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  • 1.
    Awada, I. A.
    et al.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    Cramariuc, O.
    Ctr IT Pentru Stiinta & Tehnol, Bucharest, Romania..
    Mocanu, I.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kunnappilly, Ashalatha
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Florea, A. M.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    AN END-USER PERSPECTIVE ON THE CAMI AMBIENT AND ASSISTED LIVING PROJECT2018Inngår i: 12TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE (INTED) / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT , 2018, s. 6776-6785Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the outcomes and conclusions obtained by involving seniors from three countries (Denmark, Poland and Romania) in an innovative project funded under the European Ambient Assisted Living (ALL) program. CAMI stands for "Companion with Autonomously Mobile Interface" in "Artificially intelligent ecosystem for self-management and sustainable quality of life in AAL". The CAMI solution enables flexible, scalable and individualised services that support elderly to self-manage their daily life and prolong their involvement in the society (sharing knowledge, continue working, etc). This also allows their informal caregivers (family and friends) to continue working and participating in society while caring for their loved ones. The solution is designed as an innovative architecture that allows for individualized, intelligent self-management which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and needs. A user-centred approach has ranked health monitoring, computer supervised physical exercises and voice based interaction among the top favoured CAMI functionalities. Respondents from three countries (Poland, Romania and Denmark) participated in a multinational survey and a conjoint analysis study.

  • 2.
    Awada, Imad Alex
    et al.
    University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.
    Cramariuc, Oana
    IT Cenetr for Science and Technology, Romania.
    Mocanu, Irina
    University Politehnica of Bucharest.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kunnappilly, Ashalatha
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Florea, Adina Magda
    University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.
    An end- user perspective on the CAMI Ambient and Assisted Living Project2018Inngår i: INTED2018 Proceedings, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the outcomes and conclusions obtained by involving seniors from three countries (Denmark, Poland and Romania) in an innovative project funded under the European Ambient Assisted Living (ALL) program. CAMI stands for "Companion with Autonomously Mobile Interface" in "Artificially intelligent ecosystem for self-management and sustainable quality of life in AAL". The CAMI solution enables flexible, scalable and individualised services that support elderly to self-manage their daily life and prolong their involvement in the society (sharing knowledge, continue working, etc). This also allows their informal caregivers (family and friends) to continue working and participating in society while caring for their loved ones. The solution is designed as an innovative architecture that allows for individualized, intelligent self-management which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and needs. A user-centred approach has ranked health monitoring, computer supervised physical exercises and voice based interaction among the top favoured CAMI functionalities. Respondents from three countries (Poland, Romania and Denmark) participated in a multinational survey and a conjoint analysis study.

  • 3.
    Back, Ralph-Johan
    et al.
    Turku Centre for Computer Science .
    Cerschi (Seceleanu), Cristina
    Turku Centre for Computer Science .
    Modeling and Verifying a Temperature Control System using Continuous Action Systems2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We formally describe and verify a real-time temperature control system for a nuclear reactor tank, using a generalization of action systems to hybrid systems (based on weakest precondition predicate transformer semantics) as our formal framework. The analyzed control system is a linear hybrid system, combining discrete control with continuous dynamics. Our work can be seen as a case study on the applicability of the hybrid action system formalism to study the reachability problem, i.e., to prove that an unsafe state can not be reached by executing the system.

  • 4.
    Back, Ralph-Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Contracts and Games in Controller Synthesis for Discrete Systems2004Inngår i: Proceedings - 11th IEEE International Conference and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2004, 2004, s. 307-314Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes a method for constructing reliable controllers for arbitrarily large discrete systems. The controller is synthesized by finding a winning strategy for specific games defined by contracts. The discrete system model is an action system, and the requirement is a temporal property. We use the extended action system notation that allows both angelic and demonic nondeterminism, such that the game reduces to a competition between the angel, that is, the controller, and the demon, that is, the plant, which try to prevent each other from achieving their respective goals. If the synthesis is possible, that is, if the angel has a way to enforce the required property, the process ends with finding the winning strategy of the angel, by propagating backwards the computed precondition of the demon, with respect to that property. This technique guarantees the correctness of the derived program. We illustrate our method on a producer-consumer application.

  • 5.
    Back, Ralph-Johan
    et al.
    Turku Centre for Computer Science, Finland.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Turku Centre for Computer Science, Finland.
    Westerholm, Jan
    Turku Centre for Computer Science, Finland.
    Symbolic Simulation of Hybrid Systems2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous action systems (CAS) is a formalism intended for modeling hybrid systems (systems that combine discrete control with continuous behavior), and proving properties about the model within refinement calculus. In this paper we use a symbolic manipulation program to build a tool for simulating CAS models by calculating symbolically the time evolution of the discrete and continuous CAS model functions, as explicit and exact expressions of a continuous time variable. We may then study the time behavior and general properties of the model by plotting these functions with respect to time. For certain models our tool eliminates the need for introducing tolerances into the model structure. The tool is useful for checking that the model behaves correctly, and we can sometimes study the behavior of CAS models with in principle infinite precision.

  • 6.
    Belli, Fevzi
    et al.
    University of Paderborn, Germany.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Panel Description: 40 Years of Software Engineering2008Inngår i: Proceedings 32nd Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference, COMPSAC2008, 2008, s. 7-7Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the fall of 1968, NATO hosted in Garmisch- Partenkirchen, close to Munich, a conference devoted to the problems of the computer industry that was having a great deal of trouble in producing large and complex programs. The term Software Engineering (SE) was not in general use at that time, its adoption for the title of this conference was deliberately provocative. As a result, the conference and its report have played a major role in gaining general acceptance of the term SE.

