mdh.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 62
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Barac, Filip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address the issues of timeliness and transmission reliability of existing industrial communication standards. We combine a Forward Error Correction coding schemeon the Medium Access Control layer with a lightweight routing protocol to form an IEEE 802.15.4-conformable solution, whichcan be implemented into already existing hardware without violating the standard. After laying the theoretical foundations,we conduct a performance evaluation of the proposed solution.The results show a substantial gain in reliability and reducedlatency, compared to the uncoded transmissions, as well ascommon Wireless Sensor Network routing protocols.

  • 2.
    Barac, Filip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    A Lightweight Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2011In: IECON Proceedings, IEEE , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Lars Eric
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Integrating Wireless Systems into Process Industry and Business Management2010In: ETFA10 - IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology and Factory Automation, Bilbao, Spain, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze here the topic of integration, in the area of process automation, from sensor/actuator levels to plant management levels. The communication at fieldbus level is based on wireless technology while management applications run in wired control systems, but can also be distributed, communicating via the Internet. This work aims at building a real-life demonstrator at Boliden, a mining and smelting plant located in Boliden, Sweden.. A small process control environment is to be deployed at the plant to supervise a tank level control system. Targeted results are an interface between wireless and wired systems, the deployment of a wireless process control environment at Boliden, and the development of the enterprise business management facilities.

  • 4.
    Ericsson, N.
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lennvall, T.
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mats, Björkman
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A flexible communication stack design for time sensitive embedded systems2017In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2017, p. 1112-1117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends like Internet of Things (IoT), 5G and Cloud are pushing for device connectivity to the Internet, which affects industrial embedded systems with e.g., an increase in code base and functionality. Due to different application requirements, there are relative little reuse between embedded systems with different run-time context (from super loop to multi-threaded), and different types of communication (best effort and real time). In order to improve code reuse and changeability, we propose a flexible communication stack design, that can be configured for time sensitive communication with a real-time operating system (RTOS), or configured for best effort communication with either a super loop or an operating system (OS). Experiments demonstrate the flexibility and simplicity of the design with different configurations, e.g., super loop, single threaded, multi-threaded. Measurements show that the variations in performance related to run-time context scales as expected. 

  • 5.
    Ericsson, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Custom simulation of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network for improved efficiency during Research and Development2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends like the Cloud, Internet of Things and 5G are pushing for an increase in connectivity, but, introducing a new type of network in an industrial distributed control system is a big investment with high risks. Time to market with sufficient quality is crucial. However, when getting through the Research and Development (R&D) phases, a lot of time is spent on isolated activates, e.g., simulations, collecting requirements, design, coding, debugging, creating testbeds, and performing various tests. Therefore, there is a need to improve efficiency when moving between the R&D phases. For verification and validation of communication software, the most common network evaluation method in industry are real testbeds, mostly since a testbed can be very similar to the deployed system. Testbeds are, however, hard to debug and costly to maintain. Other network evaluation methods like simulators, have some strengths that testbeds are lacking, like repeatability, control over the network, and lower cost. However, code from simulators can seldom be reused, especially in industrial time-sensitive target systems, due to different abstraction levels, run-time behavior and system timing. This paper presents findings from a case study that targets improved efficiency, getting from research theories, to deployed devices in a homogeneous Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (IWSAN). We propose a small subset of network simulators features which eases changeability, reuse, and debugging of communication software. The selected simulator features are evaluated with a proof of concept implementation that is customized to a research platform. The findings indicate improved efficiency when moving back and forth between activities in different R&D phases.

  • 6.
    Hagos Yitbarek, Yonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Implementation and Evaluation of Error Control Schemes in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2014, p. 730-755Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) have been increasingly adopted in process automation due to a number of advantages such as cost reduction and enhanced flexibility. Nevertheless, transmission over wireless channels in industrial environments is prone to interference, resulting in frequent erroneous packet deliveries. Existing IWSN standards based on the IEEE 802.15.4 specification only prescribe Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) for packet retransmission, without providing any means for error recovery, which leads to unexpected transmission delay. Forward Error Correction (FEC) code as an alternative approach is able to effectively improve reliability and reduce the number of retransmissions. However, FEC computation requires extra memory and processing time. In this paper, we discuss the timing constraints of employing FEC codes for IWSNs according to the IWSN standards. Then we benchmark a number of different FEC codes in a typical wireless sensor node in terms of memory consumption and processing time. Our results show that LDPC and Turbo code, as the state of the art FEC codes, fail to fulfill the requirement from the IWSN standards while other FEC candidates, such as RS code, are proven to be suitable for the practical implementation in IWSNs.

