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  • 1.
    Ahlen, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eriksson, Markus
    Electrical Engineering, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Alf J.
    Automatic Control, Linköping University.
    Iwaki, Takuya
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knorn, Steffi
    Hamilton Institute, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Ireland.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Maintenance Technology Development, Iggesund Mill, Iggesund Paperboard, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toward Wireless Control in Industrial Process Automation: A Case Study at a Paper Mill2019Ingår i: IEEE Control Systems, ISSN 1066-033X, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 36-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensors and networks are used only occasionally in current control loops in the process industry. With rapid developments in embedded and highperformance computing, wireless communication, and cloud technology, drastic changes in the architecture and operation of industrial automation systems seem more likely than ever. These changes are driven by ever-growing demands on production quality and flexibility. However, as discussed in "Summary," there are several research obstacles to overcome. The radio communication environment in the process industry is often troublesome, as the environment is frequently cluttered with large metal objects, moving machines and vehicles, and processes emitting radio disturbances [1], [2]. The successful deployment of a wireless control system in such an environment requires careful design of communication links and network protocols as well as robust and reconfigurable control algorithms.

  • 2.
    Barac, Filip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Towards Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address the issues of timeliness and transmission reliability of existing industrial communication standards. We combine a Forward Error Correction coding schemeon the Medium Access Control layer with a lightweight routing protocol to form an IEEE 802.15.4-conformable solution, whichcan be implemented into already existing hardware without violating the standard. After laying the theoretical foundations,we conduct a performance evaluation of the proposed solution.The results show a substantial gain in reliability and reducedlatency, compared to the uncoded transmissions, as well ascommon Wireless Sensor Network routing protocols.

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  • 3.
    Barac, Filip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    A Lightweight Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2011Ingår i: IECON Proceedings, IEEE , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Carlsson, Lars Eric
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Integrating Wireless Systems into Process Industry and Business Management2010Ingår i: ETFA10 - IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology and Factory Automation, Bilbao, Spain, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze here the topic of integration, in the area of process automation, from sensor/actuator levels to plant management levels. The communication at fieldbus level is based on wireless technology while management applications run in wired control systems, but can also be distributed, communicating via the Internet. This work aims at building a real-life demonstrator at Boliden, a mining and smelting plant located in Boliden, Sweden.. A small process control environment is to be deployed at the plant to supervise a tank level control system. Targeted results are an interface between wireless and wired systems, the deployment of a wireless process control environment at Boliden, and the development of the enterprise business management facilities.

  • 5.
    Ericsson, N.
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lennvall, T.
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mats, Björkman
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A flexible communication stack design for time sensitive embedded systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2017, s. 1112-1117Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends like Internet of Things (IoT), 5G and Cloud are pushing for device connectivity to the Internet, which affects industrial embedded systems with e.g., an increase in code base and functionality. Due to different application requirements, there are relative little reuse between embedded systems with different run-time context (from super loop to multi-threaded), and different types of communication (best effort and real time). In order to improve code reuse and changeability, we propose a flexible communication stack design, that can be configured for time sensitive communication with a real-time operating system (RTOS), or configured for best effort communication with either a super loop or an operating system (OS). Experiments demonstrate the flexibility and simplicity of the design with different configurations, e.g., super loop, single threaded, multi-threaded. Measurements show that the variations in performance related to run-time context scales as expected. 

  • 6.
    Ericsson, N.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems, Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lennvall, T.
    Epiroc Rock Drills AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, S.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pei Breivold, Hongyu
    ABB AB, Robotics, Västerås, Sweden.
    A flexible communication stack design for improved software development on industrial testbeds and simulators2023Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 147, artikel-id 103873Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate deterministic behavior; industrial real-time communication stacks need another design than non-real-time communication stacks typically found in e.g., Internet of Things and Cloud solutions. We propose a flexible stack design that enable code reuse between testbeds and simulators, as well as how stack layers are driven and prioritized. The design can be generalized and used for non-real-time bare-metal solutions like battery powered Internet of Things. Our approach aims at extending the use of simulation during development of industrial systems in order to find logical errors and wrong assumptions earlier in the development. Conducted and evaluated experiments show that the proposed solutions are able to extend the use of simulation during development of real-time communication software. This is achieved by reusing the same code on an industrial testbed and in a discrete event simulator. In addition, the experiments show that the stack design is generalizable and enable reuse with other non-real-time embedded systems. The contribution consists of a set of building blocks for real-time systems that enable control over the system timing when executing on a simulation host while reusing the source code from an industrial testbed. Overall, this will improve the engineering situation, with respect to code reuse, flexibility and debugging. 

  • 7.
    Ericsson, N.
    et al.
    Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes Of Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lennvall, T.
    Epiroc Rock Drills AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, S.
    Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes Of Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pei-Breivold, H.
    Robotics, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Exploring ways to improve reuse between Industrial Embedded Systems and Discrete Event Simulators2021Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial real-time software is commonly evaluated on real embedded systems, while simulators are less used, since the abstraction level and purpose vary with for example, different programming languages and run-time contexts. This paper extends, applies, and evaluates previous work on a flexible task design that improve code reuse between discrete event simulators and embedded real-time systems. The paper focuses on two parts: (i) The performance cost of the proposed design in practice, by comparing the flexible task design with a traditional threaded approach. (ii) The potential of an alternative way to support legacy code in combination with discrete event simulation. The experiments indicate an almost negligible performance cost with respect to the real-time behavior, i.e., latency and jitter, while enabling improved code reuse between discrete event simulation and industrial embedded real-time systems. 

