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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A refined terminology on system-of-systems substructure and constituent system states2019In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 31-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of systems-of-systems (SoS) engineering, there is broad agreement on a few characterizations, and these are currently being standardized. However, many aspects in the field still lack an established terminology. In particular, there are unclarities related to the internal structure of an SoS, and on the internal states of constituent systems. In this paper, a refined terminology is therefore proposed, which covers the internal substructure of an SoS; the states of constituent systems in relation to those substructures; and how it relates to hierarchical levels. This terminology can also be used to classify the characteristics of an SoS through different metrics. The terminology is illustrated through three examples of SoS applications in various domains. 

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory, Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden .
    A Systematic Mapping of the Research Literature on System-of-Systems Engineering2015In: 10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE, 2015, p. 18-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research area systems-of-systems engineering has increased rapidly over the last decade and now contains a substantial body of literature. To get an overview of the field, a systematic mapping of the literature has been done, covering over 3000 papers. It revealed a field massively dominated by US researchers, with an emphasis on military and space systems. A large number of people are involved, but few researchers focus on the area, and citations are fairly low compared to other fields. Important research topics include architecture, modeling and simulation, integration and interoperability, communication, sustainability, and safety and security. There are signs of immaturity within the research area, and it is recommended that existing venues are complemented with an international scientific event with very high standards for submissions.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Transformation-Based Model of Evolutionary Architecting for Embedded System Product Lines2010In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Oslo, 2010, Vol. 644, p. 113-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many industries, embedded software plays an increasingly important role in defining the characteristics of the products. Often, a product line approach is used, and the system architecture is developed through evolution rather than being redone from scratch for each product. In this paper, we present a model of such an evolutionary process based on architecture transformations. The model attempts to give an accurate description of how real architects actually work. Key elements of the approach are how the transformations interact with consistency constraints and with feasibility in terms of resource limitations. The work is based on findings from previous case studies in the automotive industry. The model can be used to enhance our understanding of the architecting process, and to find ways to improve it.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Kista, Sweden.
    An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems2018In: 12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As systems-of-systems start to be more common in commercial applications, an analysis of emergent properties related to utility and cost for all stakeholders becomes critical. This paper describes an approach for this based on network simulation and game theory, which is applied to truck highway platooning. The emergent properties of energy efficiency and transport efficiency are studied as a consequence of the strategies for platoon formation, and it is shown that having information about the route planning of other vehicles has a significant positive effect on the properties. This indicates the need for a mediator in the platooning system-of-systems architecture. Its role is to communicate plans of the constituent systems.

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Applying Design for Six Sigma to the Concept Development of an Automotive HMI2008In: SAE World Congress, paper No. 2008-01-0353, Detroit, Michigan, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six Sigma is a development methodology which

    emphasizes objective evaluations based on facts and

    measurements. However, for some problems the

    information is inherently subjective, with large individual

    variations. Also, in the early development phases, it may

    be difficult to define measurable metrics that correctly

    capture the important qualities. The vehicle HMI is a

    good example of such an application. In this paper, we

    present experiences of applying Design for Six Sigma

    methods to the early development phases of an

    automotive HMI. The focus of the paper is on how to

    handle uncertainties and vague subjective information.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Architectural Allocation Alternatives and Associated Concerns in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study2015In: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, 2015, Vol. Article No.15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems is an extension of traditional embedded systems, where communication to the outside world is given more emphasis. This leads to a new design space also for software development, allowing new allocation strategies for functionality. In traditional embedded systems, all functionality was inside the product, but now it becomes possible to partition the software between the embedded systems and IT systems outside the product. This paper investigates, through a case study from the automotive domain, possible new allocation alternatives where computation is offloaded from the embedded system to a server, and what additional architectural concerns this leads to, including performance, resource utilization, robustness, and lifecycle aspects. In addition, the paper addresses new opportunities created by allocating functionality outside the embedded systems, and thus making data available for extended services, as well as the larger concerns that result on the organizational level, including new competency in architecture and DevOps.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Business models and roles for mediating services in a truck platooning system-of-systems2019In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 113-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning of trucks on motorways has been proposed as a method of reducing fuel consumption. It requires communication between the trucks to control the distance between them. However, this system-of-systems (SoS) cannot only contain the trucks, but also needs to include mediating off-board services for match-making to find suitable constellations of trucks, and for creating platooning incentives by distributing the profit made equally among the constituent systems. This paper analyzes what actors in the SoS would be suitable to operate these services, and also business models that cover the cost for their implementation and operation. It concludes that the truck OEMs have a vital role in creating the mediating services, and that a suitable business model would be based on usage fees for the services rather than upfront payment for platooning equipment. 