  • 7.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Landernäs, Krister
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Industrial WSN Standards2013In: Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, Standards, and Products / [ed] V. Çağrı Güngör; Gerhard P. Hancke, CRC Press, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Lindgren, A.
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Poster: Feasibility of ICN in automation networks2017In: Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Challenged Networks, co-located with MobiCom 201720 October 2017, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 33-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an industrial automation environment, there are many sensors generating large volumes of data. Both time-critical data for realtime control as well as less time-critical data for central monitoring and log data need to co-exist in the system with often harsh wireless environments. Thus, available capacity may be low, causing congestion problems and long latencies for by traffic with less stringent timing requirements. In this paper, we consider the feasibility of using Information Centric Networking in industrial automation networks in order to improve efficiency in distribution of data and reduce latency.

  • 9.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gutiérrez, Marina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Protecting Clock Synchronization: Adversary Detection through Network Monitoring2016In: Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ISSN 2090-0147, E-ISSN 2090-0155, article id 6297476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, industrial networks are often used for safetycritical applications with real-time requirements. The architecture of such applications usually has a time-triggered nature that has message scheduling as a core property. Real-time scheduling can be applied only in networks where nodes share the same notion of time, i.e., they are synchronized. Therefore, clock synchronization is one of the fundamental assets of industrial networks with real-time requirements. However, standards for clock synchronization, i.e., IEEE 1588, do not provide the required level of security. This raises the question about clock synchronization protection. In this paper we identify a way to break synchronization based on the IEEE 1588 standard by conducting a man-in-the-middle (MIM) attack followed by a delay attack. MIM attack can be accomplished through e.g., Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) poisoning. Using AVISPA tool we evaluate the potential to perform an ARP poisoning attack. Next, an analysis of the consequences of introducing delays is made, showing both that the attack can, indeed, break clock synchronization and that some design choices, such as a relaxed synchronization condition mode, delay bounding and using knowledge of environmental conditions, can be made to make the network more robust/resilient against these kinds of attacks. Lastly, network monitoring is proposed as a technique to detect anomalies introduced by an adversary performing attacks targeting clock synchronization. The monitoring capabilities are added to the network using a Configuration Agent, which, based on data obtained from the network, is able to detect an attack. The main contribution of the paper is a detailed problem description and evaluation of a security vulnerability in IEEE 1588 against delay attacks together with an evaluation of several approaches as possible mitigation techniques for the attack.

  • 10.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, E.
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards secure wireless TTEthernet for industrial process automation applications2014In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, p. Article number 7005310-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TTEthernet is a communication platform which builds on Ethernet, but extends it to include fault-tolerance and real-time mechanisms. The existing TTEthernet technology is developed for wired networks. A natural step for improving and extending the current application field is the introduction of a mixed wired and wireless network. However, this step requires research both about possible adaptation of existing systems as well as implementation of new technologies. A central research question is the security aspects of real-time sensor networks using wired and wireless technologies based on TTEthernet. In this paper, we identify and classify the most important aspects to consider in order to provide secure communications in such safety-critical industrial applications and propose a potential solution to address identified issues.

  • 11.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steiner, W.
    TTech Computertecnik AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Game theory applied to secure clock synchronization with IEEE 15882016In: IEEE International Symposium on Precision Clock Synchronization for Measurement, Control, and Communication, ISPCS, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications usually have real-time requirements or high precision timing demands. For such applications, clock synchronization is one of the main assets that needs to be protected against malicious attacks. To provide sufficient accuracy for distributed time-critical applications, appropriate techniques for preventing or mitigating delay attacks that breach clock synchronization are needed. In this paper, we apply game theory to investigate possible strategies of an adversary, performing attacks targeting clock synchronization on the one hand and a network monitor, aiming to detect anomalies introduced by the adversary on the other. We investigate the interconnection of payoffs for both sides and propose the quarantine mode as a mitigation technique. Delay attacks with constant, linearly increasing, and randomly introduced delays are considered, and we show how the adversary strategy can be estimated by evaluating the detection coefficient, giving the network monitor the possibility to deploy appropriate protection techniques.

  • 12.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Survey of Security Frameworks Suitable for Distributed Control Systems2015In: International Conference on Computing and Network Communications CoCoNet'15, 2015, p. 205-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays distributed control systems have become more and more common and important in everyday life. However, as many distributed control systems become mobile, wireless, autonomous, ubiquitous and connected, the need for secure communication is imminent. In particular, the need for a general security framework with sufficiently flexible structure, and applicable for various use cases, emerges. Especially this applies to control system based on heterogeneous networks consisting of a wired and a wireless parts. Wired networks are nowadays often connected to Internet and thereby more exposed to potential attackers, and wireless networks are, by nature, more vulnerable to eavesdropping, jamming and hijacking. In this paper we define a scope of use cases based on distributed control, together with requirements for evaluating existing security solutions and frameworks. In addition, several frameworks, mainly from the area of industrial automation, are surveyed and evaluated based on the identified use cases and security requirements.

  • 13.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Risk Evaluation of an ARP Poisoning Attack on Clock Synchronization for Industrial Applications2016In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2016, Vol. may, p. 872-878, article id 7474866Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, mixed wireless and wired networks are used everywhere in everyday life, including in industry where they often support time-critical applications. Industrial applications with high precision requirements are subject to real-time constraints, and thus one of the main assets, regardless of application area, is clock synchronization. Considering such networks, synchronization is the first thing to secure against a possible malicious adversary. In this paper, we consider ARP poisoning as a possible technique to disrupt clock synchronization and evaluate the effects of such an attack on the IEEE 1588 standard. We describe possible ways of performing ARP poisoning to disrupt synchronization and survey several mitigation techniques and their applicability within the industrial application area.

  • 14.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Monitoring of Clock Synchronization in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Sensitivity Analysis2017In: International Conference on Internet of Things, Embedded Systems and Communications 2017 IINTEC 2017, 2017, p. 134-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clock synchronization is a core asset to protect when securing cyber-physical systems with a time-triggered architecture. One of the most challenging attacks to protect against is a delay attack, where an adversary delays one of the synchronization messages, making node offset calculations incorrect for keeping clocks synchronized. One way to detect a breach of clock synchronization is by monitoring the offsets calculated in a node according to the clock synchronization algorithm. The analysis in this work assumes that the distributed nodes need to share the same notion of time and for this reason, uses the IEEE 1588 standard. Using this approach, a monitor needs to make a decision about if and when a node is under attack, in which case rules and methods for decision making should be put in place. There are many aspects to consider when setting thresholds for the monitored values in order to make such a decision. In this work we conduct an analysis of monitor indicators and an investigation of their applicability. Further, we identify dependencies within the proposed monitoring approach and conduct a sensitivity analysis of the parameters needed to make a decision about a system being under attack. The analysis outcomes allow to identify important parameters to consider while thresholding indicators and enables a greater generality in their applicability.

  • 15.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mats, Björkman
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Delay attack versus clock synchronization - A time chase2017In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2017, p. 1136-1141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clock synchronization is one of the most essential assets for distributed real-time systems, as sensing, control and actuation require synchronized communication to meet real-time deadlines. We propose a distributed monitoring method to detect if an adversary is interfering with the clock synchronization protocol. The monitor uses certain network indicators and a set of rules to decide about switching between Normal, Quarantine or Attack Detected states. Further, we propose a way to define thresholds for decision-making based on theoretical analysis of the indicator values influenced by an attack. In addition, we formulate the problem of adversary influence detection in the network as a detection theory problem and use it to derive an additional indicator for the network monitor. Finally, we analyze the time chase between the monitor and an adversary to investigate which factors influence the final outcome. 

  • 16.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Game Theory Applied to Secure Clock Synchronization with IEEE 15882016Report (Other academic)
  • 17. Norgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Styrud, Jonathan
    Isaksson, Alf J.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Industrial Evaluation of Process Control using Non-periodic Sampling2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Pang, Z.
    et al.
    Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gidlund, M.
    Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    An RTOS-based architecture for industrial wireless sensor network stacks with multi-processor support2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2013, p. 1216-1221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of industrial wireless sensor network (IWSN) stacks requires the adoption of real time operation system (RTOS). Challenges exist especially in timing integrity and multi-processor support. As a solution, we propose an RTOS-based architecture for IWSN stacks with multi-processor support. It offers benefits in terms of platform independency, product life cycle, safety and security, system integration complexity, and performance scalability. An implemented WirelessHART stack has proven the feasibility of the proposed architecture in practical product design. And future challenges as well as suggestions to standard improvement are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 19.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Blom, Rolf
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Applicability of LTE Public Key Infrastructure based device authentication in Industrial Plants2015In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications ConferenceVolume 2,, 2015, p. 510-515Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security in industrial automation domain using cryptography mechansims is being discussed in both industry and academia. An efficient key management system is required to support cryptography for both symmetric key and public/private key encryption. The key managment should ensure that the device is verified before distributing the initial key parameters to devices. The software/firmware used in the device comes from manufacturers, therefore the initial authenticity of the device can be easily verified with the help of manufacturers. Mobile telecommunication is an industrial segment where wireless devices are being used for a long time and the security of the wireless device management has been considered through a standard driven approach. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse the security authentication mechanisms used in mobile communication, specified in Long-Term-Evolution (LTE) standard. This paper analyses the initial device authentication using public key infrastructure in LTE standard, and discusses if, where and how the studied solutions can be tailored for device authenticity verification in industrial plant automation systems.

  • 20.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, M.
    Mittuniversitet.
    Assessing Security, Capacity and Reachability of a Heterogeneous Industrial Network during Planning Phase2016In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Security and Safety, ISSN 2032-9393, Vol. 16, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an industrial plant, there is usually a mix of devices with different levels of security features and computation capabilities. If a mix of devices with various degrees of security features and capabilities communicate, the overall network dynamics with respect to security and network performance will be complex. A secure communication path with high latency and low bandwidth may not satisfy the operational requirements in a plant. Therefore, there is a need to assess the relation of security and network performance for overall plant operation. In this work we focus on identifying an optimal flow path between two devices in a multi-hop heterogeneous network. We propose a model and an algorithm to estimate and generate a network path identified by flow performance indicators of a heterogeneous communication network. Through an example, we show how the flow performance metrics change with security, capacity and reachability of the devices in the network.

  • 21.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Initial key distribution for industrial wireless sensor networks2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2013, p. 1309-1314Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In any security design, the initial secret distribution for further key management solution is a major step. In industrial wireless sensor networks also, initial bootstrapping of the trust in the system is a major concern. The plant can be assumed to be a closed system, where only authenticated and trusted users are allowed to enter. However, wireless being the broadcast medium, wireless devices need to validate their identity to join the networks. So, there is a need for importing some initial secret key to the devices, so that they can be authenticated during the joining process. The standards for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WirelessHART, ISA100.11a) also have left to the user the initial distribution of the key for joining during device provisioning. In this paper, the current industry practice and the pre-requisite of key distribution in industrial wireless sensor networks is discussed and an outline is presented for future research directions. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 22.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. ABB Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    An Industrial Device Deployment Framework using the Initial Trust Establishment WorkflowIn: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Balancing Network Performance and Network Security in a Smart Grid Application2016In: 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN 2016, 2016, Vol. jan, p. 618-624, article id 7819235Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key aspect of realizing the future smart grid communication solution is a balanced approach between the network performance and the network security during the network deployment. A high security communication flow path is not useful when the network path cannot support capacity and reachability requirements. The deployment phase in communication network can facilitate an optimal network path by focusing on both the network performance and the network security at the same time. In this paper, we describe a use case of smart grid application where security, network capacity and reachability needs to be optimal for successful network operation. We explain our proposed balancing approach of the network performance and the network security which can be useful for the optimal smart grid secure system design.

  • 24.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research, Bangalore, India.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Employee Trust Based Industrial Device Deployment and Initial Key Establishment2016In: International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications, ISSN 0975-2307, E-ISSN 0974-9330, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 21-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient key management system is required to support cryptography. Most key management systems use either pre-installed shared keys or install initial security parameters using out-of-band channels. These methods create an additional burden for engineers who manage the devices in industrial plants. Hence, device deployment in industrial plants becomes a challenging task in order to achieve security. In this work, we present a device deployment framework that can support key management using the existing trust towards employees in a plant. This approach reduces the access to initial security parameters by employees; rather it helps to bind the trust of the employee with device commissioning. Thus, this approach presents a unique solution to the device deployment problem. Further, through a proof-of-concept implementation and security analysis using the AVISPA tool, we present that our framework is feasible to implement and satisfies our security objectives.

  • 25.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Future Research Challenges of Secure Heterogeneous Industrial Communication Networks2016In: 2016 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing concern of cyber threats towards industrial plants has prompted industrial practitioners to focus on secure communication solutions which can protect their systems from vulnerabilities and as well as their brand image. The security concerns and the solutions for industrial communication networks have become well-discussed topics in research communities. Despite a huge research effort in the area of industrial communication network security, there are several issues that need to be addressed properly such that a unified security solution can be adopted in the industrial domain. In this article, we aim to outline the research direction for industrial communication security. Though security is considered as an on-going process, the major issues that still need to be addressed are trust management for heterogeneous networks, managing network performance with security requirements, usable security and key management.

  • 26.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    POSTER: An approach to Assess Security, Capacity and Reachability for Heterogeneous Industrial Networks2015In: 11th EAI International Conference on Security and Privacy in Communication Networks SecureComm15, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial plants are heterogeneous networks with different computation and communication capabilities along with different security properties. The optimal operation of a plant requires a balance between communication capabilities and security features. A secure communication data flow with high latency and low bandwidth does not provide the required efficiency in a plant. Therefore, we focus on assessing the relation of security, capacity and timeliness properties of an industrial network for overall network performance.

  • 27.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Towards Security Assurance for Heterogeneous Industrial Networks2015In: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2015, p. 4488-4493, article id 7392799Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial networks have a mix of devices with different security properties. If a mix of devices with various degrees of security features and capabilities communicate, the overall network dynamics with respect to device trust and security of message exchange will be complex. Therefore, there is a need to understand the trust and risk probabilities of devices in a heterogeneous network. This is required for heterogeneous network where the network configuration has to be made based on how trustworthy they are. In this work we focus on assessing security risks for devices and message exchanges. We define the term emph{assurance value} to denote the resilience of a device to security attacks. We study the behavior of a communication network when devices with various degrees of security features exchange messages. We aim to identify the network security properties based on the network architecture. From the study, we propose a model to estimate and predict network security properties in a heterogeneous communication network.

  • 28.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Towards Trustworthiness Assessment of Industrial Heterogeneous Networks2015In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial plants, there is a mix of devices with different security features and capabilities. If there is a mix of devices with various degree of security levels, then this will create independent islands in a network with similar levels of security features. However, the industrial plant is interconnected for the purpose of reducing cost of monitoring with a centralized control center. Therefore, the different islands also need to communicate with each other to improve the asset management efficiency in a plant. In this work we aim to focus on the trustworthiness assessment of devices in industrial plant networks in term of node value. We study the behavior of industrial plant networks when devices with various degrees of security features communicate. We aim to identify network properties which influence the overall network behavior. From the study, we have found that the communication path, the order of different communication paths and the number of specific types of nodes affect the final trustworthiness of devices in the network.

  • 29.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Solution for Industrial Device Commissioning along with the Initial Trust Establishment2013In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), 2013, p. 5570-5575Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial device commissioning along with the initial distribution of keying material is an important step for the security of industrial plants. An efficient key management system is required in cryptography for both symmetric key or public/private key encryption. Most of the key management system use either pre-installed shared keys or install keys using out-of-band channels. In addition to that, the sensor devices both wired and wireless need to be verified whether it is connected to the correct physical entity since these devices are linked with the physical world. Therefore in industrial plants there is a requirement to automate the trust bootstrapping process, where the devices from upper level in communication network will be aware that the communication device from below level is trusted. In this work, we present a workflow that uses the existing trust mechanism on employees to enable the initial bootstrap of trust in the devices, and also optionally support the commissioning engineer to download the required configuration data in the device as well. Thus, this approach presents a unique solution to the initial trust distribution problem reusing the existing features and facilities in industrial plants

  • 30.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tremlet, Christophe
    Maxim Integrated.
    Reusability assessment of financial card readers’ security mechanisms in process control devices2013In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 2013, p. 494-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security of industrial plants has gained a lot of importance since the last decade. The reason is that the different components from different network layers of automation systems have become inter-connected to support fast and cost-effective decisions at the management level. This inter-connectivity has posed many security challenges in this industrial segment. To achieve effective security mechanisms in industrial plants, there is a need to learn from other existing domains, matured in terms of security, whether existing matured security solutions can be reused in the industrial automation domain. The financial sector is a segment where security has been carefully managed since a long time, as security is very important for that sector. Therefore it would be beneficial to evaluate the security mechanisms present in financial card readers which are involved in financial transactions because these card readers have many similar characteristics with industrial process control devices. In this paper, the security requirements for both the field devices of industrial plants and card reader terminals of the financial sector have been evaluated to understand the security gap so that we can identify the areas where the security needs of industrial plants must be improved and where some of the existing security features of card reader terminals can be reused in field devices of industrial plants.

  • 31.
    Silva, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Pang, Zhibo
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Neander, Jonas
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Hancke, Gerhard P
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Experimental study of UWB-based high precision localization for industrial applications2014In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, 2014, p. 280-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in wireless sensor networks have inspired applications which require high accuracy localization. Impulse radio ultra wide-band technology has a fine time resolution, allowing accurate determination of the time of arrival at the receiver, making it a serious contender for accurate ranging, in comparison to narrow-band technologies. In this paper, we present a UWB based 3D real-time indoor positioning system with 802.15.4a compliant wireless nodes. Results from measurement campaigns reveal that for line-of-sight (LOS) scenarios 11 cm accuracy and 2 cm precision without any postprocessing (i.e. filtering) are possible, hence demonstrating the capability of accurate UWB-based localization using trilateration, resulting in a fast and non-complex algorithm that provides highprecision positioning. The proposed system presents an initial step in developing a high precision system for localization in industrial applications.

  • 32.
    Silva, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Pang, Zhibo
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Neander, Jonas
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Hancke, Gerhard P
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Positioning infrastructure for industrial automation systems based on UWB wireless communication2014In: Proceedings, IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2014, p. 3919-3925Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In various industrial automation applications, positioning enables location awareness which can be exploited in applications such as robotic precision control, amongst others. This paper discussespositioning for industrial automation applications. Examples of applications from an infrastructure perspective are presented, and the integration of high precision positioning technology into existing network infrastructure for such applications is discussed, as well as challenges involved. An impulse-radio ultra-wideband 802.15.4a based system for high accuracy/precision positioning is presented, which shows promising results, therefore motivating the use of UWB as a high accuracy and precision technology for positioning applications in future industrial automation systems.

  • 33.
    Taylor, James H.
    et al.
    University of New Brunswick, Canada.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ibrahim, Hazem M. S.
    University of New Brunswick, Canada.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB.
    Safe and Secure Wireless Networked Control Systems2012In: Proc. IEEE Multiconference on Systems and Control, 2012, p. 871-878Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technology has gained much interestin industrial automation due to its flexibility, mobility, easeof installation, and lower cost. Wireless systems, in general,require additional and different engineering and maintenancetasks, for example cryptographic key management for security.The pace of application in process control has been impeded,however, by concern about the risks involved in incorporatingwireless paths in feedback loops and making the accommoda-tions necessary for reliable control. The issue is that there areconflicts between maintaining control loop performance andthe usual objectives in managing a wireless sensor network.In this paper, we take a holistic approach that addressessafety, reliability and security in two primary aspects: com-munication and control; thus we hope to contribute a morecomplete roadmap for developing safe and secure wireless net-worked control systems. This proposed framework representsa synthesis of two formerly separate bodies of research, oneprimarily focussed on communication requirements for safetyand security and the other on safe and reliable controls.

  • 34.
    Tran, Hung Vinh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corp Res, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Tran, Ha-Vu
    Univ Quebec, ETS Engn Sch, LACIME Lab, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    RF energy harvesting: an analysis of wireless sensor networks for reliable communication2019In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 185-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider a wireless energy harvesting network consisting of one hybrid access point (HAP) having multiple antennas, and multiple sensor nodes each equipped with a single antenna. In contrast to conventional uplink wireless networks, the sensor nodes in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to recharge the energy from the wireless signals broadcasted by the HAP in order to communicate. Based on the point-to-point and multipoints-to-point model, we propose two medium access control protocols, namely harvesting at the header of timeslot (HHT) and harvesting at the dedicated timeslot (HDT), in which the sensor nodes harvest energy from the HAP in the downlink, and then transform its stored packet into bit streams to send to the HAP in the uplink. Considering a deadline for each packet, the cumulative distribution functions of packet transmission time of the proposed protocols are derived for the selection combining and maximal ratio combining (MRC) techniques at the HAP. Subsequently, analytical expressions for the packet timeout probability and system reliability are obtained to analyze the performance of proposed protocols. Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as energy harvesting efficiency coefficient, sensor positions, transmit signal-to-noise ratio, and the length of energy harvesting time on the packet timeout probability and the system reliability are extensively investigated. Our results show that the performance of the HDT protocol outperforms the one using the HHT protocol, and the HDT protocol with the MRC technique has the best performance and it can be a potential solution to enhance the reliability for wireless sensor networks.

  • 35.
    Vestin, Jonathan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Resilient Software Defined Networking for Industrial Control Network2015In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS 2015), December 2-4, 2015 in Singapore., IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Barac, Filip
    Mid Sweden University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Adaptive Forward Error Correction for Best Effort Wireless Sensor Networks2012In: 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (ICC), 2012, p. 7104-7109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we propose an Adaptive Forward Error Correction (AFEC) algorithm for best effort Wireless Sensor Networks. The switching model is described in terms of a finite-state Markov model and it is based on the channel behavior,observed via Packet Delivery Ratio in the recent past. We compare the performance of AFEC with static FEC, as well as uncoded transmissions. The results demonstrate a gain in PDR achieved by introducing FEC coding in uncoded IEEE 802.15.4 transmissions, as well as the advantages over static FEC schemes,namely increased throughput and reduced energy consumption.The proposed solution is IEEE 802.15.4-compliant and requires no additional feedback channels.

  • 37.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Filip, Barac
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mikael, Gidlund
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Mats, Björkman
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Flexible Error Correction Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4-based Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2012, p. 1172-1177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise and interference make a substantial impacton wireless transmissions in industrial environments, resulting infrequent erroneous packet deliveries. Existing industrial communication standards adopt the IEEE 802.15.4 specification, which provides no means to correct the detected errors. We propose an IEEE 802.15.4-compliant Forward Error Correction-basedapproach that can be easily retrofitted into the standard withoutthe need for any kind of interaction with chip manufacturers orstandardization bodies. We evaluate the approach on link- and network-level scenarios. Improvement of reliability by using FEC can yield multiple benefits: a reduced number of retransmissions,and lower average latency, to name a few. With respect to the uncoded system, the proposed solution provides identical codinggain as the traditional FEC method, at a significantly lower computational load of decoding.

  • 38.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Åkerberg, J.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable real-time routing protocol for industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 8th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2013, 2013, p. 1895-1901Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control applications of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) are subject to strict requirements in terms of reliability and end-to-end delay. Transmission failures or deadline misses may seriously degrade the quality of control. In this paper, we propose a reliable real-time routing protocol in IWSANs for industrial control purpose. Node weight values and related node lists are utilized to provide directional information. Packet forwarding is based on a controlled flooding mechanism with several forwarding criteria. Performance evaluations via simulations show that significant improvements of reliability, real-time performance, network recovery time, and resource utilization efficiency can be achieved by our proposed routing protocol, compared with traditional routing protocols.

  • 39.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Low Jitter Scheduling for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2013In: 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY (IECON 2013): 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2013, p. 5594-5599Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) in the industrial automation is a growing trend due to flexibility, mobility and low cost. According to the current standards, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, multi-channel TDMA transmission is included for reliable and deterministic communication. In this paper, we clarify the dependence of TDMA scheduling for sensors and actuators and point out the low correlation between the scheduling delay and the overall quality of control, and focus on reducing jitter in scheduling for improving quality of control and system stability. We propose a scheduling algorithm, aiming for lowing jitter and compare it with two traditional real-time scheduling schemes. Our simulation results exhibit significantly lower jitters by applying our scheduling policy than those two traditional scheduling schemes.

  • 40.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, p. 1410-1420, article id 7506102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) offer significant advantages to industrial automation. However, high reliability demands and hard communication deadlines pose challenges to its practical applications. To achieve this goal, flooding is considered as a promising approach due to multipath diversity and simplicity. In this paper, an enhanced version of REALFLOW, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSANs is presented. Compared to the original REALFLOW, network management and network stability are improved. REALFLOW is compared with four other flooding protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that REALFLOW has better performance in terms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors when considering deadlines. Compared with normal flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparable reliability performance with decreased redundancy. Measurements from a prototype implementation conducted in an industrial manufacturing workshop reveal that high reliability and low application failure rates can be achieved, giving more confidence in providing reliable wireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation

  • 41.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable and Low Latency Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 5, p. 866-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major advantages with Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) in process automation are cable cost reduction, enhanced flexibility and enabling new emerging applications such as wireless control. However, transmission over the wireless channel is prone to noise and interference which causes packets to be erroneous received at the receiver node. To improve the link reliability in lossy channels, error correcting codes are commonly used. In this paper we discuss the use of forward error correction (FEC) codes in IWSN in order not only to improve the link reliability but also to reduce the number of retransmissions in harsh industrial environments. We propose a FEC scheme suitable for MAC level protection where the packet is divided into groups and encoded using systematic FEC codes. We have implemented different FEC codes in a typical IWSN chip to evaluate memory consumption and to ensure that we are not violating the strict timing rules for acknowledgment. Our results show that some FEC codes are suitable to be implemented in a typical IWSN node while several fails due to large memory footprint or to long encoding and decoding time.

  • 42.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable RSS-based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society: Proceeding, 2012, p. 3231-3237Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High reliability and real-time performance are main research challenges in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs). Existing routing protocols applied in IWSNs are either overcomplicated or fail to fulfill the stringent requirements. In this paper, we propose a reliable and flexible Received Signal Strength-based routing scheme. Our proposed solution can achieve a seamless transition in the event of topology change and can be applied in different industrial environments. The simulation results show that our solution outperforms conventional routing protocols in both reliability and latency. Furthermore, the result also proves that the changes of the network topology have no impact on data transmissions of other nodes by our scheme, whereas conventional routing protocols are shown to fail to recover the network in a short time. Finally, due to dynamic weighting mechanism, the proposed scheme is verified to achieve significantly higher reliability in scenarios with obstacles and avoid installation troubles, compared to location-based flooding scheme. Thus, our proposed scheme is considered to be more suitable for IWSNs than other routing protocols.

  • 43.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pang, ZB
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Gidlund, M
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    REALFLOW: Reliable Real-Time Flooding-Based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, p. art. nbr: 936379-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technologies have been increasingly applied in industrial automation systems due to flexible installation, mobility, and cost reduction. Unlike traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs), industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), when expanding from wireless monitoring to wireless control, have more stringent requirements on reliability, real-time performance, and robustness in a number of industrial applications. Successive transmission failures or deadline misses in these applications may severely degrade the control quality and result in serious economic losses and safety problems. Therefore, when deploying IWSNs in harsh industrial environments, to achieve reliable and deterministic end-to-end transmissions is critically important. In this paper, we explain the primary challenges of designing appropriate routing protocols and present a reliable real-time flooding-based routing protocol for IWSNs (REALFLOW). Instead of traditional routing tables, related node lists are generated in a simple distributed manner, serving for packet forwarding. A controlled flooding mechanism is applied to improve both reliability and real-time performance. A seamless transition in the event of topology change can be achieved by REALFLOW. Performance evaluations via simulations verify that significant improvements of reliability, real-time performance, and network recovery time can be achieved by REALFLOW, compared with traditional routing protocols.