  • 8.
    Ericsson, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Custom simulation of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network for improved efficiency during Research and Development2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends like the Cloud, Internet of Things and 5G are pushing for an increase in connectivity, but, introducing a new type of network in an industrial distributed control system is a big investment with high risks. Time to market with sufficient quality is crucial. However, when getting through the Research and Development (R&D) phases, a lot of time is spent on isolated activates, e.g., simulations, collecting requirements, design, coding, debugging, creating testbeds, and performing various tests. Therefore, there is a need to improve efficiency when moving between the R&D phases. For verification and validation of communication software, the most common network evaluation method in industry are real testbeds, mostly since a testbed can be very similar to the deployed system. Testbeds are, however, hard to debug and costly to maintain. Other network evaluation methods like simulators, have some strengths that testbeds are lacking, like repeatability, control over the network, and lower cost. However, code from simulators can seldom be reused, especially in industrial time-sensitive target systems, due to different abstraction levels, run-time behavior and system timing. This paper presents findings from a case study that targets improved efficiency, getting from research theories, to deployed devices in a homogeneous Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (IWSAN). We propose a small subset of network simulators features which eases changeability, reuse, and debugging of communication software. The selected simulator features are evaluated with a proof of concept implementation that is customized to a research platform. The findings indicate improved efficiency when moving back and forth between activities in different R&D phases.

  • 9.
    Ericsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    Robotics, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Stig
    Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    Epiroc Rock Drills AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Improving Code Reuse between Industrial Embedded Systems and Discrete Event Simulators2021Ingår i: 2021 IEEE 19th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2021, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most evaluations of industrial real-time software are conducted on real embedded systems. The use of simulators that provides easily reproducible evaluations is often limited, due to different levels of abstraction, e.g., programming languages and run-time contexts. This paper extends previous work on a flexible task design, enabling tasks to be agnostic to run-time context, with evaluations conducted on bare-metal and real-time operating systems. Based on the same design and experiments we extend the proof-of-concept implementation in a discrete event simulation context, executing on a Windows based simulation host. Our experiments show that the flexible task design can be driven in a simulation run-time context, and still support typical industrial constructs. The result indicates that improved code reuse between discrete event simulators and industrial embedded systems is feasible.

  • 10.
    Fan, Xiaojing
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Sch Elect & Informat Engn, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Tao
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Sch Elect & Informat Engn, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Shangpeng
    McGill Univ, Dept Bioresource Engn, Macdonald Campus, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Informat Syst & Technol, Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Can Embedded Real-Time Linux System Effectively Support Multipath Transmission?: An Experimental Study2023Ingår i: 2023 IEEE 19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FACTORY COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, WFCS / [ed] Golatowski, F Ragavan, SKV Facchinetti, T Wisniewski, L Porta, M Scanzio, S, IEEE, 2023, s. 23-30Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of technologies such as 6G networks, edge computing, and the Industrial Internet has led to a dramatic increase in the amount of data that needs to be transmitted over heterogeneous integrated networks. The resources of embedded devices limit the ability of the Industrial Internet to transmit data. While the multipath transmission mechanism can mitigate data transmission issues of low reliability and low real-time performance from the network-level perspective. As the complexity of industry applications increases, however, the phenomenon that the high-quality data transmission is subject to the influence of the underlying layer is becoming increasingly apparent. The paper aims to explores the possibility of multipath transmission protocol running on a real-time kernel from the perspective of the operating system, as there is a lack of research and reports in this area. Based on RT-Preempt, a real-time system RT-Linux suitable for the "NXP i.MX6Q" ARM integrated board has been proposed, which replaces the native Linux kernel to optimize and enhance its real-time performance. As described in the experiment part, the original standard Linux system OR-Linux and the new RT-Linux are tested with single-threaded and multi-threaded load experiments, respectively. The results of the analysis show that this paper provides a way of validating the trial data and ensuring its accuracy using the lognormal distribution model, which is a statistical distribution used to model variables that are positive and skewed to the right. The RT-Linux scheme has better real-time performance and is more stable than the OR-Linux scheme after real-time processing, showing the viability of the scheme.

  • 11.
    Gore, Rahul Nandkumar
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Clock Synchronization in Future Industrial Networks: Applications, Challenges, and Directions2020Ingår i: 12th AEIT International Annual Conference, AEIT 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time synchronization is essential for the correct and consistent operation of automation systems. An inaccurate analysis being a consequence of improper synchronization, can affect automation functions, e.g., by producing false commands and warnings. Industrial systems are evolving from the rigid automation pyramid to a flexible and reconfigurable architecture due to market evolution. The new trends in Cyber-Physical-Systems (CPS), Industry 4.0, and Internet of Things (IoT) are enabling this evolution. Citing a need to understand the future synchronization requirements, this paper envisions the architecture, communication network, and applications of future automation systems. Built on this vision, the paper derives the future needs of synchronization and analyzes them with state-of-art synchronization means. Based on the analysis, we envision the future of synchronization systems for automation systems.

