteen samples from different types of pellets have been ranked relative to each other in micro calorimeter tests and two pellet types; one “reactive” and one “less reactive” were also tested for validation in crossing point and medium scale. The results clearly reveal that different activity levels of the pellets can be measured using small scale screening methods.

  • 32.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Persson, Henry
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Rahm, Michael
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Small scale screening tests to assess the self-heating potential of wood pellets2013Inngår i: Interflam 2013: Proceedings of the thirteenth international conferemce, London, UK: Interscience Communications , 2013, s. 623-628Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass pellets is increasing. As a consequence, large indoor storage facilities are needed along the transportation chain. A number of fire incidents due to spontaneous ignition in wood pellets have been reported. The aim of the present work is to provide methods for estimating risks for self-heating from pellets stored in bulk quantities. The experimental work ranges from small-scale characterizations to medium-scale storage tests and includes different types of pellets. One aim has been to develop small scale screening methods to assess the propensity for self-heating, thereby trying to define the specific type of “activity” occurring in the pellets as well as characterising it.

     

    Isothermal calorimetry (micro calorimeter) has been used as small scale screening test method and the results has then been validated with crossing point tests and in medium scale tests (1 m3). Thirteen samples from different types of pellets have been ranked relative to each other in micro calorimeter tests and two pellet types; one “reactive” and one “less reactive” were also tested for validation in crossing point and medium scale. The results clearly reveal that different activity levels of the pellets can be measured using small scale screening methods.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research.
    Persson, Henry
    SP Fire Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    SP Fire Research.
    Temperature Measurements and Examination of Self-heating in Large Scale storage of Wood Pellets2014Inngår i: World Bioenergy 2014, Jönköping, Sweden, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the experimental data from a large-scale storage test performed within the European project called SafePellets. Temperature measurements were made inside a silo with a capacity of storing 3000 ton of wood pellets, from August to October in 2013. The purpose of the test was to examine the self-heating of the wood pellets, where and when it occurs, how it spreads and if it could be connected to certain events. For temperature measurements, both the temperature cables belonging to the silo temperature surveillance system and thermocouples mounted by SP at the cables and on the in/out-side walls of the silo were used.

     

    The results clearly reveal that self-heating occurs almost instantly after start of filling the silo and temperatures above 40 °C inside the pellets bulk is regular. The temperature surveillance system, which was set to give an alarm signal for high temperatures, was activated several times during the test period and temperatures exceeding 60 °C were registered at several occasions. Measurements above the pellet surface also show that this headspace temperature varies much with the outside ambient temperature and the sunlight radiation. A sunny summer’s day, the headspace temperature could easily reach above 40 °C, which will influence the pellet bulk. The project also emphasized an important problem when it comes to silo storage. The problem of temperature sensor cables inside the silo not always hanging where they are supposed to be was observed in the test and dealt with.

  • 34. Li, Y. Z.
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Brandteknik.
    Correlation between different scales of metro carriage fire tests2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of four series of metro carriage fire tests in different scales was carried out. These metro carriage fire tests including 1:10 model scale tests, 1:3 model scale tests, 1/3 carriage section carriage tests and full scale tunnel tests. The correlation between different scales of carriage fire tests is carefully investigated. The mechanism of fire development is very similar in different scales of tests involving fully developed. A critical fire spread is identified as the key parameter to a fully developed carriage fire and is related to a minimum heat release rate. After the critical fire spread, the fire travels along the carriage at an approximately constant speed. The maximum heat release rate obtained for a fully developed fire is dependent on the ventilation conditions and also the type and configuration of the fuels, and a simple equation has been proposed to estimate the maximum heat release rate. Good agreement has also been found between different scales of maximum gas temperature, gas concentration and extinction coefficient. The heat fluxes from the flames could be slightly overestimated in model scales.

  • 35.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Fan, Ghuan Gang
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Effect of cross section and ventilation on heat release rates in tunnel fires2016Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 51, s. 414-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests were performed in tunnels with varying tunnel widths and heights in order to study the effect of tunnel cross-section and ventilation velocity on the heat release rate (HRR) for both liquid pool fires and solid fuel fires. The results showed that for well ventilated heptane pool fires, the tunnel width nearly has no influence on the HRR whilst a lower tunnel height clearly increases the HRR. For well ventilated solid fuel fires, the HRR increases by approximately 25% relative to a free burn test but the HRR is not sensitive to either tunnel width, tunnel height or ventilation velocity. For solid fuel fires that were not well ventilated, the HRRs could be less than those in free burn laboratory tests. In the case of ventilation controlled fires the HRRs approximately lie at the same level as for cases with natural ventilation.

  • 36.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Correlations in different scales of metro carriage fire tests2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of four series of metro carriage fire tests in different scales was carried out. These metro carriage fire tests including 1:10 model scale tests, 1:3 model scale tests, 1/3 carriage section carriage tests and full scale tunnel tests. The correlation between different scales of carriage fire tests is carefully investigated. The mechanism of fire development is very similar in different scales of tests involving fully developed. A critical fire spread is identified as the key parameter to a fully developed carriage fire and is related to a minimum heat release rate. After the critical fire spread, the fire travels along the carriage at an approximately constant speed. The maximum heat release rate obtained for a fully developed fire is dependent on the ventilation conditions and also the type and configuration of the fuels, and a simple equation has been proposed to estimate the maximum heat release rate. Good agreement has also been found between different scales of maximum gas temperature, gas concentration and extinction coefficient. The heat fluxes from the flames could be slightly overestimated in model scales.

  • 37.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Fire development in different scales of metro carriages2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A fire development analysis of three series of metro carriage fire tests in different scales was carried out. These metro carriages fire tests included 1:10 model scale tests, 1:3 model scale tests and 1:1 full scale tunnel tests. The heat release rate (HRR) correlations between different scales of carriage fire tests were carefully investigated. The mechanism of fire development is very similar in different scales of tests involving fully developed fires. After the critical fire spread, the fire travels along the carriage at an approximately constant speed. The maximum heat release rate obtained for a fully developed fire is dependent on the ventilation conditions and also the type and configuration of the fuels, and a simple equation has been proposed to estimate the maximum heat release rate. A global correction factor of the maximum heat release rate is presented and examined. 

  • 38.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    New Energy Carriers in Tunnels2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues such as climate change and scarcity of resources have forced the development of new energy carriers for vehicles. This also means that there will be an increase in the number of vehicles running on these new energy carriers in tunnels and other confined spaces. New energy carriers do not necessarily mean higher risks, but they do represent a new situation and imply new risks. These risks need to be evaluated and considered. The mixture of different energy carriers (flammable liquids, gases lighter than air, gases denser than air, batteries, etc.) can also constitute a risk itself, since there are situations where different safety measures need to be taken depending on the energy carrier used and the scenario in question.

     

    In this paper some selected new energy carriers are described, in terms of trends and properties. Some countries have restrictions on the use of some energy carriers in confined spaces. These restrictions are presented. Vehicles are involved in accidents, so also vehicles running on new energy carriers. Some vehicle fires involving new energy carriers are presented and discussed in the paper. It is important to learn from these accidents. It is also important that safety issues related to the use of new energy carriers in tunnels are considered, investigated and reported. Systems, not only components, need to be tested to study different possible scenarios and to develop models for these scenarios. When the scenarios are described in a representative way, technical safety solutions, mitigations systems, and rescue service tactics can be developed. It is also important to study how the different systems (detection, ventilation, mitigation) interact and how the models should be altered depending on the scenario.

  • 39.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Andersson, Petra
    Björklund, Anders
    CFD-simulation of under-ventilated fires - Comparison to experimental results2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate how different configurations in a large room affect the smoke spread and

    temperature during a fire, eleven tests were performed. The tests scenario was built in scale

    1:2 and can be described as a large room with small ventilation openings near the floor. The

    fire tests were simulated using the CFD (

    computational fluid dynamics) code FDS (Fire

    D

    ynamics Simulator). To see how well FDS simulates under-ventilated fires, both well

    ventilated and under-ventilated cases were selected for the validation. Gas temperatures

    and oxygen concentrations for the experiments and the simulations, respectively, are

    compared. The results of the validation show that the combustion model (mixture fraction

    combustion model), with empirical amendments for when the fire is allowed to burn, is very

    sensitive to changes in the oxygen level.

  • 40.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Björklund, Anders
    Smoke Spread and Gas Temperatures during Fires in Retail Premises - Experiments and CFD Simulations2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In analytical solutions, e.g. for evacuation design, the use of computer programs for simulating the smoke spread is common. In recent years a group of computer codes named CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes has emerged as an engineering tool for describing smoke spread. The CFD codes need to be compared against experimental data so that they can be fully validated. To investigate how different configurations in a retail premises affect the smoke spread and temperatures during a fire, 11 tests were performed. The tests scenario was built in scale 1:2 and can be described as a large room with small ventilation openings near the floor. The configuration parameters were: different fire sizes, different fire positions and different shelf configurations. Heptane pools were used to represent the fires. Three different fire sizes were used and during the test with the largest fire size, 650 mm × 650 mm, the test conditions became under-ventilated, i.e., there was insufficient oxygen available to allow stoichiometric combustion of all evaporated fuel. For the simulations conducted as part of this work, the focus was on under-ventilated fires. However, the experimental results for all of the tests are presented and discussed. The fire tests were simulated using the CFD code FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator). To see how well FDS simulates under-ventilated fires, both well ventilated and under-ventilated cases were selected for the validation. Gas temperatures and oxygen concentration for the experiments and the simulations, respectively, are compared. Different types of meshes for the simulations and different ways of modelling the fire were used. The results of the validation show that the combustion model (mixture fraction combustion model) with empirical amendments for when the fire is allowed to burn, is very sensitive to changes in the oxygen level. The comparison between the experimental data and the simulation indicates that FDS easily can underestimate the oxygen level and thereby the heat release rate which, in turn, creates an underestimation of the temperatures. The validation has shown that the simple empirical expression used for when the fire is allowed to burn is very sensitive and if used without proper understanding it may produce large differences between the experiments and the simulations. It is also clear that the temperatures for well ventilated cases may be overestimated and that the use of visibility and toxicity (soot and carbon monoxide yields) are related to uncertainties. It should also be noted that there are cases where the temperature from the simulations and the temperature measurements correspond relatively well with each other and yet other cases when the simulated temperature is higher than the measured temperature. This depends on the simulation case, the position in the set-up and the time period compared.

