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  • 1.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Expectations relating to childcare among French and Swedish families2007In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 17-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how policy and values interrelate concerning expectations of childcare based on 80 interviews with 40 families with young children from France and Sweden, respectively. Upbringing, learning and socialization are important expectations among French parents. The results presented here are in line with educational goals that may have been influenced by policy. The findings suggest that France may, in terms of expectations on childcare, still belong to the conservative cluster as categorized by Esping-Andersen (1990), although family policy may differ from that of, for example, Germany and Italy in the same cluster. Swedish parents stress the importance of the individual child as well as pedagogy, thus, indicating compatibility between a parental wish for the individual development of the child and an emphasis on collective care in Swedish family policy.

  • 2.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Université de Umeå, Sweden.
    Expériences de conciliation du travail et de la vie de famille en France et en Suède2006In: Enfances, Familles, Générations, ISSN 1708-6310, no 4, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how social policy and norms affect  experiences of the reconciliation of work and family life, using interviews with 40 families with young children from France and Sweden respectively. The major findings indicate that Swedish parents more often experience role conflicts and stress than French parents, thus giving stronger support for the role stress theory  among Swedes. Swedes refer to a lack of own time whereas particularly French women express dissatisfaction with domestic division of labour with their partner. French parents favour individual childcare at home or care at the workplace more than Swedes, who emphasise public collective childcare.

  • 3.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Why Most Swedish Fathers and Few French Fathers use Paid Parental Leave: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Parents2008In: Fathering. A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, ISSN 1537-6680, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 192-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why fathers did or did not take parental leave and their leave practices were studied in two countries with very different policies and cultural contexts, namely France and Sweden. The couples' income contributions and negotiations were assessed. Data were drawn from interviews completed in 1998 and 1999 with 20 French and 35 Swedish heterosexual couples who had at least one child below school-age living in the same household. The economic situation of the couple  was an important reason in both nations as to why mothers used most or all of the leave. Evidence of negotiations about taking  leave was expressed by Swedish  fathers but not by French fathers. Swedish  fathers expressed a child oriented masculinity, which is interpreted as representing modest change in  hegemonic masculinity. In France, fathers' taking parental leave was not considered an alternative among parents. This practice and their rhetoric  suggest no change in hegemonic masculinity.

  • 4.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Making oneself heard: Children's experiences of empowerment in Swedish preschools2015In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 185, no 4, p. 580-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child–adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four-to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools’ activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments, followed by a photo-elicitation interview. Data were analysed by content analysis. Results showed that authority was expressed in relation to teachers and parents. Children negotiated about handling situations and described relations with teachers as uncomplicated; the contrary was the case with peers. Structure meant that children could choose between courses of action within set frames, describing empowerment as decision-making within limitations. Results indicated the importance of preschool teachers stimulating children to reflect on their own ability by discussing issues concerning children’s sense of empowerment, using methods similar to the ones in this study.

  • 5.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    To make oneself heard - children's perceptions of empowerment in the Swedish preschool context2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been a developing interest concerning children’s voices in for example decision-making and planning within different educational contexts, such as the preschool. Although children’s rights are emphasized, it is not clear how these rights are expressed in children’s everyday life. Further, children from a minority ethnic group risk marginalization in relation to other children as well as to significant adults and the society as a whole. The aim of this study was to analyze children’s perceptions of empowerment in a preschool context in a gender and ethnicity perspective. Data, collected in 2010, comprised of 25 children at 4 different preschools (aged 4-6, 13 girls, 7 children with other ethnicity than Swedish). Two different methods were used: (1) a group interview with 5-8 children at a time, using a puppet interview technique, playing different scenarios involving the children as co-actors, and (2) a photo walk where children took photos of their indoor and outdoor environment. The photos were used as stimulated recall in individual interviews with the children to let them express their empowerment in the everyday life at preschool. Children’s perceptions were in part related to environmental prerequisites such as the social and physical context of the preschool as well as more distal factors such as resources and values on the macro level. Therefore, to highlight the preschool as an influential micro environment in children’s exercising of empowerment, the interview analysis was based on an ecological systems perspective.The intersectional perspective was used to emphasize possible differences in the children’s perceptions of empowerment due to gender and ethnicity. The results indicate that children perceive the preschool teacher as an uncontested authority. In the preschool environment with least resources and most ethnic diversity among the children, there seem to be a tendency that children perceive the teachers as even stronger authorities, than in the more affluent preschool environments. The peer relations are, however, more complex and questioned by the children. If children have internalized parts of the social context, like rules, seem to vary due to their own experience of consequences of such rules. A salient prerequisite for empowerment is to increase children’s opportunities to understand and be understood. Therefore, preschool teachers need to elaborate on children’s experiences.