  • 12.
    Gore, Rahul Nandkumar
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    CoSiNeT: A Lightweight Clock Synchronization Algorithm for Industrial IoT2021Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems ICPS 2021, 2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in industrial internet of things~(IIoT) and cyber-physical systems drive Industry 4.0 and lead to advanced applications. The adequate performance of time-critical automation applications depends on a clock synchronization scheme used by control systems. Network packet delay variations adversely impact the clock synchronization performance. The impact is significant in industrial sites, where software and hardware resources heavily contribute to delay variations, and where harsh environmental conditions interfere with communication network dynamics. While existing time synchronization methods for IIoT devices, e.g., Simple Network Time Protocol~(SNTP), provide adequate synchronization in good operating conditions, their performance degrades significantly with deteriorating network conditions. To overcome this issue, we propose a scalable, software-based, lightweight clock synchronization method, called CoSiNeT, for IIoT devices that maintains precise synchronization performance in a wide range of operating conditions. We have conducted measurements in local network deployments such as home and a university campus in order to evaluate the proposed algorithm performance. The results show that CoSiNeT matches well with SNTP and state-of-the-art method in good network conditions in terms of accuracy and precision; however, it outperforms them in degrading network scenarios. In our measurements, in fair network conditions, CoSiNeT improves synchronization performance by 23% and 25% compared to SNTP and state-of-the-art method. In the case of poor network conditions, it improves performance by 43% and 26%, respectively.

  • 13.
    Gore, Rahul Nandkumar
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    CoSiWiNeT: A Clock Synchronization Algorithm for Wide Area IIoT Network2021Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 24, artikel-id 11985Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the industrial internet of things (IIoT) and cyber–physical systems drive Industry 4.0 and have led to remote monitoring and control applications that require factories to be connected to remote sites over wide area networks (WAN). The adequate performance of remote applications depends on the use of a clock synchronization scheme. Packet delay variations adversely impact the clock synchronization performance. This impact is significant in WAN as it comprises wired and wireless segments belonging to public and private networks, and such heterogeneity results in inconsistent delays. Highly accurate, hardware–based time synchronization solutions, global positioning system (GPS), and precision time protocol (PTP) are not preferred in WAN due to cost, environmental effects, hardware failure modes, and reliability issues. As a software–based network time protocol (NTP) overcomes these challenges but lacks accuracy, the authors propose a software–based clock synchronization method, called CoSiWiNeT, based on the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm that uses an iterative technique to estimate a correct offset from observed noisy data. To evaluate the algorithm’s performance, measurements captured in a WAN deployed within two cities were used in the simulation. The results show that the performance of the new algorithm matches well with NTP and state–of–the–art methods in good network conditions; however, it outperforms them in degrading network scenarios.

  • 14.
    Gore, Rahul Nandkumar
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Delay and Jitter Analysis in Industrial Control Systems: A Paper Mill Case Study2021Ingår i: 17th IEEE International Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS) WFCS'21, 2021, s. 99-106Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial control systems have strict requirements for time-sensitive applications and clock synchronization services. Performance of such applications is adversely impacted by packet delays and jitters. The impact is especially critical in process industries due to harsh environmental conditions. In this paper, we analyze delays and jitters to assess the performance of time-sensitive applications. To this end, we captured and analyzed round trip delay data retrieved from a paper factory. Analysis shows that a sub-millisecond level average delays and the jitters derived from the observed data are sufficient to meet the minimum 10ms update frequency required for most critical control applications. Moreover, the filtered delay variations at the end devices are less than the recommended 150us, which guarantees an adequate time synchronization accuracy in the factory network. Besides, this analysis can provide significant insights into performance bottlenecks for factory applications.

  • 15.
    Gore, Rahul Nandkumar
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    In Sync with Today's Industrial System Clocks2020Ingår i: 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems and NETworkS, COMSNETS 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, s. 785-790Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronization is essential for correct and consistent operation of automation systems. Synchronized devices accurately time-stamp the events and enable timely communication of messages over a communication network. In absence of a common time base, critical functions of automation systems cannot be carried out in a safe fashion. Unsynchronized systems may lead to malfunctions such as false alarms, wrong decisions and erroneous outcomes resulting into serious showstopper for plant operations. Despite technical advances in synchronization, industrial automation systems have lagged compared to telecommunication and financial services in utilization of latest synchronization technology. Thus, there is a need to investigate the adoption of synchronization in industrial networks, its current state and implementation problems. We carried out an extensive literature search in a structured way to study the evolution of synchronization in automation systems. We also investigated today's industrial automation systems and their network topologies to get insight into the synchronization techniques and mechanisms being used. As an outcome of study, the paper highlights the challenges related to synchronization in existing automation networks that need to be addressed in the immediate and short-term future. 

  • 16.
    Gore, Rahul Nandkumar
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Jitter Control in Multi-stage Wired Networks via a Sigma Traffic ShaperManuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Gore, Rahul Nandkumar
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Network Calculus Approach for Packet Delay Variation Analysis of Multi-Hop Wired Networks2022Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 21, artikel-id 11207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has revolutionized businesses by changing the way data are used to make products and services more efficient, reliable, and profitable. To achieve the improvement goals, the IIoT must guarantee the real-time performance of industrial applications such as motion control, by providing stringent quality of service (QoS) assurances for their (industrial applications) communication networks. An application or service may malfunction without adequate network QoS, resulting in potential product failures. Since an acceptable end-to-end delay and low jitter or packet delay variation (PDV) are closely related to quality of service (QoS), their impact is significant in ensuring the real-time performance of industrial applications. Although a communication network topology ensures certain jitter levels, its real-life performance is affected by dynamic traffic due to the changing number of devices, services, and applications present in the communication network. Hence, it is essential to study the jitter experienced by real-time traffic in the presence of background traffic and how it can be maintained within the limits to ensure a certain level of QoS. This paper presents a probabilistic network calculus approach that uses moment-generating functions to analyze the delay and PDV incurred by the traffic flows of interest in a wired packet switched multi-stage network. The presented work derives closed-form, end-to-end, probabilistic performance bounds for delay and PDV for several servers in series in the presence of background traffic. The PDV analysis conducted with the help of a Markovian traffic model for background traffic showed that the parameters from the background traffic significantly impact PDV and that PDV can be maintained under the limits by controlling the shape of the background traffic. For the studied configurations, the model parameters can change the PDV bound from 1 ms to 100 ms. The results indicated the possibility of using the model parameters as a shaper of the background traffic. Thus, the analysis can be beneficial in providing QoS assurances for real-time applications.