  • 44.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Yue, Jing
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Lin, Z.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Achieving reliable and efficient transmission by using network coding solution in industrial wireless sensor networks2016In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2016, p. 1162-1167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When deploying wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for industrial applications, to provide reliable data transmission as a stringent requirement must be fulfilled. However, due to dynamic industrial environments, interferences and node failures, to achieve this goal faces a number of challenges. Moreover, reliable transmission solution should also be resource efficient, so more wireless sensor nodes can be supported in a network especially when network resources are limited. In this paper, we applied network coding techniques based on a controlled flooding transmission scheme for industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs). Network and channel coding are joint designed for data transmission. We analyzed the theoretical performance of the proposed scheme and compared the performance of our method with the original transmission method in terms of reliability and efficiency. Comparison results showed that by using our proposed network coding solution, the reliability gain can be achieved and the network resource efficiency can be improved.

  • 45.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Zheng, T.
    Beijing Jiaotong University.
    Pang, Z.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Åkerberg, J.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable flooding-based downlink transmissions for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2013, p. 1377-1384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable downlink transmissions from the sink to actuators for control data in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) are extremely important for industrial control applications. However, on the network layer, existing routing protocols fail to fully support downlink transmissions for actuators, due to the insufficiency of reliability, robustness and real-time performance. In this paper, we propose a reliable flooding-based routing scheme focusing on downlink transmissions. Packets are forwarded to actuators according to weight values and the related node lists in intermediate nodes. Performance evaluations via simulations show that our protocol significantly outperforms traditional routing protocols in terms of reliability, transmission latency, network recovery time and network resource usage. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 46.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Realization and Measurements of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation can benefit from applying wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) on cost reduction, mobility and flexibility. However, wireless solutions are more prone to interferences compared to wired ones. In order to avoid production losses and to keep the revenues at an anticipated level, it is of utmost importance for WSANs to meet the stringent requirements from industrial automation, such as high reliability and real-time performance. A great number of research efforts were taken in this field based on simulations, but simulation results may not show sufficient confidence. Existing implementations and products compatible with the standards may still fail to provide reliable and real-time communication. Therefore, in this paper we built a prototype of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN) and implemented a protocol stack, aiming for providing reliable and real-time communication for mission-critical industrial applications. Afterwards, we deployed our prototype and conducted measurements in real industrial environments. Our measurement results exhibited possibility of applying IWSANs for industrial applications and brought more evidence to our industry.

  • 47.
    Yue, Jing
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Lin, Zihuai
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Network coding for reliable downlink transmissions in industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks2016In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, Poznan, Poland, 2016, Vol. oct, p. 560-565, article id 7600967Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benefits, such as significant reduction of cost and complexity, brought by wireless communication make wireless networks more and more appealing for industrial applications. However, before wireless systems can be deployed in industrial networks, strict industrial requirements on reliability and timeliness must be fulfilled and thus protocols increasing the performance of wireless communication are needed. Data in industrial systems is typically transmitted in two directions: from sensor nodes to a controller (uplink transmission) and from the controller to actuators (downlink transmission). Several previous studies have looked at possibilities of performance increase in uplink transmissions from the sensors, while not that much work focused on downlink transmissions, which are equally important. Thus, this paper addresses the downlink transmission scenario and presents a new protocol introducing network coding into packet forwarding scheme. Simulation results show that packet reception rate can be increased when network coding is applied.

  • 48. Zheng, Tao
    et al.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Deterministic Medium Access Mechanism for Time-Critical Wireless Sensor Network Applications2013In: IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Zheng, Tao
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Medium Access Protocol Design for Time-Critical Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2014, p. Article number 6837585-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for control and monitoring applications introduce critical constraints on the design of multiple access schemes to guarantee timely data delivery. However, existing WSNs are mainly designed to conserve energy consumption and not to support timely data transmission. In this paper, we present a novel media access method defined as Wireless Arbitration which grants each user in the network with a specific arbitration frequency representing the priority to access the wireless channel. This proposed method will guarantee that messages with high priority will access the channel and deliver within the deterministic deadline. A mathematical formulation of wireless arbitration is presented together with the corresponding performance analysis of the multiple access schemes. It is shown that the proposed multiple access scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4.

  • 50.
    Åkerberg, J.
    et al.
    ABB.
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB.
    Reichenbach, F.
    ABBAS, Corporate Research, 1375 Billingstad, Norway.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Measurements on an industrial wireless HART network supporting PROFIsafe: A case study2011In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the various theoretic publications on safety-critical communication over wireless, this paper will show the actual performance of safety-critical communication in a real plant with all its environmental influences. We used PROFIsafe as a functional safety profile on top of the WirelessHART protocol. Separately these technologies are widely used in industry for safety and wireless communication respectively, but it has never been shown that the combination of them is feasible for safety-critical communication. The main focus of this work is to measure and analyze the round-trip time and the bit error rate of the safety-critical communication in order to identify whether the certification requirements of PROFIsafe holds. We will show that it is technically feasible to run safety-critical data over wireless links. However, long round trip times and high noise in the channel at certain locations in the plant are unacceptable with respect to certification and need further investigations.

12 1 - 50 of 62
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf