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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Huselius, Joel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Extracting Simulation Models from Complex Embedded Real-Time Systems2006In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, ICSEA'06, Tahiti, French Polynesia, 2006, p. Article number 4031792-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modeling process is presented for extracting timingaccurate simulation models from complex embedded real-time systems. The process is supported by two complementary methods for tool-supported model extraction, Model Synthesis and Hybrid Model Extraction. The generated models enable impact analysis for complex real-time systems with respect to dynamic system properties, such as timing and resource usage. This can make software maintenance more predictable with respect to time-to-market and development costs, since timing errors can be identified early and avoided. The contribution of the paper is the modeling process, the Hybrid Model Extraction method and an interactive modeling tool, MASS, designed to support Hybrid Model Extraction of large implementations in C.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Framework for Analysis of Timing and Resource Utilization targeting Complex Embedded Systems2006In: ARTES - A network for Real-Time research and graduate Education in Sweden 1997 - 2006, Uppsala: Department of Information Technology , 2006, p. 297-329Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A problem in common of many complex software systems embedded in industrial

    products is the absence of analyzability as formal models of the system

    behavior does not exist. When performing maintenance of such systems it is

    hard to predict how changes will impact specific system properties related to

    timing and resource utilization and there is therefore a significant risk of running

    into problems with unexpected side-effects of the changes made, which

    increases development time required and costs.

    In this paper we present the ART Framework, a set of methods and tools

    that enable behavior impact analysis for existing industrial real-time systems.

    The ART Framework enables developers of complex software systems to identify

    problematic side-effects of a proposed design before vast resources have

    been invested in implementation and testing. This reduces the risk of expensive

    and time-consuming problems discovered late in a development project

    and also reduces the risk releasing software containing latent critical errors.

  • 3.
    Boivie, Ylva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Strategisk baserad samproduktion - ett framgångskoncept i lågkonjunkturen2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Integrating Perceived Customer Value in the Evaluation of Performance in Product Development2010In: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product delivering companies invest resources in product development activities in order to create value. Still, when performance in product development is to be evaluated, time, cost, and quality are in focus, especially in the later stages of the development when it is expensive and difficult to make any changes. Time, cost, and quality are important dimensions of performance but they are not revealing the complete picture. Missing is the value perspective. This paper outlines a method for how perceived customer value can be used to evaluate performance in product development and describes how it is verified through a case study. By using the perceived customer value of requirements, the value propagation throughout the development is possible to monitor based on both market and scope changes. In addition, a measure of productivity can be calculated by relating the perceived value to the spent effort. This information is used in order to visualize the value propagation and performance during the development. Hence, through this method it is possible to evaluate the productivity of activities from initial ideas to a final product. The paper is concluded with a discussion of managerial implications and how this method contributes to theory.

  • 5.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    PMEX: A Performance Measurement Evaluation Matrix For The Development Of Industrial Software-Intensive Products2011In: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 55-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure performance is both fundamental to and critical in successful product development. Previous research has focused on adding new measurements, not on evaluating those currently used. The PMEX is a tool to evaluate the performance-measurement system based on success factors in the development of software-intensive products. Three case studies have been conducted to test the PMEX and the results indicate that the PMEX enables managers to determine explicitly what is and what is not measured. Time, cost and quality seem to be the focus of the performance measurements while technology and planning activities are absent.

  • 6.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Performance Evaluation Framework for Innovation a chapter in Innovation in Business and Enterprise: Technologies and Frameworks2010In: Innovation in Business and Enterprise: Technologies and Frameworks, IGI Global, 2010, p. 135-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a framework for a conceptual evaluation of the performance of industrial product innovation activities. The framework promotes a holistic view of performance by considering three categories of activities: Planning, Implementation, and Sales and Delivery. Successful performance evaluation comes from acknowledging the fact that there are different objectives for each of the three activity categories. Moreover, performance may be expressed as a function of the performance of the Planning, the Implementation, and the Sales and Delivery activities. In this chapter the results of research involving seven large companies in Sweden, with the objective of improving the understanding of what is required to be successful when developing complex industrial products, are presented. Key factors for success as well as some general conclusions are discussed.