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Cost Models with Explicit Uncertainties for Electronic Architecture Trade-off and Risk Analysis2006In: 16th Annual International Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering, INCOSE 2006: Volume 2, 2006, p. 1700-1741Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how the early phases of developing embedded electronic systems can be improved by enhanced modelling of cost and performance that includes explicithandling of uncertainties. The approach is to add cost information to existing UML models,capture uncertainties using probability distributions, and use Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the risk of not reaching the cost targets. It is demonstrated how the information obtained can be used when evaluating different architecture alternatives, while including both development and product cost as well as risk in the trade-off

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evolutionary Architecting of Embedded and Enterprise Software and Systems2012In: Aligning Enterprise, System, and Software Architectures, IGI Global, 2012, p. 39-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industries rely heavily on embedded software and systems to maximize business value in their products. These systems are very complex and the architecture is important to control the complexity and make development efficient. There are often also connections between the embedded system and the different lifecycle processes, and hence to the enterprise systems supporting those processes. It is rare to start from scratch when developing new products, and instead these companies evolve their products over time, which means that architecting needs to be evolutionary. In this chapter, it is described what such an evolutionary architecting process can look like based on observations from industry, and how the process can be continuously improved using a maturity model. It is also presented how the embedded system relates to different elements of the enterprise architecture.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evolutionary Architecting of Embedded Automotive Product Lines: An Industrial Case Study2009In: Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA) & European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA), Cambridge, UK, 2009, p. 101-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the automotive industry, embedded systems and software play an increasingly important role in defining the characteristics of the vehicles. Both the vehicles and the embedded systems are designed as product lines, and two distinct rchitecture processes can be identified. The revolutionary process develops the architecture of a new product line, and focuses on abstract quality attributes and flexibility. The evolutionary process continuously modifies the architecture due to changes, such as additions of new functionality. In this paper, the evolutionary process is investigated through a case study. The study reviews a number of changes to an existing architecture, observing the cause of the change, what quality attributes were considered, and what technical aspects were included. It is also analyzed how the interplay between the two processes can be improved through systematic feedback about what evolution actually takes place.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evolutionary Architecting of Software-Intensive Systems2012In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 88, p. 24-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most industrial software-intensive systems have a very long life span, and undergo many changes after their initial conception. To ensure that they maintain the desired system-level properties, it is essential that their architecture is also updated to reflect the added functionality. To this end, we have investigated how Evolutionary Architecting should be carried out in order to provide a strong basis for a system, not only at conception but throughout its life. The results are concrete and based on empirical findings, and include both a new state-of-the-art process description and a light-weight maturity evaluation method.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Experiences of Using Linked Data and Ontologies for Operational Data Sharing in Systems-of-Systems2019In: 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference SysCon2019, Orlando, Florida, United States, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of exchanging complex data between the constituent systems in a system-of-systems. This is necessary to ensure that they have compatible understandings of the world surrounding them and entails a need for semantic interoperability between the constituents. Through a case study of a road construction system-of-systems, the world wide web technologies of linked data and ontologies are explored as a framework for data representation and exchange. This data includes several broad categories, such as assets, interfaces, organizations, capabilities, missions, and observations, as well as various properties of those. It is also discussed how the constituents can use this data for reasoning and decision making. The results have been validated through a simulation-based research prototype of the road construction case, from which experiences are reported.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Game Theory Applications in Systems-of-Systems Engineering: A Literature Review and Synthesis2019In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 153, p. 154-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems-of-systems (SoS) are becoming increasingly common in more and more domains, spreading from the initial focus on government-controlled areas such as defense to open market industries. This implies that collaborative SoS are becoming more important, where the constituents need to be given incentives to join and remain within the SoS. Game theory has been proposed as a framework to model and analyze such SoS mechanisms. It aims at providing such incentives to the independently operated and managed constituents. This paper presents a systematic literature review on the applications of game theory to SoS engineering, together with a synthesis aiming at capturing the best practices for such an analysis. The main conclusions are that game theory can be applied to SoS in a wide range of application areas, and deal with problems related to acquisition, design, and operations. In particular, the operational formation of SoS are well suited for this kind of analysis, and this often requires the use of simulation techniques. However, most results in the field lack a validation in practice.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Improving the Evolutionary Architecting Process for Embedded System Product Lines2011In: 2011 IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2011 - Proceedings, IEEE , 2011, p. 334-341Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industries developing complex products based on embedded systems rely on architecting as a key activity. Furthermore, they use product line approaches to find synergies between their products. This means that they use a base platform which is adapted to different products, and the architecture of the product line thus evolves over time. In previous case studies we have seen that these companies often lack a defined process for the evolutionary architecting of these product lines. The contribution of this paper is to present such a process, which matches key characteristics of mature architecting practices. It is also discussed how this process compares to observations in industry.