  • 41.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik.
    Blomqvist, Per
    SP Brandteknik.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Emissions from Simulated Deep-Seated Fires in Domestic Waste2008Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 70, nr 4, s. 626-639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emissions from deep-seated fires in domestic waste have been investigated. The gas phase yields of PAH, PCDD/F, PCB, HCB, particles, and metals associated to the particulate matter were analysed during a series of simulated deep-seated fires. The method of extinguishment was varied and in cases where water was used for extinguishment, the runoff water was analysed for PAH, PCDD/F, PCB, hexachlorobenzene, and metals. In total six tests were performed. In four of the tests, samples of the fire residue were analysed for PCDD/F, PCBs, and chlorobenzenes.

  • 42.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Claesson, Alexander
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lindström, Johan
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Gas composition during a fire in a train carriage2014Inngår i: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the interdisciplinary research project METRO, two full-scale fire tests were performed with ignition inside commuter train carriages in a tunnel. Both tests developed to fully flashover conditions. The fire development was very different in the two tests. The main reason was the difference in initial combustion behaviour between the case with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with a refurbished carriage using aluminium sheet covering the combustible lining as the exposed interior surface. In the case with combustible lining a ceiling flame was developed, radiating towards the seats and the luggage spreading the fire more quickly than in the case without exposed combustible lining. Also in the gas concentrations, significant differences could be observed between the two tests. During the tests, concentrations of O2, CO and CO2 were sampled and analysed at three different heights. The paper focuses on the time resolved results of the gas concentration. The development in gas concentration at different levels is presented and discussed in relation to the fire development in the carriage. Results from calculations of time to incapacitation and fractions of an incapacitating does are also included.

  • 43.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik.
    Hedekvist, Per-Olov
    SP Mätteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik.
    Gas temperature measurements using fibre Bragg grating during fire experiments in a tunnel2008Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 119-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas temperature measurements with thermocouples are affected by radiation.  This effect means the temperature measured by a thermocouple can be far from the actual gas temperature. To study this effect and to compare the thermocouple readings with the readings of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, fire experiments were performed in a model-scale tunnel. In this paper the results from two such fire experiments are presented. The temperatures measured using thermocouples with different diameters and the FBG sensor are compared and discussed. The “true” gas temperature, corrected for radiation effects from the thermocouples, was calculated from the results from the thermocouples with different diameters. The results show that the temperature measured by the FBG sensor is closer to the “true” gas temperature than is the case for any of the thermocouples used in these tests.

  • 44.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Hugosson, Jonatan
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire incidents during contruction work of tunnels - Model-scale experiments2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes a series of model scale tests (1:40 scale) describing the situation before breakthrough in a tunnel during construction. In such a situation this means that there is only one access tunnel, the rest is a system of tunnels with no connection to the surface other than through the inlet tunnel. The tests were carried out in order to investigate the effects of smoke spread and ventilation in a tunnel during construction. The tunnel was tested during different ventilation conditions, lengths and slope. The tunnel consisted of an access part which simulated the access tunnel to the main tunnel. The access tunnel was sloped and the main tunnel was horizontal, directed in two equal distances from the access tunnel. The main tunnel had two dead ends, and a ventilation system that was provided through an air duct in the ceiling. The air duct outlet length and location was varied in the tests. A total of 36 tests were performed. The fire source was a propane burner, delivering a heat release rate equivalent to a full-scale fire of 10 MW. Fibreboard blocks, of different sizes, drenched with heptane were also used to represent the heat release rate of a construction machine.

    The main findings concerned the effect of the ventilation on the fire development. If the fire occurs before the breakthrough and the fire is too small it will be difficult to obtain fresh air from the access entrance and the fire will decreases in intensity and finally extinguish due to lack of oxygen caused by consumption of oxygen and recirculation of vitiated products back to the fire.