  • 7.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Challenges with Evaluating Performance in Product Development2010In: 17TH INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Murcia, Spain, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to from a managerial perspective investigate performance evaluation practices in a product development context. The focus is on exploring how managers perceive and evaluate performance in a software-intensive product development context. The research approach pursued in this research consist of a literature review combined with focused group interviews and exploratory multiple case studies. Moreover, a number of seminars have been held to discuss the findings both in academia and in practice. The result of this research indicates that product development managers are dissatisfied with their current way of evaluating performance. Performance measurements and the perception of performance are focused on cost, time and quality, i.e. what is easily measurable and not necessarily what is important. The dimensions of value creations and learning are missing. It is argued that manager perception of performance is affected by how it is measured, hence limiting the scope of the performance criteria. Thus, a change in the way managers perceive performance is necessary before there can be any change in the way performance is evaluated. Managers within product development that are dissatisfied with their performance measurement system should focus on how the organization perceive performance. By developing relevant performance criteria the first step in developing an effective performance evaluation system is made.

  • 8.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corp Res.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evaluation of performance in a product development context2010In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's competitive environment the need to deploy product-development investments more effectively is greater than ever. To assist managers, two conceptual tools have been developed to support the evaluation of performance in product development. The Performance Measurement Evaluation Matrix (PMEX) presented here helps managers evaluate performance-measurement systems they currently use, in order to identify areas requiring improvement. Results from using the PMEX indicate that it is common to associate performance measurements with the efficiency aspects of time, cost, and quality, without monitoring the value created. Performance is largely perceived by managers in terms of time, cost, and quality of the activities in the later phases of the development process. We argue that an effective performance-measurement system is based on performance criteria and then derive measurements based on these. It is argued that there should be a change in the perception of performance before performance-evaluation systems can be improved. The Product Development Organizational Model (PDOPM) assists in developing the perception of performance by relating uncertainty, efficiency and effectiveness at three generic activity levels within the product-development function. The use of our tools provides an improved perception of performance and its measurement, thus enabling improvements to the evaluation of performance.

  • 9.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Norstrom, Christer
    Lundin, Sune
    Entrepreneurship and sustainability perspective in engineering education2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementing Open Innovation - In Collaborative Flexible Team Formations2010In: 17th International product Development Management Conference, Murcia, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    The evolution of an collaboration-between an European high tech company and its Indian service provider2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are looking for new ways of decreasing costs and gaining innovation, as the competition is escalating. Striving to shorten product lifecycles and time to market, the product development has become increasingly important for companies on the global market (Van Echtelt et al, 2008; Primo, 2002), with respect to speed (Clark, 1989) performance and cost (Van Echtelt et al 2008). In addition to this, there is a need to manage geographically and functionally dispersed units, as well as suppliers all over the world, to remain competitive. A recent trend show that the capabilities and resources for managing product development increasingly reside outside company´s boundaries, e.g. relying on suppliers. The offshore outsourcing contracts have mainly been awarded to developing countries, to benefit from labour arbitrage. While the clients of outsourcing are concentrated in North America, Western Europe and Japan, India has been the leading destination (Mao et al. 2008).

    Current research has identified several factors for successful outsourcing, including; Supplier competence in technology and quality control (Boutellier et al, 2008; Primo & Amundson, 2002), Interface management and communication (Boutellier et al, 2008; Primo & Amundson, 2002; Van Looy et al, 2005 ), Amount of direct interaction with supplier (Primo & Amundson, 2002), Legislation and contracts (Mao et al, 2008), Nature of supplier involvement (Primo & Amundson, 2002; Clark, 1989), Trust (Van Echtelt et al, 2008; Sherwood & Covin, 2008 ; Mao et al, 2008), Intercultural Understanding (Edoff et al, 2009) and the maturity of collaboration (Sherwood and Covin, 2008). While there is a buzz concerning strategies for outsourcing as well as incorporating Open Innovation (Chesbrough, 2003), there is a lack of understanding of the evolution and transformation of such collaborations. We will describe the complexity of governing outsourcing relationships, the actions and understanding needed to increase learning and innovation capabilities in a supplier-client relation.

    In this paper we use an in depth case study to describe the relation between a high tech European company and an Indian consultancy firm, which started 2000. The companies were studied over a period of six months, in Sweden and at the Offshore Development Center in India, to provide a bilateral perspective on managing customer-supplier relationships. In total 40 respondents were interviewed, and the results were triangulated by observation (including participation in management day) as well as analyzing business review documentation. The collaboration has evolved from outsourcing maintenance, to product development of partial as well as whole products. But what does the shift from outsourcing in regard of cost, flexibility and value mean for outsourcing relation? The companies have performed a wide range of activities to strengthen the relation internally (common goal, intercultural understanding, order competence), within the relation (courses, workshops and exchanging employees) as well as external relations (university collaboration and Top talent program). The results of the case study show that the evolution of outsourcing relation is due to many different factors as stated in the literature, but also greatly affected by the intercultural differences. The intercultural factors influence not only communication, but the organizational culture and structure, motivation and the innovative capability of the companies. While the Indian service provider can take advantage of their collective culture to be efficient with processes and knowledge transfer, the Swedes can benefit from the low power distance to make quick decisions and try out radical ideas. If companies learn about the differences they can organize and adjust processes in a way that the relation gives them the best of both worlds.

  • 12.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Boivie, Ylva
    Managing Offshore Development- an Intercultural Perspective2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore Outsourcing, by utilizing the suppliers´ economy of scale and lower wages, is one of the solutions that companies use to reduce costs. However, as the outsourced tasks are getting more complex and require innovative practices, cultural differences get exposed. Cultural aspects are important to consider in securing efficiency and innovation in offshore outsourcing. Nevertheless, the cultural influence has only been studied to a limited extent in literature. With this in mind, we have performed a case study exploring the cultural differences between a Swedish high tech company and its Indian service provider. The study is based on 40 in-depth interviews, observations and business review documentation. The phenomenon of culture is framed by a literature review on organizational culture, national culture and contextual factors. Our results show that by understanding, relating to and managing cultural differences in a systematic manner, companies can gain competitive advantages.

  • 13.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Boivie, Ylva
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Managing offshore development- an intercultural perspective2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Edoff, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wretås, Ylva
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Managing offshore development: a cultural perspective2012In: Series on technology management - Vol. 18: Perspectives on supplier innovation: theories, concepts and empirical insights on open innovation and the integration of suppliers / [ed] Alexander Brem & Joe Tidd, United States: Imperial College Press , 2012, p. 549-580Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Norström, Christer
    Business Situation Reflected in Automotive Electronic Architectures: Analysis of Four Commercial CasesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Key Factors for Achieving Project Success in Integration of Automotive Mechatronics2007In: Journal of Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, ISSN 1614-5046, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 141-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a multiple case study on integration of automotive mechatronic components. Based on the findings, we identify that the root causes of problems in integration are largely related to decisions omitted in electronic strategy.

    We present and recommend use of checklists defining key factors to address in order to achieve successful integration projects in terms of cost and quality. Our recommendations are defined by checklists for critical decisions in areas; functionality, platform, integration, and stakeholder involvement.

    The recommendations are established based on practitioner experience and then validated in a multiple case study. Five cases of integration are studied for different heavy vehicles in one company, and the fulfillment of our recommendations is measured. Finally we define project success criteria and we compare the level of fulfillment with the project success in terms of time plan and resource consumption.

    The main contribution of this study is the validated recommendations, each including a set of checkpoints that defines recommendation fulfillment. We also present defining characteristics to identify a high risk project. We provide a set of observable project properties and show how they affect project risk.

  • 17.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The PROGRESS Centre for Predictable Embedded Software Systems - Half-time report (edited version)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presentation of the achievements and activities within the PROGRESS national strategic research centre 2006-2008

  • 18.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    2 + 10 > 1 + 50 !2000In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 1800, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2000, Vol. 1800 LNCS, p. 734-737Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In traditional design of computer based systems some effort, say 1, is spent on the early modeling phases, and some very high effort, say 50, is spent on the later implementation and testing phases. It is the conjecture of this paper that the total effort can be substantially reduced if an increased effort, say 2, is spent on the early modeling phases. Such a shift in focus of efforts will also greatly improve the overall effects (both quality and cost-wise) of the systems dev eloped, there by leading to a better (denoted by "≻") design process. In this paper, w e specifically consider the design of safety-critical distributed real-time systems. © 2000 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 19.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Cederblad, Lars
    Level 21 Management AB Västerås, Sweden .
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden .
    Productivity Framework for Innovative Product Development2007In: Managing Total Innovation and Open Innovation in the 21st Century: ISMOT07, PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY, 2007, p. 1655-1660Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative product development (IPD) give companies the competitive advantage required to be successful in the highly competitive market of today. The natural question is: how do you make your organization as effective as possible in the IPD process? This paper presents a framework to reason about the subject of productivity in the IPD process. The framework is deducted from the definitions of innovation and product development, an effective IPD process contains three parts; Planning (what to develop), Implementation (product realization) and Marketing, Sales and Delivery. Success comes from acknowledging the fact that there are different objectives within the three parts. The productivity of the IPD process can be expressed as a function of the efficiencies of Planning, Implementation and Marketing, Sales and Delivery. This paper is the first qualitative result of research together with seven high-tech industrial companies, with the goal to find what is required to be efficient in the Planning and the Implementation process. The key factors for success as well as some general conclusions are presented in this paper.

  • 20.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    PMEX - A Performance Measurement Evaluating Matrix for Development of Complex Products and Systems2008In: PICMET 2008, Cape Town, South Africa, 2008, p. 1224-1234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key aspect in a sustainable economy is to be able to do more with less by making better use of resources. Within the development of complex products and systems, a continuous need to improve performance exists, i.e., making better use of a company's resources. In this improvement process it is important to measure the performance of the product development process. Previous research mainly focuses on the design and implementation of new performance measurement systems, not on evaluating the measures currently used. The research question in this paper is how to evaluate a company's performance measurement systems from a manager's perspective. To answer this question, a performance measurement evaluation matrix (PMEX) is developed. The PMEX has the different phases of the Stage-Gate process as one dimension and important success factors in the development of complex products and systems as the other dimension. Furthermore, a multiple case study has been conducted as a first verification of the PMEX. The first results of the study indicate that the PMEX enables managers to overview what is and what is not measured. The PMEX can therefore function as a conceptual tool in the discussions for setting the scope of the performance measurement system. 

  • 21.
    Kraft, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Metaheuristic Approach for Best Effort Timing Analysis targeting Complex Legacy Real-Time Systems2008In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 14TH IEEE REAL-TIME AND EMBEDDED TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS SYMPOSIUM, 2008, p. 258-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies developing real-time systems today have today no means for response time analysis, as their systems violate the assumptions of traditional analytical methods for response-time analysis and are too complex for exhaustive analysis using model checking.

    This paper presents a novel approach for best effort response time analysis targeting such systems, where probabilistic simulation is guided by a search algorithm of metaheuristic type, similar to genetic algorithms.

    The best effort approach means that the result is not guaranteed to be the worst-case response time, but also that the method scales to large industrial systems.

    The proposed method should be regarded as a form of testing, focusing on timing properties.

    An evaluation is presented which indicates that the proposed approach is significantly more efficient than traditional probabilistic simulation in finding extreme task response times. The paper also presents a method for finding good parameters for the search algorithm, in order to improve its efficiency.

  • 22.
    Larsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Technology Transfer: Why some Succeed and some don't2006In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, 2006, 2006, p. 23-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present several technology transfer cases both successes and failures. These cases describe transfers from research department within a large corporation to a product company, university to a large product company and university to a small product company. Based on the analysis of these cases we outline several strategies that can be used, in isolation or combined, in order to increase the probability for success

  • 23.
    Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    ABB Force Measurement.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Key Aspects of Software Release Planning in Industry2008In: Proceedings of the Australian Software Engineering Conference, ASWEC, IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 320-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software release planning is the process of deciding what to include in future release(s) of a product. Basically the problem can be seen as a company-wide optimization problem involving many stakeholders where the goal is to maximize utilization of the often limited resources of a company and turn them into business benefit. Saliu and Ruhe have proposed a set of key aspects for release planning methods, of which only a subset have been validated in industry. In this paper we use the Saliu and Ruhe key aspects as a starting point for identifying key aspects of release planning. To do this we have performed a multiple case study involving 7 international industrial companies, all producers of software intensive products. Our contribution is (1) a more strict meaning of a release planning key aspect, (2) validation of some of the aspects proposed by Saliu and Ruhe, and (3) an extension of the key aspects. We also capture state-of-the-practice for release planning in industry.

  • 24.
    Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    ABB Force Measurement, Sweden.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Towards a Capability Model for the Software Release Planning Process — Based on a Multiple Industrial Case Study2008In: In Proc. 9th International Conference on Product Focused Software Process Improvement, Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2008, p. 117-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software release planning is an important activity for effectively identifying the customer needs generating best business, especially for incremental software development. In this paper we propose a capability model for improving the release planning process of an organization. Using this model it is possible to 1) determine the capabilities of an organization’s release planning process, and 2) identify areas for improvement. The model is based on empirical data from a multiple case study involving 7 industrial companies, all being producers of software intensive systems. We also provide examples of how the proposed capability model can be applied using the companies from the study.

  • 25.
    Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    ABB Force Measurement.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Importance of Software Architecture during Release Planning2008In: 7th IEEE/IFIP Working Conference on Software Architecture, WICSA 2008, IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 253-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Release planning is the process of deciding what to include in future release(s) of a product. In this paper we look at how software architects are involved during release planning in industry today, and how architectural issues are considered during this phase.

  • 26.
    Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    ABB Force Measurement.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Method for Balancing Short- and Long-Term Investments: Quality vs. Features2008In: EUROMICRO 2008 - Proceedings of the 34th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2008, IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 175-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number of conflicting forces between shortand long-term considerations for software release planning in industry. For example, from a business perspective it is usually desired with a short time-to-market. However, from software quality perspective it is usually desired to have a longer time-to-market such that the proper architectural mechanisms can be put in place, which in the long-term reduce development cost and addresses quality aspects. In this paper we outline some of these conflicting forces, with a focus on long-lived systems, and examplify how they impact product quality and time-to-market. In this paper we propose a simple, but useful, extensionof the release planning process that addresses these conflicting forces. The method is inspired from empirical data captured in a multiple case study involving 7 companies.

  • 27.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden).
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kreuger, Per
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden).
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Approximate Timing Analysis of Complex Legacy Real-Time Systems using Simulation Optimization2008In: Proceedings of the Work-In-Progress (WIP) track of the 29th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), Barcelona, Spain, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bygde, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Transformational Specification of Complex Legacy Real-Time Systems via Semantic Anchoring2009In: 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Component-Based Design of Resource-Constrained Systems (CORCS 2009) @ COMPSAC, 2009, p. 1183-1188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RTSSim is a framework for simulating models extracted from complex legacy real-time systems which are task-oriented, run on a single processor and are developed in C. Such RTSSim models describe functional and temporal behavior as well as the resource usage of the system. However, the semantics specification of RTSSim models remains a challenging problem indeed, especially with tractable complexity to obtain a formal model which can be analyzed for instance by a model checking tool. In this paper, we present an approach towards using semantic anchoring for the transformational specification of RTSSim models, by relying on units with well-defined operational semantics and tool support. Specifically, Timed Automata with Tasks (TAT) in TIMES is chosen as the semantic unit with the purpose of anchoring different behavioral concerns of RTSSim models in all aspects. In this respect, model transformations are conducted at the meta-model level allowing the original operational semantics of RTSSim models to be preserved, while at the same time it can be presented in TIMES models in terms of a network of TAT.

  • 29.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bygde, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Response-Time Analysis of Complex Real-Time Systems by using ParametricWorst-Case Execution-Time Estimate on Tasks – A Case Study for Robotic Control System2009In: 21st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 09) Work-In-Progress (WIP) session, Dublin, Ireland, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Statistical Approach for Validation of Task Simulation Models with Intricate Temporal Execution Dependencies2010In: Proceedings of the Work-In-Progress (WIP) track of 16th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS2010), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    On Validation of Simulation Models in Timing Analysis of Complex Real-Time Embedded Systems2010In: The 15th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (EFTA'10), Work-In-Progress (WIP) session., Bilbao, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present work toward validating simulation models extracted from complex real-time embedded systems, from the perspective of response time and execution time of adhering tasks, by using the non-parametric two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Moreover, we introduce a method of reducing the number of samples used in the analysis, while keeping the accuracy of results. The evaluation using a fictive but representative system model inspired by a real robotic control system with a set of change scenarios, shows a promising result: the proposed algorithm has the potential of assessing whether the extracted simulation model is a sufficiently accurate approximation of the target system.

  • 32.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bate, Iain
    University of York.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Assessment of trace-differences in timing analysis for Complex Real-Time Embedded Systems2011In: SIES 2011 - 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, Conference Proceedings, 2011, p. 284-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we look at identifying temporal differences between different versions of Complex Real-Time Embedded Systems (CRTES) by using timing traces representing response times and executiontimes of tasks. In particular, we are interested in being able to reason about whether a particular change to CRTES will impact on their temporal performance, which is difficult to answer due to the complicatedtiming behavior such CRTES have. To be specific, we first propose a sampling mechanism to eliminate dependencies existing in tasks' response time and execution time data in the traces taken from CRTES, which makes any statistical inference in probability theory and statistics realistic. Next, we use a mature statistical method, i.e., the non-parametric two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, to assess the possible temporal differences between different versions of CRTES by using timing traces. Moreover, we introduce a method of reducing the number of samples used in the analysis, while keeping the accuracy ofanalysis results. This is not trivial, as collecting a large amount of samples in terms of executing real systems is often costly. Our evaluation using simulation models describing an industrial robotic controlsystem with complicated tasks' timing behavior, indicates that the proposed method can successfully identify temporal differences between different versions of CRTES, if there is any. Furthermore, our proposed method outperforms the other statistical methods, e.g., bootstrap and permutation tests, that are often widely used in contexts, in terms of bearing on the accuracy of results when other methods have failed.

  • 33.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Timing Analyzing for Systems with Execution Dependencies between Tasks2010In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing 201, 2010, p. 357-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel approach to timing analysis of complex real-time systems with intricate execution dependencies between tasks, such as asynchronous message-passing and globally shared state variables, is presented. By applying the method to a model taken from a real robotic control system, we show the benefit, in terms of reduced pessimism, when compared to a combination of standard static WCET analysis and Response-Time Analysis.

  • 34.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bate, Iain
    University of York.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Timing analyzing for systems with task execution dependencies2010In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2010, p. 515-524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to timing analysis of complex real-time systems containing data-driven tasks with intricate executiondependencies. Using a system model inspired by industrial control systems, we show how the execution time of tasks can be represented as a mathematical expression instead of a single numeric value. Next, based on this more detailed modeling, we introduce a concrete process of formally obtaining the exact value of both Worst-Case Execution-Time (WCET) and Worst-Case Response-Time (WCRT) of tasks by using upper-part binary search and TIMES (a timed model checker). Finally, in order to show the potential of the proposed approach, we apply it to a model created from a real robotic control system for which the traditional way of obtaining a WCET estimate (through static WCET analysis) on tasks for usage in basic RTA is not appropriate. Our results indicate a significant reduction of pessimism when compared to basic RTA using WCET estimates on tasks given by a basic assumption.

  • 35.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    SICS.
    A Statistical Approach to Response-Time Analysis of Complex Real-Time Embedded Systems2010In: Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2010), 2010, p. 153-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents RapidRT, a novel statistical approach to Worst-Case Response-Time (WCRT) analysis targeting complex embedded real-time systems. The proposed algorithm combines Extreme Value Theory (EVT) and other statistical methods in order to produce a probabilistic WCRT estimate. This estimate is calculated using response time data from either Monte Carlo simulations of a detailed model of the system, or from response-time measurements of the real system. The method could be considered as a pragmatic approach intended for complex industrial systems with real-time requirements. The target systems contain tasks with many intricate dependencies in theirtemporal behavior, which violates the assumptions of traditional analytical methods for response time analysis and thereby makes them overly pessimistic. An evaluation ispresented using two simulation models, inspired by an industrial robotic control system, and five other methods as reference.

  • 36.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Statistical Approach to Simulation Model Validation in Timing Analysis of Complex Real-Time Embedded Systems2010In: Proceedings - 16th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2010, Brussels, 2010, p. -160, article id 5591317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based analysis methods make few restrictions on the system design and scale to very large and complex systems, therefore they are widely used in timing analysis of complex industrial embedded systems. This paper presents a statistical approach to validation of temporal simulation models extracted from complex embedded systems, by introducing existing mature statistical methods to the context. The proposed approach firstly collects sampling distributions of response time and execution time data of tasks in both the modeled system and the model, based on simple random samples (SRS). The second step of the approach is to compare the sampling distributions, regarding interesting timing properties, by using the non-parametric two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The evaluation using a fictive system model inspired by a real robotic control system with a set of change scenarios, shows a promising result. The proposed algorithm can identify temporal differences between the target system and its extracted model, i.e., the algorithm can assess whether the extracted model is a sufficiently accurate approximation of the target system.

  • 37.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Statistical-based Response-Time Analysis of Systems with Execution Dependencies between Tasks2009In: Proceedings of the Work-In-Progress (WIP) track of the 30th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'09), Washington, DC, USA, 2009, p. 73-76Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Statistical-based Response-Time Analysis of Systems with Execution Dependencies between Tasks2010In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems, ICECCS, 2010, p. 169-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel statistical-based approach to Worst-Case Response-Time (WCRT) analysis of complex real-time system models. These system models have been tailored to capture intricate execution dependencies between tasks, inspired by real industrial control systems. The proposed WCRT estimation algorithm is based on Extreme Value Theory (EVT) and produces both WCRT estimates together with a probability of being exceeded. By using the tools developed, an evaluation is presented using three different simulation models, and four other methods as reference: Monte Carlo simulation, MABERA, HCRR and traditionalResponse-Time Analysis (basic RTA). Empirical results demonstrate that the benefit of the proposed approach, in terms of 1) reduced pessimism when compared to basic RTA and 2) validated guarantee of never being less than the actual response time values. The proposed approach also needs much fewer simulations compared to other three simulation-based methods.

  • 39.
    Nemati, Farhang
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Validation of Temporal Simulation Models of Complex Real-Time Systems2008In: IEEE International Workshop On Component-Based Design Of Resource-Constrained Systems (CORCS'08), Turku, Finland, 2008, p. 1335-1340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model based analysis has the potential to facilitate maintenance of complex real-time systems, as it allows for impact analysis with respect to thesystems' temporal behavior. Model based analysis of temporal behavior of a legacy real-time system has also the potential to support migration toward component based system. However, since most software systems today have been developed in a traditional, code oriented manner, sufficiently detailed models are typically not available. To apply model based analysis on these systems, models have to be extracted from their implementation and observed run-time behavior. This requires methods for model validation. The paper proposes a novel method for model validation and presents a framework for evaluation of model validation methods, which will be used to evaluate the proposed method. The method is targeting temporalmodels extracted from complex real-time systems. 

  • 40.
    Norström, Christer
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, H. A.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Special section on factory communication systems2005In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 149-150Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Nyström, Dag
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Norström, Christer
    Snapshots in Real-Time Database using Database Pointer Transactions2005In: Proceedings - 11th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, 2005, p. 343-349Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present 2V-DBP-SNAP an algorithm that allows hard real-time tasks in an embedded real-time control system to read a snapshot of a number of data elements in a real-time database. Furthermore, 2V-DBP-SNAP allows these data elements to be shared with soft real-time tasks, which access them using a database query language, and with other hard real-time tasks that use database pointers. 2V-DBP-SNAP allows temporal behavior and memory consumption to be accurately predicted. Introducing snapshot transactions is beneficial for embedded control-systems, such as for engine control in an automotive system, since a snapshot of the state of the environment can be collected, e.g., the state of all cylinders in the engine. 2V-DBP-SNAP is lightweight and predictable, both with respect to computational and memory overhead, and is therefore highly suited for resource constrained systems.

  • 42.
    Nyström, Dag
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Tesanovic, Aleksandra
    Nolin, Mikael
    Norström, Christer
    Hansson, Jörgen
    COMET: A Component-Based Real-Time Database for Automotive Systems2004In: Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Software Engineering for Automotive Systems, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Nyström, Dag
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Tesanovic, Aleksandra
    Linköping University, Dept. of Computer Science, Linköping, Sweden .
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Dept. of Computer Science, Linköping, Sweden .
    Bånkestad, Nils-Erik
    Volvo Construction, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Data Management Issues in Vehicle Control Systems: a Case Study2002In: Proceedings - Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems 2002, 2002, p. 249-256Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case study of a class of embedded hard real-time control applications in the vehicular industry which, in addition to meeting transaction and task deadlines, emphasize data validity requirements. We elaborate on how a database could be integrated into the studied application and how the database management system (DBMS) could be designed to suit this particular class of systems.

  • 44.
    Nyström, Dag
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Tesanovic, Aleksandra
    Noström, Christer
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Database Pointers: Efficient and Predictable Data Access in Real-Time Control-SystemsOther (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, L. -O
    Ericsson AB.
    Rajanna, V.
    Tata Consultany Services, Hyderabad, India .
    On the evolution of an industrial software engineering graduate program2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is the key enabling factor for many industrial giants in product development and the ability to deliver reliable software intensive systems in a cost-efficient manner is becoming the differentiating factor for their future competitiveness. This underlines the importance of an industrially relevant software engineering program and realization of the above fact has lead us to conceptualize a novel graduate program in this domain. The program originated from a set of mutually beneficial motivating factors, which were realized during close collaborations between industry and academia in a global setting. In this paper1 we present the stakeholder perspectives as well as our experiences during the development and running of such a program.

  • 46.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Lars-Olof
    Ericsson AB, Sweden .
    Rajanna, V
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Tata Consultany Services, Hyderabad, India .
    On the Evolution of an Industrial Software Engineering Graduate Program2009In: CONSEG 2009 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering, 2009, p. 69-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is the key enabling factor for many industrial giants in product development and the ability to deliver reliable software intensive systems in a cost-efficient manner is becoming the differentiating factor for their future competitiveness. This underlines the importance of an industrially relevant software engineering program and realization of the above fact has lead us to conceptualize a novel graduate program in this domain. The program originated from a set of mutually beneficial motivating factors, which were realized during close collaborations between industry and academia in a global setting. In this paper we present the stakeholder perspectives as well as our experiences during the development and running of such a program.

  • 47.
    Srinivasan, Jayakanth
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Exploring the Sources of Enterprise Agility in Software Organizations2009In: Second International Engineering Systems Symposium The Emerging Field of Engineering Systems: Achievements and Challenges, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations involved in the design, development and sustainment of software systems have to manage the tension between creating new products and services, while at the same time maintaining their existing portfolio. This paper explores the sources of enterprise agility in software firms, wherein agility is defined as the ability of the organization to sense changes in its environment (both internal and external), and effectively respond to these changes. Using engaged scholarship as the overarching paradigm, we report on the findings of a process study that uses semi-structured interviews, observation, and archival firm & project information for data gathering, and grounded theory methods and comparative case analysis for data analysis and theory generation. The analysis highlights the importance of the four organizational enablers of: stakeholder alignment, employee empowerment, group & organizational learning, and governance mechanisms, as necessary but not sufficient precursors to obtaining enterprise agility. Furthermore, we provide illustrative case examples of the three mechanisms: Continuous Improvement, Creating Systems of Innovation, and Leveraging Globally available Capabilities, that software organizations use to gain enterprise agility

  • 48.
    Srinivasan, Jayakanth
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Löfgren, Annika
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lessons Learned from a Workshop on Relationship Building2009In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2009, p. 115-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Openness and trust are key elements to sustaining any successful client-supplier relationship. When the relationship is transitioning from being arms-length to evolving into a true partnership, it is critical to establish a shared understanding of not only the current state, but also of the expected future state. A workshop organized and facilitated by a neutral party, with the senior leadership of both organizations provides an ideal means for articulating implicit assumptions and surfacing hidden challenges such that an actionable vision can be created. Using a recent workshop held with both EuroTel and IndiaCo, the key elements of the workshop are discussed, along with the lessons learned. Moreover, this workshop provides further insight into the mechanics of the evolution and governance of outsourcing relationships.

  • 49.
    Srinivasan, Jayakanth
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Studying Software Organizations: In Search of a Method2010In: ISEC'10 - Proceedings of the 2010 India Software Engineering Conference, 2010, p. 51-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the level of analysis grows from the individual, to the team or group, to the organization, the research methods applied used to evolve to address the uncertainties brought on by scope. Software organizations provide a scenario that blends intensive knowledge work with extremely high velocities. The nature of the problem being studied, significantly drives the choice of a variance research design or a process research design. The focus on enterprise agility in software organizations is more conducive to a process research design, and the study is theory generating in nature, we adopt a combination of grounded theoretic methods and comparative case analysis. In this paper, we share the research approach developed, and provide examples of how the study was designed, the data collected, reduced and analyzed. We conclude with a set of lessons learned that are applicable for engaging and collaborating with software organizations.

  • 50.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate research.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Applying the Software Engineering Taxonomy2009Report (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 53
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