  • 15.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    On how to deal with uncertainty when architecting embedded software and systems2011In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6903, Springer-Verlag , 2011, p. 199-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the topic of uncertainty in the context of architecting embedded software and systems. It presents links between complexity and uncertainty, and identifies different kinds of uncertainty. Based on this, it elaborates why uncertainty arises in the architecting of software-intensive systems, and presents ten different tactics that can be employed to deal with uncertainty and mitigate the associated risks.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review2017In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1033-1045Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle platooning has been studied for several decades, with objectives such as improved traffic throughput on existing infrastructure or reduced energy consumption. All the time, it has been apparent that safety is an important issue. However, there are no comprehensive analyses of what is needed to achieve safety in platooning, but only scattered pieces of information. This paper investigates, through a systematic literature review, what is known about safety for platooning, including what analysis methods have been used, what hazards and failures have been identified, and solution elements that have been proposed to improve safety. Based on this, a gap analysis is performed to identify outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future research. These include dealing with a business ecosystem of actors that cooperate and compete around platooning, refining safety analysis methods to make them suitable for systems-of-systems, dealing with variability in vehicles, and finding solutions to various human factors issues.

  • 17.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Systems-of-systems for border-crossing innovation in the digitized society: A strategic research and innovation agenda for Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes a strategic research and innovation agenda for the area systems-of-systems. The agenda has been developed during the first half of 2015 in a project led by SICS Swedish ICT AB, in collaboration with INCOSE Sweden and a large number of representatives from industry and academia, with financial support from Vinnova. The overall conclusion of the agenda is: Sweden needs a world-leading capability to rapidly develop trustworthy systems-of-systems A system-of-systems (SoS) can informally be defined as a group of independent collaborating systems. The elements of an SoS, called constituent systems, retain an operational and managerial independence, but when combined in a certain way, they provide together a new capability that is emergent from their cooperation. There are many applications of SoS, often as a consequence of the digitization of society which opens new possibilities for system integration. Examples can be found within command and control systems for defense and civilian crisis management; construction and mining; manufacturing and the reindustrialization; transportation; and health care. System integration is traditionally a Swedish area of strength, and by improving SoS knowledge, competitive advantages can be reached. SoS is also an important enabler for innovation, through the ability to combine existing technical products, processes, and organizations in new ways. Having the ability for rapid SoS development is very important for businesses to bring new innovations to market. However, to advance the practice of SoS engineering, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including improving the theoretical foundations; the socio-technical aspects; architecture; modeling and simulation; interoperability; trust; business and legal aspects; development processes and methods; and standardization. As part of the agenda project, a survey has been done of international and Swedish research in the area. Internationally, the SoS field is dominated by US researchers, with a very strong focus on military and space applications. A large number of people are involved, but few persons focus on the area. In comparison, Sweden has entered the research area much later, and only now is attention growing. As is the case internationally, few researchers focus on SoS, and many of them do not even call their research SoS. Activities are scattered over many organizations throughout the country. Many of the researchers in SoS in Sweden come from a background in Software Engineering or Control Engineering, and this is in contrast with the international research, which has its basis in Systems Engineering. In Sweden, research topics such as business aspects (in particular innovation), control systems, governance, and Internet of Things are more pronounced than internationally. However, there is little research in Sweden on the underlying, fundamental principles of SoS engineering. This is likely to be in part a consequence of the funding strategies currently implemented. The analysis shows a broad but scattered Swedish research community lacking critical mass. There is a high competence in software and control engineering, and in empirical research methods, but the lack of systems engineering competence is alarming, since it is fundamental for desired advances, such as in the reindustrialization (Industry 4.0). To achieve the desired capability in SoS development requires knowledge, competence, and capacity, which are provided through substantially increased research and education actions. It is suggested that research in the area is organized as a national SoS center-of-centers that coordinates activities at different academic member organizations. This requires increased research funding. There is also an urgent need for education in systems engineering, systems thinking, and SoS. It is proposed that the center-of-centers also takes responsibility for this, by developing joint courses in those disciplines, including on-line courses for practitioners, and PhD schools for industrial and academic doctoral students. To complement this, societal actions are needed to remove obstacles for building SoS, and enforcing standards. Finally, it is necessary to create meeting places, including triple helix flagship projects, that can fuel the interactions between individuals and organizations interested in SoS.

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards a process maturity model for evolutionary architecting of embedded system product lines2010In: Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Volume, New York: ACM Press, 2010, p. 36-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies developing embedded systems and software as part of a product line struggle with how to improve their architecting practices to deal with increasing complexity. As the amount of legacy systems from previous products increases, the architecting becomes more and more evolutionary. This paper develops a process maturity model for evolutionary architecting, that can be used by an organization to improve its practices. The model is based on the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) which is instantiated to suit the architecting needs. Through this instantiation and simplification, it becomes feasible also for a small architecting team to systematically improve its maturity without dealing with the full CMMI. It is shown how the resulting maturity model addresses a number of issues previously collected from industrial case studies. The method is evaluated by performing maturity evaluations at several companies.