  • 45.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire Spread between Industry Premises2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results and analysis from model scale tests carried out to validate calculation methods for estimation of the risk for fire spread between buildings. The basic parameters necessary to determine the risk for fire spread are: flame height and the incident thermal radiation. Knowledge about both these parameters is vital in order to estimate the risks properly. There is a lack of experimental information that considers the following important aspects influencing the propensity of a fire to jump from one industrial premise to another: heat release rate, size of an opening in a flashed over building, flame height and incident thermal radiation at different distances from the burning building. This report provides new data and better understanding of necessary input for such calculations. The model scale tests show good correspondence between a simple method to calculate heat radiation from a point source and experimental data obtained. Further, a simple and robust method to measure incident heat radiation is examined and evaluated.

  • 46.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik.
    In response to the letter: On the measurement of gas temperatures in a simulated tunnel fire2009Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 923-923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 47.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, HaukurSP Fire Research.
    Proceedings from the Sixth InternationalSymposium on Tunnel Safety and Security,Marseille, France, March 12-14, 20142014Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes the Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Marseille, France, 12-14th of March, 2014. The Proceedings include 59 papers given by session speakers and 10 papers presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 17 different sessions. Among them are Security, Explosions, Risk Analysis, Evacuation, Fixed Firefighting Systems, Passive Fire Protection, Fire Safety Engineering, Emergency Management, Ventilation, and Fire Dynamics.Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Magnus Arvidson, SP, Sweden, Kees Both, Promat International NV, Belgium, Peter Sturm, Graz University of Technology, Austria, Jaap Weerheijm, TNO, The Netherlands, and Daniel Nilsson, Lund University, Sweden.

  • 48.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Recent Achievements Regarding Heat Release and Temperatures during Fires in Tunnels2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an overview of the latest available information about heat release rate (HRR) and gas temperature development in tunnels.  Results from major fire test series in tunnels are presented, as well as fire tests with vehicles in other type of applications. The HRR and temperature development from the large-scale fire tests performed in the Runehamar tunnel in 2003 is presented. These tests included four tests with different HGV trailer fire loads. Heat release rate over 200 MW and gas temperatures over 1300 oC were measured.

  • 49.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    The Effect of Air Velocity on Heat Release Rate and Fire Development during Fires in Tunnels2008Inngår i: Fire Safety Science, 2008, 2008, s. 701-712Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests using wood cribs of different porosity in a ventilated tunnel are presented. The study focuses on the effect of air velocity on maximum Heat Release Rate (HRR) and fire growth rate. To study the influence of different parameters, free burn tests and fire tests inside a model-scale tunnel were performed. The tunnel was 10 m long, the widths used were 0.3 m, 0.45 m, and 0.6 m and the heights used were 0.25 m and 0.4 m. If compared to a normal traffic tunnel, these measures can correspond to a tunnel with a scale of 1:20. The tests show that for a higher porosity wood crib and higher velocities than 0.45 m/s an increasing ventilation rate increases the maximum HRR in the range of 1.3 to 1.7 timesthe value measured outside the tunnel under ambient conditions. For the lower porosity wood crib and higher velocities, the corresponding increase in the maximum HRR was 1.8 and 2.0, respectively. When compared to ambient conditions inside the tunnel based mass loss rate, this increase was found lower. For all cases when the velocity was 0.22 m/s and the low ceiling height was used, the ratio was found to be lower than one. This was not the case when high ceiling height was used. For the case with a velocity of 0.67 m/s, the fire growth rate increased by a factor of 5-10 times the free burn case. The value depends on the dimensions of the tunnel cross section. Copyright © 2008 International Association For FireSafety Science.

  • 50.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    The Influence of Tunnel Cross Section on Temperatures and Fire Development2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During a fire in a tunnel, the temperature is a crucial parameter for the occupants of the tunnel, for the ability of the rescue service to approach the fire, and for the tunnel structure. Therefore, it is of importance to be able to derive information on temperature development and the maximum temperature for different fire scenarios and tunnels with different heights and widths. Fire tests in a model-scale tunnel have been performed to study the effect of the width and height of a tunnel on the gas temperature inside a tunnel during a fire. The model-scale tunnel was 10 m long. The widths used were 0.3 m, 0.45 m, and 0.6 m and the heights 0.25 m and 0.4 m.  Fire tests with heptane and wood cribs, respectively, were performed. There was an effect on the gas temperature of the tunnel dimension, generally decreasing temperature with increasing dimensions, even if the effect varied at different positions in the tunnel and the effect in some positions was relatively small. Also, the effect in the vicinity of the fire was opposite to the effect further downstream of the fire.

12 1 - 50 of 68
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf