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  • 1.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Conceptual Evaluation Framework for Performance Measurements within Industrial Product Development2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to deliver streams of new products to the market is more important than ever before. Still, no generally accepted performance measurement framework for product development exists. This paper outlines a performance measurement evaluation matrix, based on extensive qualitative research within large organizations developing industrial products in Sweden, that enable managers to assess what is and what is not measured in the product development process. This is important in order to continuously keep the measurement system updated according to the current needs of the organization.

  • 2.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Performance Evaluation in an Industrial Product Development Context2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s turbulent and competitive environment the need for deploying product development investments more efficiently and effectively is stronger than ever. To assist managers in this context, two conceptual tools to support the performance evaluation process in a product development context have been developed, based on extensive exploratory case studies. Results indicate that it is common to associate performance measures with time, cost and quality; missing is the monitoring of the value created. It is argued that there needs to be a change in the perception of performance, before there can be any changes in the performance evaluation system.

  • 3.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Performance in Product Development - The Case of Complex Products2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research addresses the concept of performance in the development of complex products. More specifically, its aim is to study how performance is perceived and measured within large global companies, and how performance measurement systems can be designed in a systematic way.

    The exploratory results regard how performance is currently perceived and measured. It is argued that performance measurements are focused on the later stages of the development of complex products, thus making it difficult to perform changes during the development. The focus is on lagging rather than leading indicators of performance, hence it is concluded that focus is on reporting the result rather than the causes of the result. In line with these findings is the weak link between what managers perceive as success factors and what is measured, the perception of performance being influenced by what is measured, rather than the reverse.

    The prescriptive results focus on the development of models and frameworks to be used during the development of complex products. A general method for developing performance indicators is presented. The concept of Products in Development is proposed, this making it possible to monitor how value is created during the development of a product. Both these models aim at complementing the currently used performance measurement system in order to support effective and efficient development of complex products.

    The method used in this research is mainly focused around the collection of qualitative data through a focused group interview, multiple case studies,and industrial reference-group seminars. A survey has also been used to complement the qualitative with quantitative data. The use of various research methods has made it possible to triangulate the data, thus strengthening the validity of the findings.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    PhD Thesis Proposal Evaluating Performance in Product Development - The Case of Complex Products2010Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Blackbright, Helena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Andersson, Jennie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    A New Survey Instrument for Assessing the Innovation Climate2017Inngår i: XXVIII ISPIM Innovation Conference ISPIM 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Elfving, Sofi W
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A Road Map for Future Research on Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2): A Systematic Review2013Inngår i: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 185-190Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing trend to expand traditional offerings of selling goods towards providing value through services to customers. In academia the term Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2) describes this phenomenon. Although many articles have been published on IPS2 a systematic review is lacking. This paper presents a systematic review of the IPS2 domain. Five themes characterizing IPS2 are revealed: delivery, processes, value creation networks, knowledge management, and business models. IPS2 is concluded to be both a young and distributed field of research, with a scope that needs to expand in terms of the themes covered and number of empirical studies.

  • 7.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Elfving, Sofi W
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Parida, Vinit
    Analysis of the Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2) Literature: A Systematic Review2012Inngår i: The 6th IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology, 2012, s. 733-740Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful industrial goods-delivering companies are always looking for ways to develop and grow their business. A strong present trend is to expand the traditionally tangible offering by integrating intangible offerings i.e. services. In academia the term industrial product-service systems (IPS2) are being used to describe this paradigm shift. However, a systematic review of the IPS2 literature is lacking. In this paper publications regarding IPS2 are systematically reviewed. The result of our review has been categorized under five themes that we found characterizes IPS2: delivery, processes, value creation networks, knowledge management, and business models. Based on our findings a discussion is made and future research directions are identified.

  • 8.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Making the Important Measurable2011Inngår i: International Association for Management of Technology IAMOT 2011 Proceedings, Miami Beach, USA, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance measurements related to product development typically focuses on what is easy to quantify and not necessarily what is important to measure. This research uses a case study approach to test a new model for designing performance indicators (DPI) based on what is important for a specific organization developing new products. The foundation for an effective performance measurement system is that the performance measurements are derived from relevant performance criteria and objectives. The proposed DPI method is therefore based on three consecutive steps. The first step is to decide what performance objectives are needed to be fulfilled in order to realize the pursued strategy. This step is followed by the identification of performance criteria / success factors that will contribute to the realization of the performance objectives. Performance criteria are typically related to what needs to be achieved in order to fulfill the objectives while success factors focus more on how they are to be fulfilled. Based on the most important performance criteria /success factors the supporting performance indicators can be derived from the literature or by using the performance measure record sheet. The performance allocation tracker is developed as a result of applying the DPI method in a real case and it is an indicator of the performance of the studied development project. The properties of the indicators resulting from using the DPI method include similar characteristics as leading indicators of performance. It is concluded that by focusing on performance criteria and success factors in the development of performance indicators, leading indicators of performance is derived.

  • 9.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Evaluating performance in the development of software-intensive products2014Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 516-526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Organizational performance measurements in software product development have received a lot of attention in the literature. Still, there is a general discontent regarding the way performance is evaluated in practice, with few studies really focusing on why this is the case. In this paper research focusing on the context of developing software-intensive products in large established multi-national organizations is reported on. Objective: The purpose of this research is to investigate performance measurement practices related to software product development activities. More specifically, focus is on exploring how managers engaged in software product development activities perceive and evaluate performance in large organizations from a managerial perspective. Method: The research approach pursued in this research consist of exploratory multiple case studies. Data is collected mainly through 54 interviews in five case studies in large international organizations developing software-intensive products in Sweden. Focused group interviews with senior managers from eight companies have also been used in the data collection. Results: The results of this research indicate that managers within software product development in general are dissatisfied with their current way of evaluating performance. Performance measurements and the perception of performance are today focused on cost, time, and quality, i.e. what is easily measurable and not necessarily what is important. The dimensions of value creation and learning are missing. Moreover, measurements tend to be result oriented, rather than process oriented, making it difficult to integrate these measurements in the management practices. Conclusion: Managers that are dissatisfied with their performance measurement system and want to improve the current situation should not start by focusing on the current measurements directly; instead they should focus on how the organization perceives performance and how important performance criteria are being developed. By developing relevant performance criteria the first step in developing an effective performance measurement system is made. Moreover, it is concluded that manager's perception of performance is affected by the currently used measurements, hence limiting the scope of the performance criteria. Thus, a change in the way managers perceive performance is necessary before there can be any changes in the way performance is evaluated. 

  • 10.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Improving Traceability by Focusing on Value during Development2011Inngår i: 1st International Workshop on Value-Based Software Traceability (VALSOT 2011), 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product delivering companies invest resources in software development activities in order to create value. Still, when performance in software development is to be measured, focus easily turns to time, cost, and quality in the later stages of the development process. Time, cost, and quality are important dimensions of performance but they are not revealing the complete picture. Missing is the value perspective. This paper outlines a method for how customer value can be used to evaluate performance and improve traceability during the development of a new product. The first step in the method is to value each requirement in the development project according to their perceived customer value. Hence, the value propagation can be monitored as the activities related the requirements are completed during the development. This information can then be used in order to improve traceability by visualizing the value propagation and performance during the development. The paper is concluded with outlining four key needs for future research.

  • 11.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Products in Development: Using Requirements to Determine the Value of Activities in a Development Project2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product delivering companies invest resources in software development activities in order to create value. Still, when performance in software development is to be measured, focus easily turns to time, cost, and quality in the later stages of the development process. Time, cost, and quality are important dimensions of performance but they are not revealing the complete picture. Missing is the value perspective. This paper outlines a method for how customer value can be used to evaluate performance and improve decision making during the development of a new product. The first step in the method is to value each requirement in the development project according to their perceived customer value. Hence, the value propagation can be monitored as the activities related the requirements are completed during the development. This information can then be used in order to decide on changed priorities through an understanding of the value propagation and performance during the development.

  • 12.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Towards Integrating Perceived Customer Value in the Evaluation of Performance in Product Development2010Inngår i: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product delivering companies invest resources in product development activities in order to create value. Still, when performance in product development is to be evaluated, time, cost, and quality are in focus, especially in the later stages of the development when it is expensive and difficult to make any changes. Time, cost, and quality are important dimensions of performance but they are not revealing the complete picture. Missing is the value perspective. This paper outlines a method for how perceived customer value can be used to evaluate performance in product development and describes how it is verified through a case study. By using the perceived customer value of requirements, the value propagation throughout the development is possible to monitor based on both market and scope changes. In addition, a measure of productivity can be calculated by relating the perceived value to the spent effort. This information is used in order to visualize the value propagation and performance during the development. Hence, through this method it is possible to evaluate the productivity of activities from initial ideas to a final product. The paper is concluded with a discussion of managerial implications and how this method contributes to theory.

  • 13.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    PMEX: A Performance Measurement Evaluation Matrix For The Development Of Industrial Software-Intensive Products2011Inngår i: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 55-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure performance is both fundamental to and critical in successful product development. Previous research has focused on adding new measurements, not on evaluating those currently used. The PMEX is a tool to evaluate the performance-measurement system based on success factors in the development of software-intensive products. Three case studies have been conducted to test the PMEX and the results indicate that the PMEX enables managers to determine explicitly what is and what is not measured. Time, cost and quality seem to be the focus of the performance measurements while technology and planning activities are absent.

  • 14.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Performance Evaluation Framework for Innovation a chapter in Innovation in Business and Enterprise: Technologies and Frameworks2010Inngår i: Innovation in Business and Enterprise: Technologies and Frameworks, IGI Global, 2010, s. 135-149Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a framework for a conceptual evaluation of the performance of industrial product innovation activities. The framework promotes a holistic view of performance by considering three categories of activities: Planning, Implementation, and Sales and Delivery. Successful performance evaluation comes from acknowledging the fact that there are different objectives for each of the three activity categories. Moreover, performance may be expressed as a function of the performance of the Planning, the Implementation, and the Sales and Delivery activities. In this chapter the results of research involving seven large companies in Sweden, with the objective of improving the understanding of what is required to be successful when developing complex industrial products, are presented. Key factors for success as well as some general conclusions are discussed.

  • 15.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Challenges with Evaluating Performance in Product Development2010Inngår i: 17TH INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Murcia, Spain, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to from a managerial perspective investigate performance evaluation practices in a product development context. The focus is on exploring how managers perceive and evaluate performance in a software-intensive product development context. The research approach pursued in this research consist of a literature review combined with focused group interviews and exploratory multiple case studies. Moreover, a number of seminars have been held to discuss the findings both in academia and in practice. The result of this research indicates that product development managers are dissatisfied with their current way of evaluating performance. Performance measurements and the perception of performance are focused on cost, time and quality, i.e. what is easily measurable and not necessarily what is important. The dimensions of value creations and learning are missing. It is argued that manager perception of performance is affected by how it is measured, hence limiting the scope of the performance criteria. Thus, a change in the way managers perceive performance is necessary before there can be any change in the way performance is evaluated. Managers within product development that are dissatisfied with their performance measurement system should focus on how the organization perceive performance. By developing relevant performance criteria the first step in developing an effective performance evaluation system is made.

  • 16.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corp Res.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Evaluation of performance in a product development context2010Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 359-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's competitive environment the need to deploy product-development investments more effectively is greater than ever. To assist managers, two conceptual tools have been developed to support the evaluation of performance in product development. The Performance Measurement Evaluation Matrix (PMEX) presented here helps managers evaluate performance-measurement systems they currently use, in order to identify areas requiring improvement. Results from using the PMEX indicate that it is common to associate performance measurements with the efficiency aspects of time, cost, and quality, without monitoring the value created. Performance is largely perceived by managers in terms of time, cost, and quality of the activities in the later phases of the development process. We argue that an effective performance-measurement system is based on performance criteria and then derive measurements based on these. It is argued that there should be a change in the perception of performance before performance-evaluation systems can be improved. The Product Development Organizational Model (PDOPM) assists in developing the perception of performance by relating uncertainty, efficiency and effectiveness at three generic activity levels within the product-development function. The use of our tools provides an improved perception of performance and its measurement, thus enabling improvements to the evaluation of performance.

  • 17.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    What is Performance in Complex Product Development?2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the R&D Management Conference. 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of developing new products is one of the key business processes in a company, especially technology intensive ones. In order to continuously improve this capability of developing new products it is important to be able to measure the performance in the product development process. The dilemma though is that there are no good performance measurements available within complex product development. One reason, as argued in presented research may be the lack of a holistic perception of performance within the development process. Data from a five case explorative study including 49 semi-structured open interviews regarding performance within complex product development is presented and analyzed. The results clearly indicate a need for further development of the perception of performance by managers and decision makers within the process of developing complex products. To meet this need, a Product Development Organizational Performance Model (PDOPM) is proposed, consisting of three generic levels of activities: Product strategy, Project management, and Product activities. These generic activities are modelled in accordance with the IDEF0 making it possible to conceptually reason about uncertainty, effectiveness, and efficiency at each activity level. Further, the term product development efficacy is introduced to describe the capability of identifying or creating a market opportunity and being able to develop and deliver a product fulfilling exactly what was identified as the market opportunity. High performance in product development is achieved when there is efficacy throughout the complete product development portfolio.

  • 18.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Eliciting Critical Information in a Pre-Study Phase of Developing a Drive System Platform for Automotive Applications2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Systems Engineering and Engineering Management for Sustainable Global Development, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not straightforward to execute a pre-study and elicit all relevant requirements when faced with developing a mechatronic platform, such as a hybrid electric drive system, aimed for reuse in many advanced vehicles. We present analysis of probing critical information areas and how to identify shortcomings by studying an industrial case and compiling textbook recommendations. We present a method, synthesized from literature, for probing critical subjects for a mechatronic platform development initiative and outline related methods to address shortcomings. Recognizing the critical information in an early phase is one key to leverage complexity in an advanced product line effort.

  • 19.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    What Information on Business Parameters is Required by Embedded Software Developers to do an Effective Job?2012Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol. 114, Springer, 2012, s. 273-278Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software design is tightly connected to the functionality and goals of the system it is used to control. For mechatronic systems such as an in-vehicle automotive system, software developers require information on the system goals including business parameters to effectively decide on architecture and functionality. This paper presents results from an case of developing a hybrid electric drive system platform, and presents the information areas that software and system engineers do perceive as important to effectively perform design. We note that business parameters are sought for and elaborate on what information is required. We analyze what these needs are and elaborate on how to address them by using methods from the literature. We conclude that the effort of developing embedded software cannot rely on statically specified business parameters; rather these would be estimated and refined by interaction throughout the development cycle.

  • 20.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    What Information on Business Parameters Is Required by Embedded Software Developers to Do an Effective Job?2012Inngår i: SOFTWARE BUSINESS, ICSOB 2012 / [ed] Cusumano, MA Iyer, B Venkatraman, N, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2012, s. 273-278Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software design is tightly connected to the functionality and goals of the system it is used to control. For mechatronic systems such as an in-vehicle automotive system, software developers require information on the system goals including business parameters to effectively decide on architecture and functionality. This paper presents results from an case of developing a hybrid electric drive system platform, and presents the information areas that software and system engineers do perceive as important to effectively perform design. We note that business parameters are sought for and elaborate on what information is required. We analyze what these needs are and elaborate on how to address them by using methods from the literature. We conclude that the effort of developing embedded software cannot rely on statically specified business parameters; rather these would be estimated and refined by interaction throughout the development cycle.

  • 21.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Analyzing the System Architecting Value Stream2010Inngår i: European Systems Engineering Conference, Stockholm, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Johansson, Peter E.
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Karlsson, Helena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Research Institute of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Let us measure, then what?: Exploring purposeful use of innovation management self-assessments.2019Inngår i: International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, ISSN 0265-671X, E-ISSN 1758-6682, Vol. 36, nr 10, s. 1734-1749Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding regarding how managers attempt to make purposeful use of innovation management self-assessments (IMSA) and performance information (PI).

    Design/methodology/approach

    An interpretative perspective on purposeful use is used as an analytical framework, and the paper is based on empirical material from two research projects exploring the use of IMSA and PI in three case companies. Based on the empirical data, consisting of interviews and observations of workshops and project meetings, qualitative content analysis has been conducted.

    Findings

    The findings of this paper indicate that how managers achieve a purposeful use of PI is related to their approach toward how to use the specific PI at hand, and two basic approaches are analytically separated: a rule-based approach and a reflective approach. Consequently, whether or not the right thing is being measured also becomes a question of how the PI is actually being interpreted and used. Thus, the extensive focus on what to measure and how to measure it becomes edgeless unless equal attention is given to how managers are able to use the PI to make knowledgeable decisions regarding what actions to take to achieve the desired changes.

    Practical implications

    Given the results, it comes with a managerial responsibility to make sure that all managers who are supposed to be engaged in using the PI are given roles in the self-assessments that are aligned with the level of knowledge they possess, or can access.

    Originality/value

    How managers purposefully use PI is a key to understand the potential impact of self-assessments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Olsson, Rolf
    Level Twentyone Management, Sweden.
    Modeling Performance in Complex Product Development: A Product Development Organisational Performance Model2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Management of Technology. 2008, IAMOT, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of this research is the Product Development Organizational Performance Model (PDOPM). The model consists of three generic levels of activities: product strategy, project management and product activities. Each level of activity uses resources to transform input to output under the direction of goals and constraints. This view of an activity is based on the IDEF0 concept. The goal of the product strategy activity is related to the business strategy and the output of the activity is the goal for the project management activity. Project management translates the goal into outputs that become goals for the product activities. This way of modeling the product development (PD) process with three generic levels of activities makes it possible to analyze performance from the three perspectives. Effectiveness, efficiency and uncertainty are defined for the three generic levels of activities. Effectiveness can be expressed as how the output relates to the goal of the activities whereas efficiency can be defined as the difference between output and input divided by the used resources. The uncertainty can be viewed as the difference between the goal and the input. A first verification of the PDOPM has been performed by a root cause analysis of three problem areas selected from the result of a previously conducted case study. Furthermore, the PDOPM can be used as a way of discussing the effect which these three levels of activities have on PD as a whole (i.e. from a holistic view, aligning product strategy, project management, and product activities).

  • 24.
    Karlsson, Helena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Andersson, Jennie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Assessment competence and its importance for IMA-tool use2017Inngår i: XXVIII ISPIM Innovation Conference ISPIM 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Larsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Blue Institute, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    The Third Wave of Automation: Critical Factors for Industrial Digitization2014Inngår i: Swedish Production Symposium 2014 SPS 2014, Göteborg, Sweden, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of industrial automation is shifting into a third wave of automation based on extreme information availability, cyber-physical systems and data analytics. This paper present critical factors and way forward for the development of the Swedish industrial automation sector, both users and suppliers. Based on literature and practice studies, and a survey including some 40 respondents, ten factors for realising the third wave of automation was identified with four key factors: Technology, Processes, Business models and Competence. Finally, initial steps on a way forward are proposed for the development of Swedish automation industry and research.

  • 26.
    Parida, V.
    et al.
    Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Oghazi, P.
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A study of how ICT capabilities can influence dynamic capabilities2016Inngår i: Journal of Enterprise Information Management, ISSN 1741-0398, E-ISSN 1758-7409, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 179-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Prior studies have argued that small firms with dynamic capabilities can revise and reconfigure their internal resources to meet the uncertainties of their business environment. However, there is a lack of understanding of how they can develop such critical capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to propose that small firms can employ information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities as a facilitator for developing dynamic capabilities. Thus, the study builds on resource-based view (RBV) literature and information systems (IS) literature by examining the influence of ICT capabilities on the dynamic capabilities of small firms. Design/methodology/approach – Several hypotheses were tested by analysing the survey data from 291 small high-technology firms in Sweden. Findings – The results reveal that ICT capabilities influence dynamic capabilities of small firms. More specifically, the ICT use for internal efficiency positively influences adoptive capabilities, collaborative use of ICT positively influences networking capabilities, and ICT use for communications positively influences both adaptive and innovation capabilities. Consequently, the results suggest that the different components of ICT capabilities facilitate the development of the different organizational capabilities that together represent dynamic capabilities and thus, can contribute to a small firm’s competitive advantage. Practical implications – This study has few implications for the managers and CEO’s of small high-technology firms. First, by prioritizing ICT capabilities, small firms can benefit from the development of dynamic capabilities that will support them to meet the challenges of turbulent business environment. Second, because small firms usually lack internal resources (i.e. financial resources and competence), the study provides more specific direction on how they can strategically invest and build different components of ICT that will positively influence their adaptive, absorptive, innovative, and network capabilities. Originality/value – The study provides an alternative view of how ICT capabilities influence the performance of small firms, and outlines how such capabilities influence the development of dynamic capabilities. Therefore, the study in hand contributes to the RBV and IS literature by specifically linking the components of ICT capabilities to dynamic capabilities and its related sub-capabilities.

  • 27.
    Salloum, Mohammed
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Technology, Department of Finance and Business Control.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Managing change in performance measures – An inter-company case study approach2012Inngår i: International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, ISSN 1753-0296, E-ISSN 1753-0296, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 53-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of performance measurement and management (PMM) is well filled with frameworks, models and guidelines addressing what to measure and how to design a performance measurement system (PMS). However, what has been less examined so far is how to ensure that PM evolve in tandem with their environments. Further, the few approaches available today are prescriptive and outlines how or what practitioners should do in order to manage change in their PM. Thus, a gap exists in understanding how organisations manage change in their PM in practice. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to outline and compare the approaches of three case companies for managing PM change. In order to fulfil the purpose of the paper, the data presented has been collected through the deployment of case studies. The choice of case studies as means for data collection stems from the possibility of an in-depth and holistic examination of the formulated phenomenon. All three case companies belong to the same company-group that operates within the transportation industry. The industrial footprint of the company is global with operations and sales spread out over the world. The findings suggest that all three companies have processes in place for managing change in PM. However, the approaches differ in design and context. Even though the case companies had different approaches in place to manage change in PM, they shared several commonalities. Commonalities were shared in the way of execution, process input and challenges in IT and culture. Furthermore, employee involvement seemed to be the biggest challenge for all three companies. The findings put forward in this paper are limited as they are confined to three companies from the same company-group. More studies, both from within and outside the company-group, are needed in order to establish a solid base of empirical data for generalisation. However, this paper makes a contribution both through describing how three companies manage PM change and through elaborating on the underlying factors affecting functionality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    IJBSAM
  • 28.
    Salloum, Mohammed
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    THE EVOLUTION OF A PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF A MANUFACTURING ORGANISATION2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the PMA 2012 Conference, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Lately several frameworks have emerged addressing how organisations can handle change in their performance measurement systems (PMS). However, less has been published addressing how much a PMS actually changes over time. With this background, the purpose of this paper is to present to what extent and why performance measures change at a large manufacturing organisation through a case study approach. The findings display that 40 per cent of the 141 identified PM had been created within a three-year period. Moreover, 60 per cent of all goal levels were altered annually or less. It was concluded that the changes in the PMS were mainly due to two reasons, changing environments and improvements of the measure and measurement process. The practical implication of the findings is that change in PMS can take place in scenarios when environments are perceived as stable and the organisation is focusing on implementing strategy. Few other empirical studies trying to determine the change rate in measurement systems exist today.

  • 29.
    Salloum, Mohammed
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    The evolution of a performance measurement system: an empirical investigation of a manufacturing organisation2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Salloum, Mohammed
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Performance measure review practice in heavy automotive industry – a dual perspective case study2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of performance measurement and management (PMM) it is well-established that more research is needed into understanding how change is managed in performance measures (PM) (Eccles, 1991; Ghalayini and Noble, 1996; Neely, 1999; Kennerley and Neely, 2002; Kennerley and Neely, 2003; Melnyk et al., 2004; Neely 2005; Bourne, 2008). Even though academics have risen to the challenge by proposing several performance measurement frameworks (Bititci et al., 2000; Bourne et al., 2000; Najmi et al., 2005; Kennerley et al., 2003) two shortcomings prevail in the contemporary thereotical base. Firstly, little research has focused on the applied practices of organisations in the industry for managing change. Secondly, the research available today takes on a management perspective rather than an organisation-wide equivalent. This has been acknowledged by Bourne (2008) that underlines the need for more collaborative research into understanding how organisations manage change in PM in practice. With these deficiencies in mind, the purpose of this paper is firstly to outline the PM review practice of an organisation within the heavy automotive industry from two perspectives, top-management and operational, and secondly to contrast the practice to theory. In order to do this, two case studies at one case company have been executed, one from each perspective. The heavy automotive industry, defined in this paper as the industry for buses, trucks, and construction equipment, is both interesting and appropriate to study in relation to the outlined phenomenon.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Salloum, Mohammed
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Performance measurement review practices: a dual perspective case study2013Inngår i: Conference on performance measurement and management control, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Karlsson, Helena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Presencing and Downloading: in Photo-supported Group Discussions on Innovation2017Inngår i: XXVIII ISPIM Innovation Conference ISPIM 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The overall research focus in the study is how photographs can be used in workplace innovation processes. This work-in-progress paper discusses photo-supported group discussions on innovation as an approach to incorporate employees in the development of a radically innovative culture. The method involves managers and engineers in a process that transforms their conceptions of innovation into visuals and words, and provides a possibility for collective reflection based on these formulations. Enabling all employees to use their experiences and knowledge in workplace innovation is an opportunity being pursued in Sweden. The paper is a starting point to discuss whether or not the method of photo supported discussion on innovation could be helpful to support a shift to a radically innovative culture. The concepts of downloading or presencing are introduced to analyse the method.

  • 33.
    Sundmark, Ove
    et al.
    Västerås Stad, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Performance in the Public Sector - Efficiency and Effectiveness of Payroll Services in Three Municipalities2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2012 Performance Measurement (PMA'2012) Conference, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Limiting Practices in Developing and Managing Software-Intensive Systems: A Comparative Study2010Inngår i: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, Phuket, Thailand, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the automotive industry, up to 90 percent of all new features are dependent on electronics and software. Consequently, the amount of software and electronics in vehicles is rapidly increasing. The same trend has been observed in other domains, such as telecom, avionics, trains, and more. An important factor in dealing with this inherent complexity is the use of a system architecture. The architecture is typically an enabler for both efficiency and effectiveness in the development of software-intensive systems but not directly connected to the customer needs. For example, the architecture can increase the agility of upcoming product releases in order to cost effectively satisfy future customer needs. By combining two parallel multiple case studies, one focusing on the architects view, and the other one focusing on the managerial perspective, we have identified six limitations. Our results indicate that the focus is on customer requirements for the current product, on the expense of the internal requirements related to the development of the architecture and long-term profitability. Further, even if the early phases of development are identified as a success criterion, they are still not given enough attention.

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