  • 6.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Swedish fathers' motives for parental leave take-up in different scenarios2015In: Care Policies in Korea, Japan and Sweden, Paju(Gyungkido), South Korea: Yang Seo Won , 2015, 1, p. 215-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Umeå University.
    Swedish fathers' motives for parental leave take-up in different scenarios2013In: Women, Men and Children in families: Private Troubles and Public Issues / [ed] Eriikka Oinonen, Katja Repo, Tampere: Tampere University Press , 2013, 1, p. 91-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Swedish fathers’ motives for parental leave take-up on different scenes.2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Changes in gender equality?: Swedish fathers’ parental leave,division of childcare and housework2014In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is well known for its family policy and this study explores whether fathers’ parental leave is related to later division of childcare and housework. Two materials were used; a panel survey (2003, 2009) and an interview study (2008). Respondents in the survey had their first child between the waves and the interview-study focused on parents of 2–3 year olds. The survey is analyzed by logistic regression and the interviews by grounded theory. The results indicate that when fathers took long leave parents shared both household tasks and childcare more equally after the leave. Higher expectations of sharing childcare is related to a higher share of divided childcare once becoming parents, although it seems that some tasks are more often shared than others. When the father took long leave both parents mention that the child relates to the father as much as the mother in everyday life.

  • 10.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kaufman, Gayle
    Davidson College, North Carolina, US.
    Fathers, Work and Family in Sweden and the US2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated Swedish and US fathers’ experiences of work-family conflict, possible solutions, and actual changes to their work situation in relation to becoming a parent. The Swedish data were drawn from interviews completed in 2008 with 16 fathers with a child born in 2005 or 2006. The US data came from interviews conducted between 2005 and 2007 with 26 fathers with at least one child age five or younger. The semi-structured interviews were analyzed according to grounded theory. In terms of conflicts, half of the Swedish fathers mention time pressures or stress, with some referring to work-life balance as a puzzle. Findings indicate that the US fathers think that they work too much overtime as well as shift hours, and they also mention arguments with their partner about responsibility at home. At the same time, a majority of both US and Swedish fathers emphasize family as a priority over work. In terms of possible solutions, a common theme among Swedish fathers is to mention that ideal work hours would be less than their current hours, with some wishing for a shorter work week (e.g., 4 days) and others a shorter work day (e.g., 6 hours). US fathers most commonly wish for a more flexible work-life situation. In terms of actual changes, several fathers adjust their work lives in response to their family life. Among Swedish fathers, the most common changes involve working fewer hours, adjusting their start and end times, and taking advantage of flexible hours. Swedish fathers also emphasize trading off with their partners, including ‘shift parenting.’ As for US fathers, some have changed their job to be more at home, some changed from working three shifts and some fathers solved the situation by intense work during a limited time.

  • 11.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kaufman, Gayle
    Davidson College, North Carolina, USA.
    What  Work-Family Conflicts Do Fathers Experience in Sweden and in the United States?2016In: Balancing Work and Family in a Changing Society: The Fathers' Perspective / [ed] Isabella Crespi, Elisabetta Ruspini, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 1, p. 176-189Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigated Swedish and US fathers’ experiences of work-family conflict, possible solutions, and actual changes to their work situation in relation to becoming a parent. The Swedish data were drawn from interviews completed in 2008 with 16 fathers with a child born in 2005 or 2006. The US data came from interviews conducted between 2005 and 2007 with 26 fathers with at least one child age five or younger. The Swedish semi-structured interviews were analyzed according to grounded theory. In terms of conflicts, half of the Swedish fathers mention time pressures or stress, with some referring to work-life balance as a puzzle. Findings indicate that the US fathers think that they work too much overtime as well as shift hours, and they also mention arguments with their partner about responsibility at home. At the same time, a majority of both US and Swedish fathers emphasize family as a priority over work. In terms of possible solutions, a common theme among Swedish fathers is to mention that ideal work hours would be less than their current hours, with some wishing for a shorter work week (e.g., 4 days) and others a shorter work day (e.g., 6 hours). US fathers most commonly wish for a more flexible work-life situation. In terms of actual changes, several fathers adjust their work lives in response to their family life. Among Swedish fathers, the most common changes involve working fewer hours, adjusting their start and end times, and taking advantage of flexible hours. Swedish fathers also emphasize trading off with their partners, including ‘shift parenting.’ As for US fathers, some have changed their job to be more at home, some changed from working three shifts and some fathers solved the situation by intense work during a limited time.

  • 12.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lassinantti, Kitty
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Social Work Practices for Young People with Complex Needs: An Integrative Review2018In: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, ISSN 0738-0151, E-ISSN 1573-2797, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 207-219Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this integrative review is to investigate research of social work practices for adolescents and young adults with complex needs. The research questions are: What are the major themes in studies of practices for young people with complex needs? How do studies suggest that complex needs can be met in ways that are beneficial for young people? A young person with complex needs is in this review defined as an adolescent or young adult who, due to mental ill-health in combination with different types of social vulnerabilities, is receiving assistance from multiple welfare services. Searches were conducted in seven databases. These searches resulted in a sample of 1677 records, published 2007-2016, which in the screening process were reduced to 24 publications, all peer-reviewed articles. The participants in the studies in the articles consisted of young people, parents and professionals from mainly Anglo-Saxon countries. The articles were analyzed with qualitative summative content analysis. Three empirically generated themes were found in studies of work practices targeting young people with complex needs: collaboration-, relationship- and empowerment-oriented practices. In conclusion, the practices contain a wide variety of features, but with the joint aim of acknowledging young people's needs. The results can be used by practitioners and policymakers to further the development of services for youth with mental ill-health and social vulnerabilities, who use multiple welfare services.

  • 13.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lassinantti, Kitty
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Where Lies the Complexity?: Interviews with Swedish Young People who Receive Support from Social Services and Psychiatric Care.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental ill-health among young people has increased in the past decades in Sweden as well as in other western countries. When mental ill-health is connected with social vulnerability such as difficulties in completing education, unemployment or substance abuse you may be considered to have “complex needs”. This paper presents findings from a project (2016-2018) in two municipalities. The data consists of semi-structured interviews from two sub studies. One with 13 young persons (15-25 years) who have been or are recipients of long-term support from social services as well as psychiatric care, and one with 24 professionals from social services and psychiatric care. The aim is to investigate young people’s and professionals’ experiences of work practices aiming at increased well-being for young people labelled as having complex needs. The research questions are: What barriers for work practices for sustainable support are there from the young people’s perspective? How to overcome work practice barriers for giving sustainable support, from the professionals’ perspective? The questions are reflected in three themes; empowerment, relationships and collaboration. Barriers mentioned by the young people are high employee turnover as well as too many professionals involved in activities. Professionals might have their own ideas about what should be done, not taking the wishes of the young person into consideration to a satisfying level. In collaboration between different organizations, the professionals consider it important with at least one person who has the influence in several of them. To take the young person seriously as well as staying on in difficult times are considered important. We argue that the expression complex needs, when used as a way to categorize young people, may obscure that the problem also lies with highly specialized and complex welfare state organizations.  They do not always succeed in catering for the interconnected needs of their clients.

  • 14.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lassinantti, Kitty
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Young people with complex needs meet complex organizations: an interview study with Swedish professionals about sustainable work practices2018In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 620-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns preconditions for the well-being of young people with mental ill-health combined with social vulnerabilities, also referred to as youth with complex needs. Research questions are: What barriers to sustainable work practices for young people labelled as having complex needs do professionals encounter? What do professionals identify as possible ways to overcome these barriers? Sustainable work practices are reflected in three themes: empowerment, relationships and collaboration. The findings are based on semi-structured interviews with 24 professionals, 3 men and 21 women, working in psychiatric care and the social services in two Swedish municipalities in 2016 and 2017. Major barriers are lack of continuity and co-ordination in staff and support, and fragmentation of work practices. As a consequence of the increased specialization of human service organizations, young people have to interact with many different professionals which could cause disparate interventions. Possible ways mentioned to overcome these barriers are supported through good interactional skills, using keyworkers as well therapeutic alliances, wrap-around services and case management. Complexity is linked to organizations and work practices rather than to young people. An often dysfunctional service delivery system in organizations with rigid boundaries may also affect professionals’ aim for sustainable support.

  • 15.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Papporna och motiven: Den svenska föräldraledigheten i ett geografiskt perspektiv2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate Swedish parents’ attitudes and experiences in two counties, concerning the use of paid parental leave. The counties Västerbotten has the highest and Skåne the lowest paid parental leave use among fathers. Two municipalities with high and low parental leave use among fathers were studied in respective county, Umeå and Lycksele (Västerbotten) as well as Lund and Tomelilla (Skåne). The methodology was inspired by grounded theory. Data was collected during 2008 and comprised of 32 interviews with fathers and mothers, 20 interviews with key persons like midwives and HR-managers at male dominated enterprises. It also included basic statistics on the municipalities. The results indicate that a traditional division of household labor is a stronger pattern in Skåne couples compared with Västerbotten couples. The same pattern occurs in municipalities with a low parental leave use among fathers compared with those with a high use. A more positive attitude to the parental insurance is found in the municipalities with a high parental leave use among fathers compared to those with a low use. One explanation could be that changes tend to first occur in heterogeneous environments with a relatively young and well educated population, which is the case for Umeå and Lund. In Västerbotten, the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and enterprises had campaigns during the 1990s to increase men’s parental leave use which may have contributed positively. Fathers in both counties express positive experiences from having been on parental leave. A dominant impression is that employers overall have shown a positive attitude to fathers’ leave taking.

  • 16.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Parental Leave in Sweden: Motives, Experiences, and Gender Equality amongst Parents2011In: Fathering. A journal of theory, research, and practice about men as fathers, ISSN 1537-6680, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Parental leave in Sweden: Motives, perceptions and gender equality among parents2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated Swedish parents’ motives for, experiences of and gender equality in relation to paid parental leave. The purpose was to explore similarities and differences in attitudes and experiences between parents in the two regions in Sweden with the largest difference in paid parental leave use among fathers. Data were drawn from interviews completed in 2008 with 16 heterosexual couples with a child born 2005 or 2006. The semi-structured interviews were analyzed according to grounded theory. In terms of experiences of the leave, a positive similarity in the study was that the couples described that they got to know the child better. Some negative similarities were that they felt they were alone and restricted. Primarily, the fathers in the northern part, focused on the lack of male networks. A traditional division of labor was a stronger pattern among couples in the southern region compared with the couples in the northern region. Tendencies are indicated towards an increased child-orientation, which could be connected with a change in hegemonic masculinity. In conclusion, the differences discovered between the four communities may to a great extent be depending on a cultural lag. This implied that change in values tend to take place first in social environments with multiple heterogeneous actors.

  • 18.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Dhalgren, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Parental leave in Sweden: Motives, experiences and gender equality among parents – focusing fathers2010In: ISA 2010, XVII World Congress of Sociology, Gothenburg, Sweden, July 11-17, 2010, p. 22-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to explore similarities and differences in motives, experiences and gender equality between parents in two municipalities (one smaller than the other) in each of the two counties in Sweden with the largest difference in paid parental leave use among fathers. Data were drawn from interviews in 2008 with 16 heterosexual couples with a child born 2005 or 2006. The semi-structured interviews were analyzed inspired by grounded theory. A positive similarity was that couples experienced that they got to know the child better. Negative similarities were that mothers and fathers occasionally felt alone and restricted, fathers emphasized lack of male networks. Traditional division of household labor is a stronger pattern among couples in the southern county compared with couples in the northern county. Tendencies are towards increased child-orientation among fathers, which could connect to change in hegemonic masculinity, not necessarily related to increased gender equality in household labor. Differences may depend on that changes in values tend to first occur in heterogeneous social environments, such as the larger municipalities. In the northern county, extensive campaigns have been held during the 1990s to encourage men’s use of paid parental leave, which may have contributed to regional difference.

  • 19.
    Appelgren Engstrom, Heléne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala universitet.
    Borneskog-Sinclair, Catrin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Mothers in Same-Sex Relationships Describe the Process of Forming a Family as a Stressful Journey in a Heteronormative World: A Swedish Grounded Theory Study.2018In: Maternal and Child Health Journal, ISSN 1092-7875, E-ISSN 1573-6628, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 1444-1450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to gain insight into how women in same-sex relationships experience the process of forming a family through the use of assisted reproduction technique (ART), from planning the pregnancy to parenthood, and their experience of parental support from healthcare professionals. Methods The participants were 20 women in a same-sex relationship who had conceived through ART at a Swedish clinic. Semi-structured interviews including open questions about pregnancy, parenthood and support from healthcare professionals were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed according to grounded theory. Results The core category, A stressful journey through a heteronormative world, emerged from the analysis, as did three subcategories: A journey fraught with difficulties and decisions; The nuclear family as the norm; and A need for psychological support. Same-sex parents expressed a need for more information about how to access ART in Sweden. Both the healthcare organization and treatment were perceived as heteronormative. In particular, these women lacked psychological support during the demanding process of utilizing a sperm donor to conceive. Conclusions for Practice Professionals in antenatal care should undergo mandatory cultural competency training to ensure cultural sensitivity and the provision of updated information, tailored brochures and early parental support for families with same-sex parents. All parents need guidance and support from competent, caring personnel throughout the entire process of forming a family.

  • 20.
    Appelgren Engström, Heléne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Borneskog, Catrin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Linköpings universitet.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Mothers in same‐sex relationships—Striving for equal parenthood:: A grounded theory studyIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To get a deeper understanding of how mothers in same-sex relationships think and reason about their parenthood in terms of gender equality, and how they experience early parental support from child healthcare professionals. Background: There is an increasing amount of research on how women in same-sex relationships experience healthcare services when forming a family. Yet there is limited knowledge of what kind of early parental support these women may request. Design: Grounded theory. Follows guidelines for qualitative research (COREQ). Method: Twenty women ranging from 25 to 42 years of age participated in semi-structured interviews. Data collection and analysis took place in parallel, as recommended in grounded theory methodology. Results: The results are described by the core category Same-sex mothers request professional support to achieve equal parenthood, which includes five categories: (a) equality in everyday life, (b) diversity in mother and child attachment, (c) justification of the family structure, (d) ambivalent thoughts about their child's future and (e) a special need for networking and request for professional support. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how same-sex mothers experience their parenthood and the parental support that is offered. Conclusion: Child healthcare professionals need to be sensitive and recognise both mothers as equal parents and offer early parenting groups where two-mother families feel included and supported. Relevance to clinical practice: Healthcare professionals need to be aware of diverse family formations and meet each parent as a unique individual without heteronormative assumptions. Same-sex mothers must be treated as equal parents and acknowledged as mothers. Healthcare professionals should offer inclusive and supportive parental groups to same-sex families. They should also inform and support nonbirth mothers about the possibility to breastfeed.

  • 21.
    Kaufman, G.
    et al.
    Davidson College, Davidson, NC, United States.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    The Role of Partners and Workplaces in British and Swedish Men’s Parental Leave Decisions2017In: Men and Masculinities, ISSN 1097-184X, E-ISSN 1552-6828, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 533-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has been long known for its early introduction of parental leave in the 1970s and the introduction of the first nontransferable “daddy month” in 1995 while the United Kingdom (UK) lagged behind with policies that reflected a strong male breadwinner model until the recent introduction of Additional Paternity Leave, which extended paternity leave up to twenty-six weeks. Our study examines parental leave decisions following the changes in policy, paying particular attention to the role of partners and workplaces. We draw on data from thirty-two interviews with Swedish parents conducted in 2008 and twenty-two interviews with British parents conducted in 2012. We find that mothers in both countries have great influence over parental leave decisions. However, this often perpetuates a much greater gendered division of parental leave in the UK than in Sweden. Furthermore, the British workplace continues to hold very different expectations for male and female employees regarding parental leave, while Swedish employers are generally accepting of men’s use of long parental leave. 

  • 22.
    Lassinantti, Kitty
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Being a "bad” mother?: Negotiations of gendered norms in parenthood2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper, based on data from two Swedish interview studies conducted in 2010-2013 and 2015, is to critically investigate constructions of motherhood among women who identify themselves as having neuropsychiatric disabilities. The data, based on a selection of participants in the above mentioned interview studies include participants who identify themselves as women, who are parents to children under the age of majority, and who identify themselves as being a person with a neuropsychiatric disability. In the paper the women’s struggles of being perceived of, by others and by themselves, as "good mothers" are highlighted. To be a ‘good mother’ are by the women in the study constructed as abilities to organize the daily life of the family, organize and do household chores, keep track of the children’s activities, as well as the ability to clean and present a tidy and respectable home. Against these normative images of motherhood, where a ‘normal woman’ is positioned as someone who has an ability to organize the daily life of the family and present a respectable and tidy home, women in the studies position themselves as ‘deviant moms’. When they explain their lack of ability to organize and clean as being an effect of them having a cognitive, neuropsychiatric disability, they position themselves within a bio medicalizing discourse, where a certain way to ‘do mothering’ is constructed as a disability and a pathological deviation from normative motherhood. However, they also resist to be positioned as deviant and ‘bad mothers’ by positioning themselves within a norm critical resistance discourse that problematize gendered power relations, and notions of normative femininity connected to images of motherhood. 

     

  • 23.
    Lassinantti, Kitty
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    The categorization ‘complex needs’: Constructions of complexity as a problem in professionals’ discourse2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social work discourse, youth with mental ill-health in combination with social vulnerability are more frequently referred to as “youth with complex needs”. The aim of this paper, based on two interview studies, one with professionals in psychiatric care and social work, and one with youth (age 15-25 years), is to critically investigate how "complex needs" is used as a way to categorize youth. Youth with complex needs are by professionals in the study constructed as recipients of long-term but less successful support from social work services and psychiatric care. They are also, from the perspective of professionals, described as a category that in various ways present challenges for welfare services. Categorizations of people and needs are prerequisites for legal, bureaucratic and professional systems within the welfare state. Welfare organizations construct knowledge and strategies regarding specific target groups according to these categorizations. In the paper we discuss whether there is a risk that a categorization such as complex needs is used in a way that individualize problems, thereby obscuring problems that are related to complex organizations and care systems that cater for the needs of young people in less effective ways.

  • 24.
    Lassinantti, Kitty
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Young people with complex needs meet complex welfare state organizations.: An interview study with professionals in psychiatric care and social work.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Young people with complex needs. An interview study with professionals in psychiatric care and social work

    Theoretical background: Mental ill-health in youth has increased the past decade, in Sweden as well as in other countries. The most common diagnoses being depression, anxiety, and/or neuropsychiatric diagnoses such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or Autism Spectrum Disorder. Mental ill-health is often accompanied by social vulnerabilities, as for example difficulties in completing education, unemployment and substance abuse. Thus this is a group of young people who often need support from both social work services and psychiatric care. Young people with mental ill-health with multiple and interconnected needs are in social work discourse more frequently referred to as having “complex needs”. 

    Categorizations of people and needs are prerequisites for legal, bureaucratic and professional systems within the welfare state who construct knowledge and strategies regarding specific target groups based on such categorizations. The aim of this study is to, on a local level, critically investigate how the target group youth with complex needs is constructed, and how these constructions inform policy and work practices among professionals in psychiatric care and social work.

    Research question: How do professionals in psychiatric care and social work services construct youth with complex needs? And how do these constructions inform policy and work practices among professionals in psychiatric care and social work?

    Method: The paper is based on 24 semi-structured interviews from 2016-2017 with professionals in psychiatric care and social work from two municipalities (100 000 and 150 000 inhabitants) in Sweden.

    Results:  Youth with complex needs are constructed as recipients of long-term but less successful support from social work services and psychiatric care. Lack of collaboration and lack of flexibility in work practices, and diverging opinions among professionals on the nature of the problem, type of solution, or whether and to what extent the young person’s needs are the responsibility of their organization and profession are described as impediments to sustainable care.

    Discussion: In the paper we discuss whether there is a risk that a categorization such as complex needs is used in a way that individualize problems, as social problems are being transformed into medical problems. Biomedical power/knowledge may intersect with other socio-political factors, as in welfare state policies and practices, in a way that reflect and reinforce neoliberal ideology, thereby obscuring that problems experienced by youth are related to societal changes and complex organizations and care systems that cater for the needs of young people in less effective ways.

  • 25.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Borås University, Sweden.
    Björkman, Berit
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Björk-Willén, Polly
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Donohue, Dana
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hvit, Sara
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Children's voices: Differentiating a child perspective from a child's perspective2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 162-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this paper was to discuss differences between having a child perspective and taking the child’s perspective based on the problem being investigated.

    Methods: Conceptual paper based on narrative review.

    Results: The child’s perspective in research concerning children that need additional support are important. The difference between having a child perspective and taking the child’s perspective in conjunction with the need to know children’s opinions has been discussed in the literature. From an ideological perspective the difference between the two perspectives seems self-evident, but the perspectives might be better seen as different ends on a continuum solely from an adult’s view of children to solely the perspective of children themselves. Depending on the research question, the design of the study may benefit from taking either perspective. In this article, we discuss the difference between the perspectives based on the problem being investigated, children’s capacity to express opinions, environmental adaptations and the degree of interpretation needed to understand children’s opinions.

    Conclusion: The examples provided indicate that children’s opinions can be regarded in most research, although to different degrees.

    Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/17518423.2013.801529

  • 26.
    Sreyasak, Atcharawadee
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sridawruang, Chaweevang
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Healthcare providers’ reflections on caring for teenage parents in Thailand.2016In: Healthcare providers’ reflections on caring for teenage parents in Thailand., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Sreyasak, Atcharawadee
    et al.
    Adultand Aging, Prachomklao College of Nursing,Phetchaburi Province, Thailand.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sridawruang, Chaweewan
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing Udon Thani, Udon Thani, Thailand.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala universitet.
    Parents’ experiences of their teenage children’s parenthood: An interview study2018In: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we described and analyzed parents’ experiences of teenage parenthood and the provision of support to their teenage children who had recently have become parents. A quali- tative method was used. In-depth interviews with 24 participants were conducted, all parents of teenage parents. Data were analyzed using content analysis; four themes and 11 subthemes were identified. The results show that parents’ norms and values were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. The participants had mixed emotions and reactions to their teenage chil- dren’s parenthood. Also participants were sources of support to the teenage parents and assisted them in their transition to parenthood. However, the participants also expressed the importance that their teenage children continue their education and avoid repeated pregnan- cies. This study highlights how emotional, instrumental, and informational support provided by parents to their teenagers can assist the latter in their transition to parenthood. In their work with teenage parents, healthcare providers can benefit from teenage parent's own parents involvement and experiences. 

  • 28.
    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Anna Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sridawruang, C.
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing Udon Thani Thailand .
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Father role: A comparison between teenage and adult first-time fathers in Thailand2015In: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 377-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compared perceived father roles among teenage and adult first-time fathers in Thailand. The design was cross-sectional and comparative, and the sample involved 70 teenage and 70 adult fathers, whose children were 2-6 months old. The fathers were recruited from 32 primary healthcare centers in the western region of Thailand. Three validated, self-reported questionnaires with multiple-choice questions were used for data collection. Differences between the two groups were analyzed using χ2-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The results revealed differences between teenage and adult fathers concerning income, educational level, and intention to have a baby. The teenage father group had a lower sense of competence, and scored lower on childrearing behavior and father-child relationship than the adult father group. These findings provide healthcare professionals with increased knowledge and understanding of teenage fathers' needs in preparing for parenthood. Given that we now know the importance of positive father roles in children's lives, health authorities should be expected to provide resources to help support these fathers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  • 29.
    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sridawruang, C.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Healthcare providers’ experiences of caring for teenage parents in ThailandIn: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee
    et al.
    Prachomklao Coll Nursing, 203 Moo2, Thongchai 76000, Muang, Thailand..
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sridawruang, Chaweewan
    Boromarajonani Coll Nursing Udon Thani, Mueang 41330, Udon Thani, Thailand..
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Healthcare providers' caring for Thai teenage parents: A focus group study2019In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 69, p. 172-178Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Prachomklao College of Nursing, Phetchaburi, Thailand.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sridawruang, Chaweewan
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Udon Thani, Thailand.
    Neamsakul, Wanwadee
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Uttraradit, Thailand.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    The New Generation of Thai Fathers: Breadwinners involved in Parenting2018In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891, no 5, p. 1368-1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a father for the first time might cause great changes in a man’s identity and lifestyle. Teenage fathers must strive to balance two competing roles: the teenage role and the father role. The current study design followed grounded theory methodology to gain a deeper understanding of how Thai teenage fathers reason about becoming and being a father from a gender equality perspective. Participants were selected from a heterogeneous group of fathers until saturation was reached (n = 25). Most of the fathers were cohabiting with their partner in an extended family. An interview guide was developed, a pilot study was undertaken, and interviews were performed on two different occasions: once during the second trimester of pregnancy and again when the baby was 5 to 6 months old. The core category, “Male breadwinners involved in parenting,” encompassed persons making the transition from being solely a teenager to being a teenage father. Most of the fathers accepted the unintended pregnancy and took on the expected breadwinning responsibility of a father. They prepared for fatherhood and changed their lifestyle. Their families provided support. Nevertheless, the fathers sought to avoid further unplanned parenthood by learning about family planning. The teenage fathers emphasized breadwinning first, then involved himself in the child and the housework. These findings provide an increased understanding of Thai teenage fathers.

  • 32.
    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Prachomklao College of Nursing, Phetchaburi province, Thailand .
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sridawruang, Chaweewan
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Udon Thani, Thailand.
    Neumsakul, Wanwadee
    Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood: A grounded theory study among Thai teenagers2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, ISSN 0266-6138, Vol. 42, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective to gain a deeper understanding of Thai teenage parents’ perspectives, experiences and reasoning about becoming and being a teenage parent from a gender perspective. Design an exploratory design using grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. An interview guide was developed, a pilot study was undertaken, and interviews were performed on two different occasions: once during the second trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 5–6 months old. Setting a province in the western part of Thailand. Participants the selection of a heterogeneous group of teenage parents-to-be continued until saturation was reached, as describe by Glaser and Strauss (1967), in all n=50. Inclusion criteria for participants were that they were heterosexual couples, under 20 years of age, cohabiting, and expecting their first child. Findings the core category ‘struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood’ comprises descriptions of the process from when the teenagers first learned about the pregnancy until the child was six months old. The teenagers had failed to use contraceptives which led to an unintended parenthood. Their parenthood became a turning point as the teenagers started to change their behaviours and lifestyle during pregnancy, and adapted their relationships to partner and family. Family commitments was a facilitator, through support given by their families. Finally, becoming a parent describes ways of dealing with the parental role, by engaging in parental activities and reestablishing goals in life. Most of the teenage parents reproduced traditional gender roles by being a caring mother or a breadwinning father respectively. Key conclusions ‘struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood’ referred to the parents’ stories about how they struggled and coped with life changes and their parental role when they became unintentionally pregnant, accepted their parenting, and finally became parents. After becoming parents, the main concerns of most of the teenage parents were being a caring mother and a breadwinning father. Implications for practice this study contributes a deeper understanding of Thai teenage parents’ experiences of becoming and being a parent and might improve health care professionals’ adaptation of care for teentranatanage parents and inspire them to tailor their care specifically to teenager's needs from early pregnancy to parenthood.

  • 33. Westmarland, Nicole
    et al.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Burrell, Stephen
    Egeberg Holmgren, Linn
    Ruxton, Sandy
    Why do some men take a public stance against men's violence against women, and how can more men be encouraged to do so2018Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 33 of 33
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