  • 19.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SICS, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SICS, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards the Architecture of a Decision Support Ecosystem for System Component Selection2017In: 11th Annual IEEE International Systems conference SysCon17, 2017, p. 371-377Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing complex software-intensive systems, it is nowadays common practice to base the solution partly on existing software components. Selecting which components to use becomes a critical decision in development, but it is currently not well supported through methods and tools. This paper discusses how a decision support system for this problem could benefit from a software ecosystem approach, where participants share knowledge across organizations both through reuse of analysis models, and through partially disclosed past decision cases. It is shown how the architecture of this ecosystem becomes fundamental to deal with efficient knowledge sharing, while respecting constraints on integrity of intellectual property. A concrete proposal for an architecture is outlined, which is a distributed system-of-systems using web technologies. Experiences of a proof-of-concept implementation are also described.

  • 20.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fröberg, J.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, P.
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.02018In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 576-582Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road construction is a very large business segment, consuming enormous public funding every year and with significant environmental impacts. However, the rate of efficiency improvement during the last few decades has been negligible, whereas other industries, such as manufacturing, have seen very large improvements by applying automation and Leanbased flow optimization across the production system. In this paper, we outline a system-of-systems concept for road construction which applies similar principles as have previously proved successful in other industries. The paper identifies efficiency attributes and wastes in current practices, which lead to a conceptual solution that focuses on improved coordination of working machines. Technical elements from Industry 4.0 are considered as potential building blocks in this concept, identifying similarities and differences between the construction domain and other industries. Finally, challenges are identified, in particular within knowledge representation and information management.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Sweden.
    Architectural Concepts for Federated Embedded Systems2014In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Federated embedded systems (FES) is an approach for systems-of-systems engineering in the domain of cyber-physical systems. It is based on the idea to allow dynamic addition of plug-in software in the embedded system of a product, and through communication between the plug-ins in different products, it becomes possible to build services on the level of a federation of products. In this paper, architectural concerns for FES are elicited, and are used as rationale for a number of decisions in the architecture of products that are enabled for FES, as well as in the application architecture of a federation. A concrete implementation of a FES from the automotive domain is also described, as a validation of the architectural concepts presented.

  • 22.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    SICS.
    On the Conceptual Design of a Dynamic Component Model for Reconfigurable AUTOSAR Systems2013In: Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Embedded Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has recently developed the embedded software standard AUTOSAR, which is now being introduced widely in production vehicles. The standard structures the application into reusable components that can be deployed in a specific vehicle using a configuration scheme. However, this configuration takes place at design time, with no provision for dynamically installing components to reconfigure the system. In this paper, we present the conceptual design of a dynamic component model that extends an AUTOSAR based control unit with the possibility to add plug-in components that execute on a virtual machine. This concept is intended to give benefits in terms of much shorter deployment time for new functions, even into vehicles that have already been produced. Further, it creates opportunities for vehicles to take part in federated embedded systems together with other products. It also opens up a market for third-party developers, and fosters open innovation in an ecosystem around the automotive software business.

  • 23.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (RISE SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (RISE SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Towards a Risk Analysis Method for Systems-of-Systems Based on Systems Thinking2018In: IEEE Systems Conference SysCon2018, 2018, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of systems-of-systems (SoS) present fundamental challenges regarding properties such as safety, security, reliability, and robustness. This is due to the SoS nature where a collection of independent systems cooperate to fulfil certain high-level objectives. Risk analysis is thus an important activity in SoS engineering. This paper presents a risk analysis method which extends the existing STAMP safety analysis method that is based on systems thinking. Our extensions are aimed at coping with other risks than safety, and the usage is tailored to SoS. The method aims at deriving requirements on the constituent systems that will reduce the emergent risks on the SoS as a whole. The method has been applied to a case study of vehicle platooning.

  • 24.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS) Kista, Sweden .
    Kobetski, Avenir
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS) Kista, Sweden .
    Ni, Ze
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS) Kista, Sweden .
    Zhang, Shuzhou
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS) Kista, Sweden .
    Johansson, Eilert
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS) Kista, Sweden .
    MOPED: A Mobile Open Platform for Experimental Design of Cyber-Physical Systems2014In: The 40th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2014, 2014, p. 423-430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing importance of cyber-physical and embedded systems in industry, there is a strong demand for engineers with an updated knowledge on contemporary technology and methods in the area. This is a challenge for educators, in particular when it comes to creating hands-on experiences of real systems, due to their complexity and the fact that they are usually proprietary. Therefore, a laboratory environment that is representative of the industrial solutions is needed, with a focus on software and systems engineering issues. This paper describes such an environment, called the Mobile Open Platform for Experimental Design (MOPED). It consists of a model car chassis, equipped with a network of three control units based on standard hardware, and running the automotive software standard AUTOSAR, which consists of operating system, middleware, and application software structures. It is equipped with various sensors and actuators, and is open to extensions both in hardware and software. It also contains elements of future systems, since it allows connectivity to cloud services, development of federated embedded systems, and continuous deployment of new functionality. In this way, the platform provides a very relevant learning environment for cyber-physical systems, today and in the future.

  • 25.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Nylander, Stina
    RISE SICS AB, Kista, Sweden.
    An Analysis of Systems-of-Systems Opportunities and Challenges Related to Mobility in Smart Cities2018In: System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 132-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is one of the major current trends in society. Cities around the world are looking into 'smart'  solutions based on information and communication technology to deal with the challenges that result from this development. Mobility is one of the most important areas to address, and system-of-systems solutions where vehicles and infrastructure are connected have a potential to improve urban transportation in many aspects. In this paper, current initiatives related to mobility in smart cities around the world are surveyed, and this is complemented with input from focus groups of transportation stakeholders to identify the important aspects of the problem. Based on this, challenges related to the application of systems-of-systems in urban mobility are identified.

  • 26.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papatheocharous, E.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Sweden.
    Andersson, J.
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Characteristics of software ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems: A case study2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 11, p. 1457-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Traditionally, Embedded Systems (ES) are tightly linked to physical products, and closed both for communication to the surrounding world and to additions or modifications by third parties. New technical solutions are however emerging that allow addition of plug-in software, as well as external communication for both software installation and data exchange. These mechanisms in combination will allow for the construction of Federated Embedded Systems (FES). Expected benefits include the possibility of third-party actors developing add-on functionality; a shorter time to market for new functions; and the ability to upgrade existing products in the field. This will however require not only new technical solutions, but also a transformation of the software ecosystems for ES. Objective This paper aims at providing an initial characterization of the mechanisms that need to be present to make a FES ecosystem successful. This includes identification of the actors, the possible business models, the effects on product development processes, methods and tools, as well as on the product architecture. Method The research was carried out as an explorative case study based on interviews with 15 senior staff members at 9 companies related to ES that represent different roles in a future ecosystem for FES. The interview data was analyzed and the findings were mapped according to the Business Model Canvas (BMC). Results The findings from the study describe the main characteristics of a FES ecosystem, and identify the challenges for future research and practice. Conclusions The case study indicates that new actors exist in the FES ecosystem compared to a traditional supply chain, and that their roles and relations are redefined. The business models include new revenue streams and services, but also create the need for trade-offs between, e.g., openness and dependability in the architecture, as well as new ways of working. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 27.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development2016In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 23-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile approaches have been highly influential to the software engineering practices in many organizations, and are increasingly being applied in larger companies, and for developing systems outside the pure software domain. To understand more about the current state of agile, its applications to safety-critical systems, and the consequences on innovation and large organizations, a seminar was organized in Stockholm in 2014. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at that seminar, a summary of the main results and suggestions for future work as input to a research agenda for agile development of safety-critical software.

  • 28.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles2015In: 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, p. 582-588Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested in the literature to organize software in autonomous vehicles as hierarchical layers where each layer makes its own decisions based on its own world model. This paper presents two alternative designs for autonomous construction vehicles based on the layered framework 4D/RCS. As a first step, the typical use cases for these vehicles were defined. Then one use case for a hauler was traversed through the two alternatives to see how they supported safety, flexibility and the use of a product platform. We found that the coordination between bucket control and motion control must be done at a low level in the hierarchy and that the relationship between the vehicle actuators and the built-in autonomous system is important for how the software is organized. 

  • 29.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    An empirical study of refactoring decisions in embedded software and systems2012In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 8, p. 279-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an empirical study of decision-making when changing the architecture in embedded systems. A refactoring of the system architecture often gives effects on both system properties and functions in the company organization, and there is a lack of efficient analysis methods for decision support in the system architecture process. This study investigates the information needed to make a decision about a system refactoring. Scenario-based interviews have been conducted with managers and system architects from companies developing embedded systems. The results show that the companies investigate similar issues regardless of their industry sector. The most wanted information prior to a decision is also presented.

  • 30.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Characteristics of a System Refactoring Process in Embedded Systems Development2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Effect Analysis of the Introduction of AUTOSAR - a Systematic Literature Review2011In: Proceedings - Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), 2011 37th EUROMICRO, 2011, p. 239-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many complex software-intensive systems have a long life time, and undergo substantial evolution. These evolutions are either additions of functionality or system refactoring, i.e., updating the architecture to improve quality attributes without changing functionality. However, the return of investment for such a system refactoring is not easily measured due to a lack of understanding of its effects. In order to improve our understanding of these effects, we have conducted a systematic literature review of the reported effects of one such refactoring: the introduction of AUTOSAR, an open automotive software architecture standard. The effects include both benefits, like lower complexity and more efficient system development, and costs, like performance risks. We have investigated how the effects depend on different elements in AUTOSAR, and how the reports correspond to the stated objectives of the standard. It is also discussed to what extent these effects can be generalized to other types of refactoring.

  • 32.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo CE, Eskilstuna.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analysis of the Business Effects of Software Architecture Refactoring in an Automotive Development Organization2010In: Proceedings - 36th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2010, 2010, p. 269-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an exploratory study of an automotive manufacturer, which develops embedded software for over 150 products and has adopted a company-wide software product-line approach. The company is facing the introduction of a new software architecture in all products in near time. This architecture introduces new paradigms more explicitly, such as explicit software components and signal-based communication, newer technologies, and adheres to new standards. Concretely, the architecture consists of common infrastructure and other generic components. Such a fundamental and drastic technology change can be expected to have far-reaching consequences, both of technical and non-technical nature. In this study we systematically investigate the introduction of the new software architecture, by mapping individual elements of the architectural change to system properties and company functions. The study implies that the whole organization is affected, and the new architecture also influences the cooperation with suppliers.

  • 33.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site2016In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 2016, article id 7542936Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

  • 34.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Towards Quality Assessment in Integration of Automotive Software and Electronics: An ATAM approach2006In: Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Software Engineering and Practice in Sweden, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we perform a pilot study of evaluation of integration strategies in an automotive electronics system context. We describe the problem of choosing integration strategy and we outline the use of the Architecture Tradeoff and Analysis Method, ATAM, for evaluating integration strategies.

    We exemplify the use of the ATAM by evaluating the integration decisions concerning the physical connection of a theoretic example system; a computer controlled automatic gearbox. A utility tree describing the most important qualities of the product is elicited by interviews with system architects and product specialists at Volvo Construction Equipment. We show how an evaluation score card can be used to aid in integration decisions.

    Also, perform preliminary analysis and provide some discussion points from the result. This early analysis shows that ATAM has weaknesses in that it is sensitive to errors in the elicitation process and that the weighting of the resulting scenarios can be coarse grained. One strength of the ATAM is that design decisions and quality goals become visible to many stakeholders. Our proposed use of ATAM does not include any cost or effort estimates, but only relative quality estimates.

    In our pilot study example we find that the integration of a software component as opposed to integration of a whole ECU, ranks higher with respect to the desired qualities.

  • 35.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Comparative Case Study of Architecting Practices in the Embedded Software Industry2011In: Proceedings of 18th IEEE International Conference and Workshops on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, 2011, p. 226-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to improve the understanding of how architecting is performed within the field of software-intensive systems. Architects at six different internationally well-known companies have been interviewed to understand their way of working. This paper presents the practices that are found most successful. The context of the different companies as well as the architecting practices are compared and analyzed. Many of the architecting practices found in the study can be explained by the context of the different companies. The study shows that architects at all companies mention a general lack of understanding of software-intensive systems within industries that used to be mechanical. The architects' view of their work is very similar independently of where they work. Also the way architecting is performed is very similar, but surprisingly only one company has a defined process for architecting.

  • 36.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Architecting Complex Embedded Systems: An Industrial Case Study2011In: 2011 IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2011 - Proceedings, IEEE , 2011, p. 472-478Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the current state of architecting practices in three different industrial segments which are characterized by being software-intensive. The context of the six different companies as well as the architecting practices are compared and analyzed. The methods used to solve the tasks within the architecting process are mapped to the context where it has been used in industry. An analysis of the case study indicates how different methods are more suitable in different environments. Many of the successful practices found in the study can be explained by external factors related to the context of the different companies. Others relate to the internal structure of the organization, including its maturity which is measured by assessment through an adaption of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI).

  • 37.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Coping with Variability in Automotive Product line Architectures Using Real Options2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive customers demand new functionality with every new product release and the time-to-market is

    constantly shortened. The automotive embedded systems are characterized by being mechatronic system which adds

    complexity. The systems are often resource constrained and trade-offs between the system behavior and the resources required is of great importance. The decisions are usually based on many factors that pull in different directions such as maintenance, portability, usability etc. The complex system and the many uncertain factors create a need for support in the design process. In this paper the use of Real Options is evaluated on a hypothetic but realistic case taken from the automotive industry. The case show how real option valuation provides additional guidance when making system design decisions. Real Options provide the opportunity to analyze the cost of designing for future growth of an platform, based on the estimated value of the future functionality. The value of a flexible design can thereby be quantified making the trade-off between short and long term solution more accurate.

  • 38.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Evaluating Flexibility in Embedded Automotive Product Lines Using Real Options2008In: Proceedings - 12th International Software Product Line Conference, SPLC 2008, 2008, p. 235-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded automotive architectures and software need to support a large number of vehicle product lines over many years of production. This leads to a complexity and many uncertain factors when developing such systems and a need for support in the design process. An evaluation method using Real Options provides the opportunity to analyze the cost of designing for flexibility to cope with a future growth of a product line, based on the estimated value of the future functionality. In this paper Real Options is applied on a case within the automotive industry. To improve the usability an evaluation process is defined to aid engineers. This process provides a way of valuing system designs and enables the engineer to think about the future in a systematic manor. The value of a flexible design can thereby be quantified and the proposed process shows how it can be accepted by practitioners.

  • 39.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evaluation of Design Options in Embedded Automotive Product Lines2010In: Applied Software Product Line Engineering / [ed] Kyo C. Kang, Vijayan Sugumaran, Sooyong Park (Editor), Boca Raton: Auerbach Publications , 2010, p. 477-496Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how to deal with scenarios as previous presented by putting a value on flexibility in the system solution. Thereby, it becomes clearer when to focus on short-term solutions and when to keep the long-term evolution of a product line in mind. The approach taken is to evaluate flexibility using a concept called Real Options. The method is motivated and described by using as an example an industrial area where very complex product lines occur, namely automotive embedded systems. To improve the usability of the method, a structured evaluation process is defined to aid practitioners such as developers and architects. The evaluation process provides a way of valuing system designs and enables the practitioner to think about the future in a systematic manner. The value of a flexible design can thereby be quantified, and the proposed process shows how it can be accepted by practitioners within the automotive industry.

  • 40.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Improving the system architecting process through the use of Lean tools2010In: Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Phuket, Thailand, 2010, p. 1601-1607Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of embedded systems within the automotive industry has grown very rapidly and is today influencing most part of the product development process. This technological change puts high demands on the development process in order for the company to stay competitive. The architecting process is performed during the early phases of the development process when uncertainty is very high. The architecting process will not create immediate value to the end customer, but rather create the architecture on which value in terms of product features can be developed. The architecture will enable value creation when working properly or, in the worst case, prevent value creation. Lean is a product development philosophy that aims at creating value for the end customer. A Lean tool used to improve the value creation within a process is Value Stream Mapping (VSM). VSM has in this work been adapted and evaluated to analyze and identify improvements of the architecting process within embedded systems development. In this paper we present practical experiences from using this adapted VSM. The evaluation was conducted through interviews at two automotive manufacturers. VSM is shown to be a valuable tool to identify waste and thereby improve the architecting process.

  • 41.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Using Real Options In Embedded Automotive System Design2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive customers demand new functionality with every new product release and the time-to-market is constantly shortened. The automotive embedded systems are characterized by being mechatronic systems which adds complexity. The systems are often resource constrained and trade-offs between the system behaviour and the resources required is of great importance. The system complexity and the many uncertain factors create a need for support in the design process. Many design features such as memory and processor capacity can be seen as options, i.e. giving you the right but not the obligation to use them in the future. The valuation method using Real Options provides the opportunity to analyze the cost of designing for future growth of a platform, based on the estimated value of the future functionality.

    In this paper the use of Real Options is applied on a real case within the automotive industry. The studied company develops commercial vehicles for a broad range of applications. In this case study a valuation is performed on two different design alternatives of function allocation. The design alternatives vary in hardware, software, cabling etc. The case study has been per-formed together with the developing organization and it has therefore been possible to observe the acceptance of the method. The study shows how Real Option valuation provides valuable guidance when making system design decisions and more importantly also show how it can be used and accepted by system engineers. The method does not only provide a way of valuing sys-tem designs, but it also forces the system engineer to think about the future in a systematic manor. The value of a flexible design can thereby be quantified making the trade-off between short and long term solutions more accurate.

  • 42.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analyzing the System Architecting Value Stream2010In: European Systems Engineering Conference, Stockholm, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The PROGRESS Centre for Predictable Embedded Software Systems - Half-time report (edited version)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presentation of the achievements and activities within the PROGRESS national strategic research centre 2006-2008

  • 44.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    On the Technological and Methodological Concepts of Federated Embedded Systems2013In: First Open EIT ICT Labs Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Engineering, Trento, Italy, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally embedded systems are developed with a specific control task in mind, and are able to affect only a limited set of actuators, based on measurements from a limited set of sensors. With the arrival of cheap and efficient communication technology, this traditional picture is starting to change. It is our belief that future embedded systems will interact with each other, forming federations to provide new emergent services to their users. With this in mind, a pre-study was performed to discern the main concepts of such federations and the related challenges that need to be addressed. This has led to two parallel research directions, presented in this paper. One is focusing on the enabling technology that is needed for dynamic creation of new types of federations, while the other deals with the methodological concepts for creation of ecosystems in which federations of embedded systems can be dynamically formed.

  • 45.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Paving the Way for Apps in Vehicles2013In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 94Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Towards Safe and Secure Systems of Systems: Challenges and Opportunities2017In: 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing SAC2017, 2017, p. 1803-1806, article id F128005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While systems of systems (SoS) are starting to reach the market, it is not entirely evident how to analyze safety, and on a high level also security, of such systems. In fact, speci c characteristics of SoS, such as independence, changing con- stitution, evolutionary development, and emergent behavior, provide certain challenges to the safety analysis. In this pa- per, such challenges are summarized and a systems theoretic safety analysis method, abbreviated as STAMP, is evaluated on an automotive SoS application example. In conclusion, STAMP seems well positioned to serve as a base for a future method for safety and, to a certain degree, security analysis of SoS, although some work remains to be done. The advan- tages and limitations of the STAMP approach when dealing with SoS are discussed.

  • 47.
    Ni, Ze
    et al.
    SICS - Swedish Inst. of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    SICS - Swedish Inst. of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS - Swedish Inst. of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Design and Implementation of a Dynamic Component Model for Federated AUTOSAR Systems2014In: Proceedings - Design Automation Conference, 2014, 2014, p. Article number 2593121-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has recently agreed upon the embedded software standard AUTOSAR, which structures an application into reusable components that can be deployed using a configuration scheme. However, this configuration takes place at design time, with no provision for dynamically installing components to reconfigure the system. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a dynamic component model that extends AUTOSAR with the possibility to add plug-in components at runtime. This opens up for shorter deployment time for new functions; opportunities for vehicles to participate in federated embedded systems; and involvement of third-party software developers.

  • 48.
    Ozkaya, Ipek
    et al.
    SEI, CMU,United States .
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Architecture knowledge management during system evolution: observations from practitioners2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 ICSE Workshop on Sharing and Reusing Architectural Knowledge, 2010, p. 52-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely accepted that awareness of architectural decisions enables better management and planning of system evolution, refactoring, and modernization efforts. In this paper we report data from interviews with software architects about how practitioners utilize architecture during system evolution. Our results show, despite the widely shared view that long-lived systems are better off with strong architectures; basic architecture-centric practices are not followed systematically. The key gap we observe is in correct and timely communication of architectural issues. This overall finding is not surprising. However, our data also contributes to how architecture knowledge management activities can be focused for most benefit throughout a system's lifespan. While the often-referenced problem is lack of time spent on documentation and design practices, our interviews show that lack of quality attribute reasoning early on, and during the lifespan of the system is a key contributor to failing to use architecture knowledge effectively during evolution.

  • 49.
    Papatheocharous, E.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Andersson, J.
    Linneaus University.
    Issues and challenges in ecosystems for federated embedded systems2013In: 1st ACM SIGSOFT/SIGPLAN International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems, SESoS 2013 Proceedings, 2013, p. 21-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how Systems of Systems (SoS) can be constructed by linking together embedded computers in constituent systems to create complex but more flexible and adaptable systems. The approach of software system development is called Federated Embedded Systems (FES) and their revolved ecosystem of players is presented, aiming to ensure quality in engineering SoS. Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems (EcoFES) comprise a new area of research that scales component-based software development for embedded software into new dimensions. The proposed ecosystem dimension introduces an open, flexible and adaptable SoS architecture for improving the process of FES development. In the paper, we identify some architectural challenges and discuss the implications of scaling from a closed ecosystem to an open one, providing open collaboration and innovation in the context of FES.

  • 50.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study2015In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Volume 210, 2015, p. 81-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys work on ecosystems and open innovation of systems in the context of software engineering for embedded systems. The primary research goal is to develop a research agenda based on the topics identified within the research publications on the topic. The agenda is based on a systematic mapping study of 260 publications obtained from digital libraries and is influenced by a set of areas of interest, i.e., product lines, open source, third party, business models, open innovation, and strategy. The results from the study include analysis of the type of research conducted in the field, its origin and research contribution. The study identifies the need for more solutions to specific open innovation problems such as mapping business models to technical platforms; defining open ecosystem processes that foster open innovation; and improving how ecosystem players can leverage on tool support for open innovation. A direction for future research is also provided.

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