  • 7.
    Björnander, Stefan
    et al.
    CrossControl AB.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Formal Analysis Framework for AADL2011Inngår i: The Journal of Science and Technology, ISSN 0866-708X, Vol. 49, nr 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As system failure of mission-critical embedded systems may result in serious consequences, the development process should include verification techniques already at the architectural design stage, in order to provide evidence that the architecture fulfils its requirements. The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is a language designed for modeling embedded systems, and its Behavior Annex defines the behavior of the system. However, even though it is an internationally used industry standard, AADL still lacks a formal semantics and is not executable, which limits the possibility to perform formal verification. In this paper, we introduce a formal analysis framework for a subset of AADL and its Behavior Annex, which includes the following: a denotational semantics, its implementation in Standard ML, and a graphical Eclipse-based tool encapsulating the implementation. We also show how to perform model checking of AADL properties defined in the Computation Tree Logic (CTL).

  • 8.
    Björnander, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    ABV: A Verifier for the Architecture Analysis and Description Language (AADL)2011Inngår i: 16th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS), 2011, 2011, s. 355-360Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Björnander, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    The Architecture Analysis and Design Language and the Behavior Annex: A Denotational Semantics2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a denotational semantics for the Architecture Analysis and Design Language with Behavior Annex and the Computational Tree logic. We also present tool support as an OSATE plug-in as well as the Production Cell case study.

  • 10.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    A Formal Approach for Flexible Modeling and Analysis of Transaction Timeliness and Isolation2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, Brest, France, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional Concurrency Control (CC) mechanisms ensure absence of undesired interference in transaction-based systems and enforce isolation. However, CC may introduce unpredictable delays that could lead to breached timeliness, which is unwanted for real-time transactions. To avoid deadline misses, some CC algorithms relax isolation in favor of timeliness, whereas others limit possible interleavings by leveraging real-time constraints and preserve isolation. Selecting an appropriate CC algorithm that can guarantee timeliness at an acceptable level of isolation thus becomes an essential concern for system designers. However, trading-off isolation for timeliness is not easy with existing analysis techniques in database and real-time communities. In this paper, we propose to use model checking of a timed automata model of the transaction system, in order to check the traded-off timeliness and isolation. Our solution provides modularization for the basic transactional constituents, which enables flexible modeling and composition of various candidate CC algorithms, and thus reduces the effort of selecting the appropriate CC algorithm.

  • 11.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Customized Real-Time Data Management for Automotive Systems: A Case Study2017Inngår i: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, s. 8397-8404Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time DataBase Management Systems (RTDBMS) have been considered as a promising means to manage data for data-centric automotive systems. During the design of an RTDBMS, one must carefully trade off data consistency and timeliness, in order to achieve an acceptable level of both properties. Previously, we have proposed a design process called DAGGERS to facilitate a systematic customization of transaction models and decision on the run-time mechanisms. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of DAGGERS via an industrially relevant case study that aims to design the transaction management for an on-board diagnostic system, which should guarantee both timeliness and data consistency under concurrent access. To achieve this, we apply the pattern-based approach of DAGGERS to formalize the transactions, and derive the appropriate isolation level and concurrency control algorithm guided by model checking. We show by simulation that the implementation of our designed system satisfies the desired timeliness and derived isolation, and demonstrate that DAGGERS helps to customize desired real-time transaction management prior to implementation.

  • 12.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    DAGGTAX: A Taxonomy of Data Aggregation Processes2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents in many data management applications. Due to their complexity, designing data aggregation processes often demands considerable efforts. A study on the features of data aggregation processes will provide a comprehensive view for the designers and ease the design process. Existing works either propose application-specific aggregation solutions, or focus on particular aspects of aggregation processes such as aggregate functions, hence they do not offer a high-level, generic description. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of data aggregation processes called DAGGTAX, which builds on the results of an extensive survey within various application domains. Our work focuses on the features of aggregation processes and their implications, especially on the temporal data consistency and the process timeliness. We present our taxonomy as a feature diagram, which is a visual notation with formal semantics. The taxonomy can then serve as the foundation of a design tool that enables designers to build an aggregation process by selecting and composing desired features. Based on the implications of the features, we formulate three design rules that eliminate infeasible feature combinations. We also provide a set of design heuristics that could help designers to decide the appropriate mechanisms for achieving the selected features. 

  • 13.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    DAGGTAX: A taxonomy of data aggregation processes2017Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10563, Springer Verlag , 2017, s. 324-339Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents for data management in modern computer systems, such as decision support systems and Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the heterogeneity and real-time constraints in such systems, designing appropriate data aggregation processes often demands considerable effort. A study on the characteristics of data aggregation processes is then desirable, as it provides a comprehensive view of such processes, potentially facilitating their design, as well as the development of tool support to aid designers. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy called DAGGTAX, which is a feature diagram that models the common and variable characteristics of data aggregation processes, with a special focus on the real-time aspect. The taxonomy can serve as the foundation of a design tool, which we also introduce, enabling designers to build an aggregation process by selecting and composing desired features, and to reason about the feasibility of the design. We apply DAGGTAX on industrial case studies, showing that DAGGTAX not only strengthens the understanding, but also facilitates the model-driven design of data aggregation processes. © 2017, Springer International Publishing AG.

  • 14.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Data Aggregation Processes: A Survey, A Taxonomy, and Design Guidelines2019Inngår i: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 101, nr 10, s. 1397-1429Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents for data management in modern computer systems, such as decision support systems and Internet of Things (IoT) systems, many with timing constraints. Understanding the common and variable features of data aggregation processes, especially their implications to the timerelated properties, is key to improving the quality of the designed system and reduce design effort. In this paper, we present a survey of data aggregation processes in a variety of application domains from literature.We investigate their common and variable features, which serves as the basis of our previously proposed taxonomy called DAGGTAX. By studying the implications of the DAGGTAX features, we formulate a set of constraints to be satisfied during design, which helps to check the correctness of the specifications and reduce the design space. We also provide a set of design heuristics that could help designers to decide the appropriate mechanisms for achieving the selected features. We apply DAGGTAX on industrial case studies, showing that DAGGTAX not only strengthens the understanding, but also serves as the foundation of a design tool which facilitates the model-driven design of data aggregation processes.

  • 15.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Effective Test Suite Design for Detecting Concurrency Control Faults in Distributed Transaction Systems2018Inngår i: 8th International Symposium On Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation ISoLA 2018, 2018, s. 355-374Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrency control faults may lead to unwanted interleavings, and breach data consistency in distributed transaction systems. However, due to the unpredictable delays between sites, detecting concurrency control faults in distributed transaction systems is difficult. In this paper, we propose a methodology, relying on model-based testing and mutation testing, for designing test cases in order to detect such faults. The generated test inputs are designated delays between distributed operations, while the outputs are the occurrence of unwanted interleavings that are consequences of the concurrency control faults. We mutate the distributed transaction specification with common concurrency control faults, and model them as UPPAAL timed automata, in which designated delays are encoded as stopwatches. Test cases are generated via reachability analysis using UPPAAL Model Checker, and are selected to form an effective test suite. Our methodology can reduce redundant test cases, and find the appropriate delays to detect concurrency control faults effectively.

  • 16.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Specification and Automated Verification of Atomic Concurrent Real-Time Transactions2019Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Specification and Formal Verification of Atomic Concurrent Real-Time Transactions2018Inngår i: 23rd IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing PRDC 2018, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness are crucial to the dependability of many real-time database-centric systems, the selected assurance mechanism for one property may breach another. Trading off these properties requires to specify and analyze their dependencies, together with the selected supporting mechanisms (abort recovery, concurrency control, and scheduling), which is still insufficiently supported. In this paper, we propose a UML profile, called UTRAN, for specifying atomic concurrent real-time transactions, with explicit support for all three properties and their supporting mechanisms. We also propose a pattern-based modeling framework, called UPPCART, to formalize the transactions and the mechanisms specified in UTRAN, as UPPAAL timed automata. Various mechanisms can be modeled flexibly using our reusable patterns, after which the desired properties can be verified by the UPPAAL model checker. Our techniques facilitate systematic analysis of atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness trade-offs with guarantee, thus contributing to a dependable real-time database system.

  • 18.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Statistical Model Checking for Real-Time Database Management Systems: A Case Study2019Inngår i: The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial control systems manage critical data using Database Management Systems (DBMS). The correctness of transactions, especially their atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness, is essential for the dependability of the entire system. Existing methods and techniques, however, either lack the ability to analyze the interplay of these properties, or do not scale well for systems with large amounts of transactions and data, and complex transaction management mechanisms. In this paper, we propose to analyze large scale real-time database systems using statistical model checking. We propose a pattern-based framework, by extending our previous work, to model the real-time DBMS as a network of stochastic timed automata, which can be analyzed by UPPAAL Statistical Model Checker. We present an industrial case study, in which we design a collision avoidance system for multiple autonomous construction vehicles, via concurrency control of a real-time DBMS. The desired properties of the designed system are analyzed using our proposed framework.

  • 19.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards the verification of temporal data consistency in Real-Time Data Management2016Inngår i: 2016 2nd International Workshop on Modelling, Analysis, and Control of Complex CPS, CPS Data 2016, 2016, artikkel-id Article number 7496422Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) require both timeliness of computation and temporal consistency of their data. Therefore, when using real-time databases in a real-time CPS application, the Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) must ensure both transaction timeliness and temporal data consistency. RTDBMSs prevent unwanted interferences of concurrent transactions via concurrency control, which in turn has a significant impact on the timeliness and temporal consistency of data. Therefore it is important to verify, already at early design stages that these properties are not breached by the concurrency control. However, most often such early on guarantees of properties under concurrency control are missing. In this paper we show how to verify transaction timeliness and temporal data consistency using model checking. We model the transaction work units, the data and the concurrency control mechanism as a network of timed automata, and specify the properties in TCTL. The properties are then checked exhaustively and automatically using the UPPAAL model checker. 

  • 20.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Trading-off Data Consistency for Timeliness in Real-Time Database Systems2015Inngår i: 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems ECRTS'15, 2015, s. 13-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to guarantee transaction timeliness, Realtime Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) often relax data consistency by relaxing the ACID transaction properties. Such relaxation varies depending on the application and thus different transaction management mechanisms have to be decided for developing a tailored RTDBMS. However, current RTDBMSs development does not include systematic verification of timeliness and desired ACID properties. Consequently, the implemented transaction management mechanisms may breach timeliness of transactions. In this paper, we propose a process called DAGGERS for developing a tailored RTDBMS that guarantees timeliness and desired data consistency for real-time systems by employing model-checking techniques during the process. Based on the characteristics of the desired data manipulations, transaction models are designed and then formally verified iteratively together with selected run-time mechanisms, in order to achieve the desired/necessary trade-offs between timeliness and data consistency. The outcome of DAGGERS is thus a tailored transaction management with guaranteed appropriate trade-offs, as well as the model-checking based worst-case execution times and blocking times of transactions under these mechanisms and assumptions of the hardware architecture.

  • 21.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, A.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tool-supported design of data aggregation processes in cloud monitoring systems2019Inngår i: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. 2519-2535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient monitoring of a cloud system involves multiple aggregation processes and large amounts of data with various and interdependent requirements. A thorough understanding and analysis of the characteristics of data aggregation processes can help to improve the software quality and reduce development cost. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for designing data aggregation processes in cloud monitoring systems. Our approach applies a feature-oriented taxonomy called DAGGTAX (Data AGGregation TAXonomy) to systematically specify the features of the designed system, and SAT-based analysis to check the consistency of the specifications. Following our approach, designers first specify the data aggregation processes by selecting and composing the features from DAGGTAX. These specified features, as well as design constraints, are then formalized as propositional formulas, whose consistency is checked by the Z3 SAT solver. To support our approach, we propose a design tool called SAFARE (SAt-based Feature-oriented dAta aggREgation design), which implements DAGGTAX-based specification of data aggregation processes and design constraints, and integrates the state-of-the-art solver Z3 for automated analysis. We also propose a set of general design constraints, which are integrated by default in SAFARE. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated via a case study provided by industry, which aims to design a cloud monitoring system for video streaming. The case study shows that DAGGTAX and SAFARE can help designers to identify reusable features, eliminate infeasible design decisions, and derive crucial system parameters.

  • 22.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Alf
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Design of Cloud Monitoring Systems via DAGGTAX: A Case Study2017Inngår i: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 109, s. 424-431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient auto-scaling of cloud resources relies on the monitoring of the cloud, which involves multiple aggregation processes and large amounts of data with various and interdependent requirements. A systematic way of describing the data together with the possible aggregations is beneficial for designers to reason about the properties of these aspects as well as their implications on the design, thus improving quality and lowering development costs. In this paper, we propose to apply DAGGTAX, a feature-oriented taxonomy for organizing common and variable data and aggregation process properties, to the design of cloud monitoring systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DAGGTAX via a case study provided by industry, which aims to design a cloud monitoring system that serves auto-scaling for a video streaming system. We design the cloud monitoring system by selecting and composing DAGGTAX features, and reason about the feasibility of the selected features. The case study shows that the application of DAGGTAX can help designers to identify reusable features, analyze trade-offs between selected features, and derive crucial system parameters.

  • 23.
    Causevic, Adnan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Distributed energy management case study: A formal approach to analyzing utility functions2014Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2014, s. 74-87Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The service-oriented paradigm has been established to enable quicker development of new applications from already existing services. Service negotiation is a key technique to provide a way of deciding and choosing the most suitable service, out of possibly many services delivering similar functionality but having different response times, resource usages, prices, etc. In this paper, we present a formal approach to the clients-providers negotiation of distributed energy management. The models are described in our recently introduced REMES HDCL language, with timed automata semantics that allows us to apply UPPAALbased tools for model-checking various scenarios of service negotiation. Our target is to compute ways of reaching the price- and reliability-optimal values of the utility function, at the end of the service negotiation.

  • 24.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Analyzing Resource-Usage Impact on Component-Based Systems Performance and Reliability2008Inngår i: 2008 International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Modelling Control & Automation, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society , 2008, s. 302-308Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An early prediction of resource utilization and its impacton system performance and reliability can reduce theoverall system cost, by allowing early correction of detectedproblems, or changes in development plans with minimizedoverhead. Nowadays, researchers are using both academicand commercial models to predict such attributes, by measuringthem at earliest stages of system development. Inthis paper, we give a short overview of existing predictionmodels for performance and reliability, targeting popularcomponent-based frameworks. Next, we describe our ownapproach for tackling such predictions, through an illustrationon a small example that deals with estimations of energyconsumption.

  • 25.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Algorithmic Computation of Strongest Postconditions of Services as Priced Timed Automata2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-Oriented Systems (SOS) have gained importance in different application domains thanks to their ability to enable reusable functionality provided via well-defined interfaces, and the increased opportunities to compose existing units, called services, into various configurations. Developing applications in such a setup, by reusing existing services, brings some concerns regarding the assurance of the expected Quality-of-Service (QoS), and correctness of the employed services. In this paper, we provide a formal mechanism of computing service guarantees, automatically. We assume service models annotated with pre- and postconditions, their semantics given as Priced Timed Automata (PTA), and the forward analysis method for checking the service correctness w.r.t. given requirements. Under these assumptions, we show how to compute the strongest postcondition of the corresponding automata algorithmically, with respect to the specified precondition. The approach is illustrated on a small example of a service modeled as Priced Timed Automaton (PTAn).

  • 26.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    An Analyzable Model of Automated Service Negotiation2013Inngår i: Proceedings - 2013 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering, SOSE 2013, 2013, s. 125-136Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Negotiation is a key aspect of Service-Oriented Systems, which is rarely supported by formal models and tools for analysis. Often, service negotiation proceeds with timing, cost and resource constraints, under which the users and providers exchange information on their respective goals, until reaching a consensus. Consequently, a mathematically driven technique to analyze various ways to achieve such goals is beneficial. In this paper, we propose an analyzable negotiation model between service clients and providers, in our recently introduced language REMES and its corresponding textual service composition language HDCL. The model can be viewed as a negotiation interface for different negotiation strategies and protocols, which iterates until an agreement is reached. We show how to analyze the negotiation model against timing, cost and utility constraints, by transforming it into the Timed Automata formal framework. We illustrate our approach through an insurance scenario assuming a form of the Contract Net Protocol for web services.

  • 27.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Behavioral Modeling and Refinement of Services2009Inngår i: Prodceedings of 21st Nordic Workshop on Programming Theory, NWPT '09, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Checking Correctness of Services Modeled as Priced Timed Automata2012Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7610, issue part 2, Springer, 2012, s. 308-322Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-Oriented Systems (SOS) have gained importance in different application domains thanks to their ability to enable reusable functionality provided via well-defined interfaces, and the increased opportunities to compose existing units, called services, into various configurations. Developing applications in such a setup, by reusing existing services, brings some concerns regarding the assurance of the expected Quality-of-Service (QoS), and correctness of the employed services. In this paper, we describe a formal mechanism of computing service guarantees, automatically. We assume service models annotated with pre- and postconditions, with their semantics given as Priced Timed Automata (PTA), and the forward analysis method for checking the service correctness w.r.t. given requirements. Under these assumptions, we show how to compute the strongest postcondition of the corresponding automata algorithmically, with respect to the specified precondition. The approach is illustrated on a small example of a service modeled as Priced Timed Automaton (PTAn).

  • 29.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Distributed Energy Management Case Study: A Formal Approach to Analyzing Utility Functions2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The service-oriented paradigm has been established to enable quicker development of new applications from already existing services. Service negotiation is a key technique to provide a way of deciding and choosing the most suitable service, out of possibly many services delivering similar functionality but having different response times, resource usages, prices, etc. In this paper, we present a formal approach to the clients-providers negotiation of distributed energy management. The models are described in our recently introduced REMES HDCL language, with timed automata semantics that allows us to apply UPPAAL-based tools for model-checking various scenarios of service negotiation. Our target is to compute ways of reaching the price- and reliability-optimal values of the utility function, at the end of the service negotiation.

  • 30.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Formal reasoning of resource-aware services2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-oriented systems have recently emerged as context-independent component-based systems. Unlike components, services can be created, invoked, composed, and destroyed at run-time. Consequently, all services should have a way of advertising their capabilities to the entities that will use them, and service-oriented modeling should cater for various kinds of service composition. In this paper, we show how services can be formally described by the resource-aware timed behavioral language REMES, which we extend with service-specific information, such as type, capacity, time-to-serve, etc., as well as boolean constraints on inputs, and output guarantees. Assuming a Hoare-triple model of service correctness, we show how to check it by using the strongest postcondition semantics. To provide means for connecting REMES services, we propose a hierarchical language for service composition, which allows for verifying the latter’s correctness. The approach is applied on an abstracted version of an intelligent shuttle system, for which we also compute resource-efficient behaviors, and energy-time trade-offs, by model-checking the system’s underlying Priced Timed Automata semantic representation.

  • 31.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Modeling and Reasoning about Service Behaviors and their Compositions2010Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6416, Berlin: Springer , 2010, s. 82-96Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-oriented systems have recently emerged as context-independent component-based systems. Unlike components, services can be created, invoked, composed, and destroyed at run-time. Consequently, all services need a way of advertising their capabilities to the entities that will use them, and serviceoriented modeling should cater for various kinds of service composition. In this paper, we show how services can be formally described by the resource-aware timed behavioral language REMES, which we extend with service-specific information, such as type, capacity, time-to-serve, etc., as well as boolean constraints on inputs, and output guarantees. Assuming a Hoare-triple model of service correctness, we show how to check it by using the strongest postcondition semantics. To provide means for connecting REMES services, we propose a hierarchical language for service composition, which allows for verifying the latter's correctness. The approach is applied on an abstracted version of an intelligent shuttle system.

  • 32.
    Cavalcanti, Ana
    et al.
    Univ York, York, N Yorkshire, England..
    Petrucci, Laure
    CNRS, LIPN, Paris, France.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Joint 22nd International Workshop on Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems and 17th International Workshop on Automated Verification of Critical Systems2018Inngår i: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, nr 112, s. 47-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The yearly workshop of the ERCIM Working Group on Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems (FMICS) was organised as a joint event together with the workshop on Automated Verification of Critical Systems (AVoCS). The resulting FMICS-AVoCS 2017 workshop took place on 18-20 September in Turin, hosted by the University of Turin.

  • 33.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Marinescu, Raluca
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Design Tool for Service-oriented Systems2013Inngår i: Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 1571-0661, E-ISSN 1571-0661, Vol. 295, s. 95-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a modeling and analysis tool for service-oriented systems. The tool enables graphical modeling of service-based systems, within the resource-aware timed behavioral language Remes, as well as a textual system description. We have developed a graphical environment where services can be composed as desired by the user, together with a textual service composition interface in which compositions can also be checked for correctness. We also provide automated traceability between the two design interfaces, which results in a tool that enhances the potential of system design by intuitive service manipulation. The paper presents the design principles, infrastructure, and the user interface of our tool.

  • 34.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Marinescu, Raluca
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Paul, Pettersson
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    ViTAL : A Verification Tool for EAST-ADL Models using UPPAAL PORT2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems, Paris, France, 2012, s. 328-337Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A system’s architecture influence on the functions and other properties of embedded systems makes its high level analysis and verification very desirable. EAST-ADL is an architecture description language dedicated to automotive embedded system design with focus on structural and functional modeling. The behavioral description is not integrated within the execution semantics, which makes it harder to transform, analyze, and verify EAST-ADL models. Model-based techniques help address this issue by enabling automated transformation between different design models, and providing means for simulation and verification. We present a verification tool, called ViTAL, which provides the possibility to express the functional EAST-ADL behavior as timed automata models, which have precise semantics and can be formally verified. The ViTAL tool enables the transformation of EAST-ADL functional models to the UPPAAL PORT tool for model checking. This method improves the verification of functional and timing requirements in EAST-ADL, and makes it possible to identify dependencies and potential conflicts between different vehicle functions before the actual AUTOSAR implementation.

  • 35.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Marinescu, Raluca
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Towards the Analysis and Verification of EAST-ADL Models using UPPAAL PORT2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A system’s architecture influence on the functions and other properties of embedded systems makes its high level analysis and verification very desirable. EAST-ADL is an architecture description language dedicated to automotive embedded system design with focus on structural and functional modeling. The behavioral description is not integrated within the execution semantics, which makes it harder to transform, analyze, and verify EAST-ADL models. Model-based techniques help address this issue by enabling automated transformation between different design models, and providing means for simulation and verification. We present a verification tool, called ViTAL, which provides the possibility to express the functional EAST-ADL behavior as timed automata models, which have precise semantics and can be formally verified. The ViTAL tool enables the transformation of EAST-ADL functional models to the UPPAAL PORT tool for model checking. This method improves the verification of functional and timing requirements in EAST-ADL, and makes it possible to identify dependencies and potential conflicts between different vehicle functions before the actual AUTOSAR implementation.

  • 36.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Jagerfield, Trevor
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Integrating Pattern-based Formal Requirements Specification in an Industrial Tool-chain2016Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS 2016 IEEE 40TH ANNUAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND APPLICATIONS CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS (COMPSAC), VOL 2, 2016, Vol. 2, s. 167-173, artikkel-id 7552198Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of formal system specifications is a major obstacle to the widespread adoption of formal verification techniques in industrial settings. Specification patterns represent a promising approach that can fill this gap by enabling non-expert practitioners to write formal specifications based on reusing solutions to commonly occurring problems. Despite the fact that the specification patterns have been proven suitable for specification of industrial systems, there is no engineer-friendly tool support adequate for industrial adoption. In this paper, we present a tool called SESAMM Specifier in which we integrate a subset of the specification patterns for formal requirements specification, called SPS, into an existing industrial tool-chain. The tool provides the necessary means for the formal specification of system requirements and the later validation of the formally expressed behavior.

  • 37.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mahmud, Nesredin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Marinescu, Raluca
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ljungkrantz, Oscar
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Analyzing Industrial Simulink Models by Statistical Model Checking2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of automotive systems has been rapid. Nowadays, electronic brains control dozens of functions in vehicles, like braking, cruising, etc. Model-based design approaches, in environments such as MATLAB Simulink, seem to help in addressing the ever-increasing need to enhance quality, and manage complexity, by supporting functional design from predefined block libraries, which can be simulated and analyzed for hidden errors, but also used for code generation. For this reason, providing assurance that Simulink models fulfill given functional and timing requirements is desirable. In this paper, we propose a pattern-based, execution-order preserving automatic transformation of Simulink atomic and composite blocks into stochastic timed automata that can then be analyzed formally with UPPAAL Statistical Model Checker (UPPPAAL SMC). Our method is supported by the tool SIMPPAAL, which we also introduce and apply on an industrial prototype called the Brake-by-Wire system. This work enables the formal analysis of industrial Simulink models, by automatically generating their semantic counterpart.

  • 38.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mahmud, Nesredin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Marinescu, Raluca
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ljungkrantz, Oscar
    Volvo Group Trucks TechnologyGothenburgSweden.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Group Trucks TechnologyGothenburgSweden.
    Simulink to UPPAAL Statistical Model Checker: Analyzing Automotive Industrial Systems2016Inngår i: FM 2016: Formal Methods, 2016, s. 748-756Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The advanced technology used for developing modern automotive systems increases their complexity, making their correctness assurance very tedious. To enable analysis, but also enhance understanding and communication, by simulation, engineers use MATLAB/Simulink modeling during system development. In this paper, we provide further analysis means to industrial Simulink models by proposing a pattern-based, execution-order preserving transformation of Simulink blocks into the input language of UPPAAL Statistical Model checker, that is, timed (hybrid) automata with stochastic semantics. The approach leads to being able to analyze complex Simulink models of automotive systems, and we report our experience with two vehicular systems, the Brake-by-Wire and the Adjustable Speed Limiter.

  • 39.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania AB CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Automated SMT-based Consistency Checking of Industrial Critical Requirements2017Inngår i: ACM SIGAPP Applied Computing Review, ISSN 1559-6915, E-ISSN 1931-0161, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 15-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ever-increasing size, complexity and intricacy of system requirements specifications, it becomes difficult to ensure their correctness with respect to certain criteria such as consistency. Automated formal techniques for consistency checking of requirements, mostly by means of model checking, have been proposed in academia. Sometimes such techniques incur a high modeling cost or analysis time, or are not applicable. To address such problems, in this paper we propose an automated consistency analysis technique of requirements that are formalized based on patterns, and checked using state-of-the-art Satisfiability Modulo Theories solvers. Our method assumes several transformation steps, from textual requirements to formal logic, and next into the format suited for the SMT tool. To automate such steps, we propose a tool, called PROPAS, that does not require any user intervention during the transformation and analysis phases, thus making the consistency analysis usable by non-expert practitioners. For validation, we apply our method on a set of timed computation tree logic requirements of an industrial automotive system called the Fuel Level Display.

  • 40.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania, Sweden.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    SMT-based Consistency Analysis of Industrial Systems Requirements2017Inngår i: 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing SAC2017, 2017, Vol. F128005, s. 1272-1279Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the complexity of industrial systems increases, it becomes dificult to ensure the correctness of system requirements specifications with respect to certain criteria such as consistency. Automated techniques for consistency checking of requirements, mostly by means of model checking, have been proposed in academia. However, such approaches can some-times be costly in terms of modeling and analysis time or not applicable for certain types of properties. In this paper, we present a complementary method that relies on pattern-based formalization of requirements and automated consistency checking using the state-of-the-art SMT tool Z3. For validation, we apply our method on a set of timed computation tree logic requirements of an industrial automotive subsystem called the Fuel Level Display. 

  • 41.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bounded Invariance Checking of Simulink Models2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2019, Vol. Part F147772, s. 2168-2177Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, Simulink models can be verified rigorously against design errors or statistical properties. In this paper, we show how Simulink models can be formally analyzed against invariance properties using bounded model checking reduced to satisfiability modulo theories solving. In its basic form, the technique provides means for verification of an underlying model over bounded traces rigorously, however, in general the procedure is incomplete. We identify common Simulink block types and compositions by analyzing selected industrial models, and we show that for some of them the set of non-repeating states (reachability diameter) can be visited with a finite set of paths of finite length, yielding the verification complete. We complement our approach with a tool, called SyMC that automates the following: i) calculation of the reachability diameter size for some of the designs, ii) generation of finite (bounded) paths of the underlying Simulink model and their encoding into SMT-LIB format and iii) checking invariance properties using the Z3 SMT solver. To show the applicability of our approach, we apply it on a prototype implementation of an industrial Simulink model, namely Brake by Wire from Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden. 

  • 42.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Model-Checking-based vs. SMT-based Consistency Analysis of Industrial Embedded Systems Requirements: Application and Experience2018Inngår i: Electronic Communications of the EASST, ISSN 1863-2122, E-ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 75, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry relies predominantly on manual peer-review techniques for assessing the correctness of system specifications. However, with the ever-increasing size, complexity and intricacy of specifications, it becomes difficult to assure their correctness with respect to certain criteria such as consistency. To address this challenge, a technique called sanity checking has been proposed. The goal of the technique is to assess the quality of the system specification in a systematic and rigorous manner with respect to a formally-defined criterion. Predominantly, the sanity checking criteria, such as for instance consistency, are encoded as reachability or liveness properties which can then be verified via model checking. Recently, a complementary approach for checking the consistency of a system's specification by reducing it to a satisfiability problem that can be analyzed using Satisfiability Modulo Theories has been proposed. In this paper, we compare the two approaches for consistency analysis, by applying them on a relevant industrial use case, using the same definition for consistency and the same set of requirements. Since the bottlenecks of analyzing large systems formally are most often the construction of the model and the time needed to return a verdict, we carry out the comparison with respect to the: i) required effort for generating the analysis model and the latter's complexity, and ii) consistency analysis time. Assuming checking only invariance properties, our results show no significant difference in analysis time between the two approaches when applied on the same system specification under the same definition of consistency. As expected, the main difference between the two comes from the required time and effort of creating the analysis models.

  • 43.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Specifying Industrial System Requirements using Specification Patterns: A Case Study of Evaluation with Practitioners2019Inngår i: ENASE 2019 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering2019, 2019, s. 92-103Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ever-increasing size and complexity of the industrial software systems there is an imperative need for an automated, systematic and exhaustive verification of various software artifacts, such as system specifications, models, code, etc. A potential remedy for this need might lie in a pool of techniques for computer-aided verification of software related artifacts, including system specifications. The Achilles' heel of these techniques, and the main hinder for their wider adoption in industrial development process are the complexity and the specialized skill-set required for the formal encoding of specifications. To alleviate this problem, Specification Patterns that are based on the observation that the system specifications are framed within reoccurring solutions have been proposed. The approach has been shown to be expressive enough for capturing requirements in the automotive domain, however, there is a lack of empirical data that can be used to judge its practical usefulness. In this paper, we involve an existing specification-patterns-based tool, and propose a small-size evaluation of the approach with practitioners, on a case study conducted in cooperation with Scania, one of the world's leading manufacturers of heavy-load vehicles. Our results show that the specification patterns that are supported by an adequate tooling have the potential for adoption in industrial practice. 

  • 44.
    Gu, Rong
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Marinescu, Raluca
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Formal verification of an Autonomous Wheel Loader by model checking2018Inngår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, s. 74-83Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to increase productivity and the workers' safety, the construction industry is moving towards autonomous construction sites, where various construction machines operate without human intervention. In order to perform their tasks autonomously, the machines are equipped with different features, such as position localization, human and obstacle detection, collision avoidance, etc. Such systems are safety critical, and should operate autonomously with very high dependability (e.g., by meeting task deadlines, avoiding (fatal) accidents at all costs, etc.). An Autonomous Wheel Loader is a machine that transports materials within the construction site without a human in the cab. To check the dependability of the loader, in this paper we provide a timed automata description of the vehicle's control system, including the abstracted path planning and collision avoidance algorithms used to navigate the loader, and we model check the encoding in UPPAAL, against various functional, timing and safety requirements. The complex nature of the navigation algorithms makes the loader's abstract modeling and the verification very challenging. Our work shows that exhaustive verification techniques can be applied early in the development of autonomous systems, to enable finding potential design errors that would incur increased costs if discovered later.

  • 45.
    Gu, Rong
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Marinescu, Raluca
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards a Two-layer Framework for Verifying Autonomous Vehicles2019Inngår i: NASA Formal Methods. NFM 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11460, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles rely heavily on intelligent algorithms for path planning and collision avoidance, and their functionality and dependability could be ensured through formal verification. To facilitate the verification, it is beneficial to decouple the static high-level planning from the dynamic functions like collision avoidance. In this paper, we propose a conceptual two-layer framework for verifying autonomous vehicles, which consists of a static layer and a dynamic layer. We focus concretely on modeling and verifying the dynamic layer using hybrid automata and UPPAAL SMC, where a continuous movement of the vehicle as well as collision avoidance via a dipole flow field algorithm are considered. This framework achieves decoupling by separating the verification of the vehicle's autonomous path planning from that of the vehicle autonomous operation in a continuous dynamic environment. To simplify the modeling process, we propose a pattern-based design method, where patterns are expressed as hybrid automata. We demonstrate the applicability of the dynamic layer of our framework on an industrial prototype of an autonomous wheel loader.

  • 46.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Ouimet, Martin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Real-Time Systems2010Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a textbook developed for use in the Master Programme Module E-M.6 "Real-Time Systems" as part of the Postgraduate Distance studies organized by Fraunhofer IESE and the Distance and International Studies Center at the Technical University of Kaiserslauten, Germany.

  • 47.
    Hatvani, Leo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    David, Alexandre
    Aalborg University, Danmark.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Adaptive Task Automata with Earliest-Deadline-First Scheduling2014Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Adjusting to resource changes, dynamic environmental conditions, or new usage modes are some of the reasons why real-time embedded systems need to be adaptive. This requires a rigorous framework for designing such systems, to ensure that the adaptivity does not result in invalidating the system's real-time constraints.

    To address this need, we have recently introduced adaptive task automata, a framework for modeling, verification, and schedulability analysis in adaptive, hard real-time embedded systems, assuming a fixed-priority scheduler.

    In this work, we extend the adaptive task automata framework to incorporate the earliest-deadline-first scheduling policy, as well as enable implementation of any other dynamic scheduling policy. To prove the decidability of our model, and at the same time maintain a manageable degree of conciseness, we show an encoding of our model as a network of timed automata with clock updates. To support this, we also show that reachability in our class of timed automata with updates is decidable. Our contribution helps to streamline the process of designing safety critical adaptive embedded systems.

  • 48.
    Hatvani, Leo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    David, Alexandre
    Aalborg University, Danmark.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Adaptive Task Automata with Earliest-Deadline-First Scheduling2014Inngår i: Electronic Communications of the EASST, ISSN 1863-2122, E-ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adjusting to resource changes, dynamic environmental conditions, or new usage modes are some of the reasons why real-time embedded systems need to be adaptive. This requires a rigorous framework for designing such systems, to ensure that the adaptivity does not result in invalidating the system's real-time constraints.

    To address this need, we have recently introduced adaptive task automata, a framework for modeling, verification, and schedulability analysis in adaptive, hard real-time embedded systems, assuming a fixed-priority scheduler.

    In this work, we extend the adaptive task automata framework to incorporate the earliest-deadline-first scheduling policy, as well as enable implementation of any other dynamic scheduling policy. To prove the decidability of our model, and at the same time maintain a manageable degree of conciseness, we show an encoding of our model as a network of timed automata with clock updates. To support this, we also show that reachability in our class of timed automata with updates is decidable. Our contribution helps to streamline the process of designing safety critical adaptive embedded systems.

  • 49.
    Hatvani, Leo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Jansen, Anton
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    An integrated tool for trade-off analysis of quality-of-service attributes2010Inngår i: Proceedings of The 2nd International Workshop on the Quality of Service-Oriented Software Systems, New York: ACM , 2010, s. Art no. 2-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a tool for performing trade-off analysis of Quality-of-Service attributes of design solutions resulted from architectural, behavioral, or deployment changes in service-oriented systems. The tool allows for comparing the performance, reliability, and maintainability of such solutions, in an attempt to compute the optimal one with respect to the weighted sum of the considered quality attributes. Our tool uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process for computing trade-offs, and is integrated into the Quality Impact Prediction for Evolving Service-Oriented Software IDE.

  • 50.
    Hatvani, Leo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Adaptive task automata: A framework for verifying adaptive embedded systems2012Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7212, Springer, 2012, s. 115-129Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for modeling and analysis of adaptive embedded systems, based on the model of timed automata with tasks. The model is extended with primitives allowing modeling of adaptivity, by testing the potential schedulability of a given task, in the context of the set of currently enqueued tasks. This makes it possible to describe adaptive embedded systems, in which decisions to admit further tasks or take other measures of adaptivity is based on available CPU resources, external, or internal events. We show that this model can be encoded in the framework of timed automata, and hence that the problem is decidable. We also validate the framework, by using the Uppaal tool.

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