  • 18.
    Hagos Yitbarek, Yonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Implementation and Evaluation of Error Control Schemes in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2014, s. 730-755Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) have been increasingly adopted in process automation due to a number of advantages such as cost reduction and enhanced flexibility. Nevertheless, transmission over wireless channels in industrial environments is prone to interference, resulting in frequent erroneous packet deliveries. Existing IWSN standards based on the IEEE 802.15.4 specification only prescribe Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) for packet retransmission, without providing any means for error recovery, which leads to unexpected transmission delay. Forward Error Correction (FEC) code as an alternative approach is able to effectively improve reliability and reduce the number of retransmissions. However, FEC computation requires extra memory and processing time. In this paper, we discuss the timing constraints of employing FEC codes for IWSNs according to the IWSN standards. Then we benchmark a number of different FEC codes in a typical wireless sensor node in terms of memory consumption and processing time. Our results show that LDPC and Turbo code, as the state of the art FEC codes, fail to fulfill the requirement from the IWSN standards while other FEC candidates, such as RS code, are proven to be suitable for the practical implementation in IWSNs.

  • 19.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Research Institutes of Sweden, Industrial Systems, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Data-driven Method for In-band Network Telemetry Monitoring of Aggregated Traffic2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the vision of industry 4.0, industrial networks are expected to accommodate a large amount of aggregated traffic of both operation and information technologies to enable the integration of innovative services and new applications. In this respect, guaranteeing the uninterrupted operation of the installed systems is an indisputable condition for network management. Network measurement and performance monitoring of the underlying communication states can provide invaluable insight for safeguarding the system performance by estimating required and available resources for flexible integration without risking network interruption or degrading network performance. In this work, we propose a data-driven in-band telemetry method to monitor the aggregated traffic of the network at the switch level. The method learns and models the communication states by local network-level measurement of communication intensity. The approximated model parameters provide information for network management for prognostic purposes and congestion avoidance resource planning when integrating new applications. Applying the method also addresses the consequence of telemetry data overhead on QoS since the transmission of telemetry packets can be done based on the current state of the network. The monitoring at the switch level is a step towards the Network-AI for future industrial networks.

  • 20.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Division of Industrial Systems, RISE-Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    From brown-field to future industrial networks, a case study2021Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikel-id 3231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The network infrastructures in the future industrial networks need to accommodate, manage and guarantee performance to meet the converged Internet technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) traffics requirements. The pace of IT-OT networks development has been slow despite their considered benefits in optimizing the performance and enhancing information flows. The hindering factors vary from general challenges in performance management of the diverse traffic for green-field configuration to lack of outlines for evolving from brown-fields to the converged network. Focusing on the brown-field, this study provides additional insight into a brown-field characteristic to set a baseline that enables the subsequent step development towards the future’s expected converged networks. The case study highlights differences between real-world network behavior and the common assumptions for analyzing the network traffic covered in the literature. Considering the unsatisfactory performance of the existing methods for characterization of brownfield traffic, a performance and dynamics mixture measurement is proposed. The proposed method takes both IT and OT traffic into consideration and reduces the complexity, and consequently improves the flexibility, of performance and configuration management of the brown-field.

  • 21.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Systems, RISE—Research Institutes of Sweden, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Modeling and Profiling of Aggregated Industrial Network Traffic2022Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id 667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial network infrastructures are transforming to a horizontal architecture to enable data availability for advanced applications and enhance flexibility for integrating new tech-nologies. The uninterrupted operation of the legacy systems needs to be ensured by safeguarding their requirements in network configuration and resource management. Network traffic modeling is essential in understanding the ongoing communication for resource estimation and configuration management. The presented work proposes a two-step approach for modeling aggregated traffic classes of brownfield installation. It first detects the repeated work-cycles and then aims to identify the operational states to profile their characteristics. The performance and influence of the approach are evaluated and validated in two experimental setups with data collected from an industrial plant in operation. The comparative results show that the proposed method successfully captures the temporal and spatial dynamics of the network traffic for characterization of various communication states in the operational work-cycles. 

  • 22.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Landernäs, Krister
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Industrial WSN Standards2013Ingår i: Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, Standards, and Products / [ed] V. Çağrı Güngör; Gerhard P. Hancke, CRC Press, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Lindgren, A.
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Poster: Feasibility of ICN in automation networks2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Challenged Networks, co-located with MobiCom 201720 October 2017, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, s. 33-34Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an industrial automation environment, there are many sensors generating large volumes of data. Both time-critical data for realtime control as well as less time-critical data for central monitoring and log data need to co-exist in the system with often harsh wireless environments. Thus, available capacity may be low, causing congestion problems and long latencies for by traffic with less stringent timing requirements. In this paper, we consider the feasibility of using Information Centric Networking in industrial automation networks in order to improve efficiency in distribution of data and reduce latency.

  • 24.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gutiérrez, Marina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Protecting Clock Synchronization: Adversary Detection through Network Monitoring2016Ingår i: Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ISSN 2090-0147, E-ISSN 2090-0155, artikel-id 6297476Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, industrial networks are often used for safetycritical applications with real-time requirements. The architecture of such applications usually has a time-triggered nature that has message scheduling as a core property. Real-time scheduling can be applied only in networks where nodes share the same notion of time, i.e., they are synchronized. Therefore, clock synchronization is one of the fundamental assets of industrial networks with real-time requirements. However, standards for clock synchronization, i.e., IEEE 1588, do not provide the required level of security. This raises the question about clock synchronization protection. In this paper we identify a way to break synchronization based on the IEEE 1588 standard by conducting a man-in-the-middle (MIM) attack followed by a delay attack. MIM attack can be accomplished through e.g., Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) poisoning. Using AVISPA tool we evaluate the potential to perform an ARP poisoning attack. Next, an analysis of the consequences of introducing delays is made, showing both that the attack can, indeed, break clock synchronization and that some design choices, such as a relaxed synchronization condition mode, delay bounding and using knowledge of environmental conditions, can be made to make the network more robust/resilient against these kinds of attacks. Lastly, network monitoring is proposed as a technique to detect anomalies introduced by an adversary performing attacks targeting clock synchronization. The monitoring capabilities are added to the network using a Configuration Agent, which, based on data obtained from the network, is able to detect an attack. The main contribution of the paper is a detailed problem description and evaluation of a security vulnerability in IEEE 1588 against delay attacks together with an evaluation of several approaches as possible mitigation techniques for the attack.

  • 25.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Steiner, W.
    TTech Computertecnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Game theory applied to secure clock synchronization with IEEE 15882016Ingår i: IEEE International Symposium on Precision Clock Synchronization for Measurement, Control, and Communication, ISPCS, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications usually have real-time requirements or high precision timing demands. For such applications, clock synchronization is one of the main assets that needs to be protected against malicious attacks. To provide sufficient accuracy for distributed time-critical applications, appropriate techniques for preventing or mitigating delay attacks that breach clock synchronization are needed. In this paper, we apply game theory to investigate possible strategies of an adversary, performing attacks targeting clock synchronization on the one hand and a network monitor, aiming to detect anomalies introduced by the adversary on the other. We investigate the interconnection of payoffs for both sides and propose the quarantine mode as a mitigation technique. Delay attacks with constant, linearly increasing, and randomly introduced delays are considered, and we show how the adversary strategy can be estimated by evaluating the detection coefficient, giving the network monitor the possibility to deploy appropriate protection techniques.

  • 26.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Survey of Security Frameworks Suitable for Distributed Control Systems2015Ingår i: International Conference on Computing and Network Communications CoCoNet'15, 2015, s. 205-211Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays distributed control systems have become more and more common and important in everyday life. However, as many distributed control systems become mobile, wireless, autonomous, ubiquitous and connected, the need for secure communication is imminent. In particular, the need for a general security framework with sufficiently flexible structure, and applicable for various use cases, emerges. Especially this applies to control system based on heterogeneous networks consisting of a wired and a wireless parts. Wired networks are nowadays often connected to Internet and thereby more exposed to potential attackers, and wireless networks are, by nature, more vulnerable to eavesdropping, jamming and hijacking. In this paper we define a scope of use cases based on distributed control, together with requirements for evaluating existing security solutions and frameworks. In addition, several frameworks, mainly from the area of industrial automation, are surveyed and evaluated based on the identified use cases and security requirements.

  • 27.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Risk Evaluation of an ARP Poisoning Attack on Clock Synchronization for Industrial Applications2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2016, Vol. may, s. 872-878, artikel-id 7474866Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, mixed wireless and wired networks are used everywhere in everyday life, including in industry where they often support time-critical applications. Industrial applications with high precision requirements are subject to real-time constraints, and thus one of the main assets, regardless of application area, is clock synchronization. Considering such networks, synchronization is the first thing to secure against a possible malicious adversary. In this paper, we consider ARP poisoning as a possible technique to disrupt clock synchronization and evaluate the effects of such an attack on the IEEE 1588 standard. We describe possible ways of performing ARP poisoning to disrupt synchronization and survey several mitigation techniques and their applicability within the industrial application area.

  • 28.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Monitoring of Clock Synchronization in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Sensitivity Analysis2017Ingår i: International Conference on Internet of Things, Embedded Systems and Communications 2017 IINTEC 2017, 2017, s. 134-139Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clock synchronization is a core asset to protect when securing cyber-physical systems with a time-triggered architecture. One of the most challenging attacks to protect against is a delay attack, where an adversary delays one of the synchronization messages, making node offset calculations incorrect for keeping clocks synchronized. One way to detect a breach of clock synchronization is by monitoring the offsets calculated in a node according to the clock synchronization algorithm. The analysis in this work assumes that the distributed nodes need to share the same notion of time and for this reason, uses the IEEE 1588 standard. Using this approach, a monitor needs to make a decision about if and when a node is under attack, in which case rules and methods for decision making should be put in place. There are many aspects to consider when setting thresholds for the monitored values in order to make such a decision. In this work we conduct an analysis of monitor indicators and an investigation of their applicability. Further, we identify dependencies within the proposed monitoring approach and conduct a sensitivity analysis of the parameters needed to make a decision about a system being under attack. The analysis outcomes allow to identify important parameters to consider while thresholding indicators and enables a greater generality in their applicability.

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  • 29.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards secure wireless TTEthernet for industrial process automation applications2014Ingår i: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, s. Article number 7005310-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    TTEthernet is a communication platform which builds on Ethernet, but extends it to include fault-tolerance and real-time mechanisms. The existing TTEthernet technology is developed for wired networks. A natural step for improving and extending the current application field is the introduction of a mixed wired and wireless network. However, this step requires research both about possible adaptation of existing systems as well as implementation of new technologies. A central research question is the security aspects of real-time sensor networks using wired and wireless technologies based on TTEthernet. In this paper, we identify and classify the most important aspects to consider in order to provide secure communications in such safety-critical industrial applications and propose a potential solution to address identified issues.

  • 30.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mats, Björkman
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Delay attack versus clock synchronization - A time chase2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2017, s. 1136-1141Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clock synchronization is one of the most essential assets for distributed real-time systems, as sensing, control and actuation require synchronized communication to meet real-time deadlines. We propose a distributed monitoring method to detect if an adversary is interfering with the clock synchronization protocol. The monitor uses certain network indicators and a set of rules to decide about switching between Normal, Quarantine or Attack Detected states. Further, we propose a way to define thresholds for decision-making based on theoretical analysis of the indicator values influenced by an attack. In addition, we formulate the problem of adversary influence detection in the network as a detection theory problem and use it to derive an additional indicator for the network monitor. Finally, we analyze the time chase between the monitor and an adversary to investigate which factors influence the final outcome. 

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  • 31.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Game Theory Applied to Secure Clock Synchronization with IEEE 15882016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32. Norgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Styrud, Jonathan
    Isaksson, Alf J.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Industrial Evaluation of Process Control using Non-periodic Sampling2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Pang, Z.
    et al.
    Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gidlund, M.
    Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    An RTOS-based architecture for industrial wireless sensor network stacks with multi-processor support2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2013, s. 1216-1221Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of industrial wireless sensor network (IWSN) stacks requires the adoption of real time operation system (RTOS). Challenges exist especially in timing integrity and multi-processor support. As a solution, we propose an RTOS-based architecture for IWSN stacks with multi-processor support. It offers benefits in terms of platform independency, product life cycle, safety and security, system integration complexity, and performance scalability. An implemented WirelessHART stack has proven the feasibility of the proposed architecture in practical product design. And future challenges as well as suggestions to standard improvement are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 34.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Blom, Rolf
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Applicability of LTE Public Key Infrastructure based device authentication in Industrial Plants2015Ingår i: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications ConferenceVolume 2,, 2015, s. 510-515Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The security in industrial automation domain using cryptography mechansims is being discussed in both industry and academia. An efficient key management system is required to support cryptography for both symmetric key and public/private key encryption. The key managment should ensure that the device is verified before distributing the initial key parameters to devices. The software/firmware used in the device comes from manufacturers, therefore the initial authenticity of the device can be easily verified with the help of manufacturers. Mobile telecommunication is an industrial segment where wireless devices are being used for a long time and the security of the wireless device management has been considered through a standard driven approach. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse the security authentication mechanisms used in mobile communication, specified in Long-Term-Evolution (LTE) standard. This paper analyses the initial device authentication using public key infrastructure in LTE standard, and discusses if, where and how the studied solutions can be tailored for device authenticity verification in industrial plant automation systems.

  • 35.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, M.
    Mittuniversitet.
    Assessing Security, Capacity and Reachability of a Heterogeneous Industrial Network during Planning Phase2016Ingår i: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Security and Safety, E-ISSN 2032-9393, Vol. 16, nr 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an industrial plant, there is usually a mix of devices with different levels of security features and computation capabilities. If a mix of devices with various degrees of security features and capabilities communicate, the overall network dynamics with respect to security and network performance will be complex. A secure communication path with high latency and low bandwidth may not satisfy the operational requirements in a plant. Therefore, there is a need to assess the relation of security and network performance for overall plant operation. In this work we focus on identifying an optimal flow path between two devices in a multi-hop heterogeneous network. We propose a model and an algorithm to estimate and generate a network path identified by flow performance indicators of a heterogeneous communication network. Through an example, we show how the flow performance metrics change with security, capacity and reachability of the devices in the network.

  • 36.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Initial key distribution for industrial wireless sensor networks2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2013, s. 1309-1314Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In any security design, the initial secret distribution for further key management solution is a major step. In industrial wireless sensor networks also, initial bootstrapping of the trust in the system is a major concern. The plant can be assumed to be a closed system, where only authenticated and trusted users are allowed to enter. However, wireless being the broadcast medium, wireless devices need to validate their identity to join the networks. So, there is a need for importing some initial secret key to the devices, so that they can be authenticated during the joining process. The standards for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WirelessHART, ISA100.11a) also have left to the user the initial distribution of the key for joining during device provisioning. In this paper, the current industry practice and the pre-requisite of key distribution in industrial wireless sensor networks is discussed and an outline is presented for future research directions. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 37.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. ABB Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    An Industrial Device Deployment Framework using the Initial Trust Establishment WorkflowIngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Balancing Network Performance and Network Security in a Smart Grid Application2016Ingår i: 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN 2016, 2016, Vol. jan, s. 618-624, artikel-id 7819235Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A key aspect of realizing the future smart grid communication solution is a balanced approach between the network performance and the network security during the network deployment. A high security communication flow path is not useful when the network path cannot support capacity and reachability requirements. The deployment phase in communication network can facilitate an optimal network path by focusing on both the network performance and the network security at the same time. In this paper, we describe a use case of smart grid application where security, network capacity and reachability needs to be optimal for successful network operation. We explain our proposed balancing approach of the network performance and the network security which can be useful for the optimal smart grid secure system design.

  • 39.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Bangalore, India.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Employee Trust Based Industrial Device Deployment and Initial Key Establishment2016Ingår i: International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications, ISSN 0975-2307, E-ISSN 0974-9330, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 21-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient key management system is required to support cryptography. Most key management systems use either pre-installed shared keys or install initial security parameters using out-of-band channels. These methods create an additional burden for engineers who manage the devices in industrial plants. Hence, device deployment in industrial plants becomes a challenging task in order to achieve security. In this work, we present a device deployment framework that can support key management using the existing trust towards employees in a plant. This approach reduces the access to initial security parameters by employees; rather it helps to bind the trust of the employee with device commissioning. Thus, this approach presents a unique solution to the device deployment problem. Further, through a proof-of-concept implementation and security analysis using the AVISPA tool, we present that our framework is feasible to implement and satisfies our security objectives.

  • 40.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Future Research Challenges of Secure Heterogeneous Industrial Communication Networks2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing concern of cyber threats towards industrial plants has prompted industrial practitioners to focus on secure communication solutions which can protect their systems from vulnerabilities and as well as their brand image. The security concerns and the solutions for industrial communication networks have become well-discussed topics in research communities. Despite a huge research effort in the area of industrial communication network security, there are several issues that need to be addressed properly such that a unified security solution can be adopted in the industrial domain. In this article, we aim to outline the research direction for industrial communication security. Though security is considered as an on-going process, the major issues that still need to be addressed are trust management for heterogeneous networks, managing network performance with security requirements, usable security and key management.

  • 41.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    POSTER: An approach to Assess Security, Capacity and Reachability for Heterogeneous Industrial Networks2015Ingår i: 11th EAI International Conference on Security and Privacy in Communication Networks SecureComm15, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial plants are heterogeneous networks with different computation and communication capabilities along with different security properties. The optimal operation of a plant requires a balance between communication capabilities and security features. A secure communication data flow with high latency and low bandwidth does not provide the required efficiency in a plant. Therefore, we focus on assessing the relation of security, capacity and timeliness properties of an industrial network for overall network performance.

  • 42.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Towards Security Assurance for Heterogeneous Industrial Networks2015Ingår i: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2015, s. 4488-4493, artikel-id 7392799Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial networks have a mix of devices with different security properties. If a mix of devices with various degrees of security features and capabilities communicate, the overall network dynamics with respect to device trust and security of message exchange will be complex. Therefore, there is a need to understand the trust and risk probabilities of devices in a heterogeneous network. This is required for heterogeneous network where the network configuration has to be made based on how trustworthy they are. In this work we focus on assessing security risks for devices and message exchanges. We define the term emph{assurance value} to denote the resilience of a device to security attacks. We study the behavior of a communication network when devices with various degrees of security features exchange messages. We aim to identify the network security properties based on the network architecture. From the study, we propose a model to estimate and predict network security properties in a heterogeneous communication network.

  • 43.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Towards Trustworthiness Assessment of Industrial Heterogeneous Networks2015Ingår i: 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial plants, there is a mix of devices with different security features and capabilities. If there is a mix of devices with various degree of security levels, then this will create independent islands in a network with similar levels of security features. However, the industrial plant is interconnected for the purpose of reducing cost of monitoring with a centralized control center. Therefore, the different islands also need to communicate with each other to improve the asset management efficiency in a plant. In this work we aim to focus on the trustworthiness assessment of devices in industrial plant networks in term of node value. We study the behavior of industrial plant networks when devices with various degrees of security features communicate. We aim to identify network properties which influence the overall network behavior. From the study, we have found that the communication path, the order of different communication paths and the number of specific types of nodes affect the final trustworthiness of devices in the network.

  • 44.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Solution for Industrial Device Commissioning along with the Initial Trust Establishment2013Ingår i: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), 2013, s. 5570-5575Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial device commissioning along with the initial distribution of keying material is an important step for the security of industrial plants. An efficient key management system is required in cryptography for both symmetric key or public/private key encryption. Most of the key management system use either pre-installed shared keys or install keys using out-of-band channels. In addition to that, the sensor devices both wired and wireless need to be verified whether it is connected to the correct physical entity since these devices are linked with the physical world. Therefore in industrial plants there is a requirement to automate the trust bootstrapping process, where the devices from upper level in communication network will be aware that the communication device from below level is trusted. In this work, we present a workflow that uses the existing trust mechanism on employees to enable the initial bootstrap of trust in the devices, and also optionally support the commissioning engineer to download the required configuration data in the device as well. Thus, this approach presents a unique solution to the initial trust distribution problem reusing the existing features and facilities in industrial plants

  • 45.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tremlet, Christophe
    Maxim Integrated.
    Reusability assessment of financial card readers’ security mechanisms in process control devices2013Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 2013, s. 494-499Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The security of industrial plants has gained a lot of importance since the last decade. The reason is that the different components from different network layers of automation systems have become inter-connected to support fast and cost-effective decisions at the management level. This inter-connectivity has posed many security challenges in this industrial segment. To achieve effective security mechanisms in industrial plants, there is a need to learn from other existing domains, matured in terms of security, whether existing matured security solutions can be reused in the industrial automation domain. The financial sector is a segment where security has been carefully managed since a long time, as security is very important for that sector. Therefore it would be beneficial to evaluate the security mechanisms present in financial card readers which are involved in financial transactions because these card readers have many similar characteristics with industrial process control devices. In this paper, the security requirements for both the field devices of industrial plants and card reader terminals of the financial sector have been evaluated to understand the security gap so that we can identify the areas where the security needs of industrial plants must be improved and where some of the existing security features of card reader terminals can be reused in field devices of industrial plants.

  • 46.
    Silva, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Pang, Zhibo
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Neander, Jonas
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Hancke, Gerhard P
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Experimental study of UWB-based high precision localization for industrial applications2014Ingår i: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, 2014, s. 280-285Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in wireless sensor networks have inspired applications which require high accuracy localization. Impulse radio ultra wide-band technology has a fine time resolution, allowing accurate determination of the time of arrival at the receiver, making it a serious contender for accurate ranging, in comparison to narrow-band technologies. In this paper, we present a UWB based 3D real-time indoor positioning system with 802.15.4a compliant wireless nodes. Results from measurement campaigns reveal that for line-of-sight (LOS) scenarios 11 cm accuracy and 2 cm precision without any postprocessing (i.e. filtering) are possible, hence demonstrating the capability of accurate UWB-based localization using trilateration, resulting in a fast and non-complex algorithm that provides highprecision positioning. The proposed system presents an initial step in developing a high precision system for localization in industrial applications.

  • 47.
    Silva, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Pang, Zhibo
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Neander, Jonas
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Hancke, Gerhard P
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Positioning infrastructure for industrial automation systems based on UWB wireless communication2014Ingår i: Proceedings, IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2014, s. 3919-3925Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In various industrial automation applications, positioning enables location awareness which can be exploited in applications such as robotic precision control, amongst others. This paper discussespositioning for industrial automation applications. Examples of applications from an infrastructure perspective are presented, and the integration of high precision positioning technology into existing network infrastructure for such applications is discussed, as well as challenges involved. An impulse-radio ultra-wideband 802.15.4a based system for high accuracy/precision positioning is presented, which shows promising results, therefore motivating the use of UWB as a high accuracy and precision technology for positioning applications in future industrial automation systems.

  • 48.
    Taylor, James H.
    et al.
    University of New Brunswick, Canada.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Ibrahim, Hazem M. S.
    University of New Brunswick, Canada.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB.
    Safe and Secure Wireless Networked Control Systems2012Ingår i: Proc. IEEE Multiconference on Systems and Control, 2012, s. 871-878Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technology has gained much interestin industrial automation due to its flexibility, mobility, easeof installation, and lower cost. Wireless systems, in general,require additional and different engineering and maintenancetasks, for example cryptographic key management for security.The pace of application in process control has been impeded,however, by concern about the risks involved in incorporatingwireless paths in feedback loops and making the accommoda-tions necessary for reliable control. The issue is that there areconflicts between maintaining control loop performance andthe usual objectives in managing a wireless sensor network.In this paper, we take a holistic approach that addressessafety, reliability and security in two primary aspects: com-munication and control; thus we hope to contribute a morecomplete roadmap for developing safe and secure wireless net-worked control systems. This proposed framework representsa synthesis of two formerly separate bodies of research, oneprimarily focussed on communication requirements for safetyand security and the other on safe and reliable controls.

  • 49.
    Tran, Hung
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corp Res, Västerås, Sweden..
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Västerås, Sweden..
    Tran, Ha-Vu
    Univ Quebec, ETS Engn Sch, LACIME Lab, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    RF energy harvesting: an analysis of wireless sensor networks for reliable communication2019Ingår i: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 185-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider a wireless energy harvesting network consisting of one hybrid access point (HAP) having multiple antennas, and multiple sensor nodes each equipped with a single antenna. In contrast to conventional uplink wireless networks, the sensor nodes in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to recharge the energy from the wireless signals broadcasted by the HAP in order to communicate. Based on the point-to-point and multipoints-to-point model, we propose two medium access control protocols, namely harvesting at the header of timeslot (HHT) and harvesting at the dedicated timeslot (HDT), in which the sensor nodes harvest energy from the HAP in the downlink, and then transform its stored packet into bit streams to send to the HAP in the uplink. Considering a deadline for each packet, the cumulative distribution functions of packet transmission time of the proposed protocols are derived for the selection combining and maximal ratio combining (MRC) techniques at the HAP. Subsequently, analytical expressions for the packet timeout probability and system reliability are obtained to analyze the performance of proposed protocols. Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as energy harvesting efficiency coefficient, sensor positions, transmit signal-to-noise ratio, and the length of energy harvesting time on the packet timeout probability and the system reliability are extensively investigated. Our results show that the performance of the HDT protocol outperforms the one using the HHT protocol, and the HDT protocol with the MRC technique has the best performance and it can be a potential solution to enhance the reliability for wireless sensor networks.

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  • 50.
    Valieva, Inna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Shashidhar, Bharath
    Voitenko, Iurii
    Electronics Development Wireless P2P Technologies, Falun, Sweden.
    AUTONOMOUS DETECTION OF VACANT FREQUENCY BANDS FOR COGNITIVE RADIOManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This This paper is focused on thea utonomous detection of the vacant frequency channels in the wide observation band of 60MHz. Vacant channel detection has been modeled as a binary hypothesis testing problem. Three signal detection algorithms including energy detection, wavelets, and cyclostationary have been tested and evaluated in terms of accuracy.Testing has been performed offline on the data samples collected during the controlled experiment. Data samples consisting of AWGN noise and FSK, BPSK, QPSK modulated signals have been generated using thehardware signal generator and received on our targetapplication's receiver (AD9364) front end as a time domain complex signal. The optimal threshold value hasbeen determined as an optimal value between the hitrate and the false positive rate. The highest accuracy of 91.0% has been reached the wavelet transform feature extraction, energy detection has shown 86.4% accuracy. Cyclostationary detection has shown no distinguishable difference in the spectrum correlation values calculatedfor the AWGN noise sample and samples containing BPSK and 2FSK modulated signals captured with -20dB power.

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