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  • 1.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Runtime Verification based Concurrency Bug Detector for FreeRTOS Embedded Software2018In: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, 2018, p. 172-179, article id 8452035Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 2.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Towards Classification of Concurrency Bugs Based on Observable Properties2015In: Proceedings - 1st International Workshop on Complex Faults and Failures in Large Software Systems, COUFLESS 2015, 2015, p. 41-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, classification is a way to find an organized structure of knowledge about objects. Classification serves to investigate the relationship between the items to be classified, and can be used to identify the current gaps in the field. In many cases users are able to order and relate objects by fitting them in a category. This paper presents initial work on a taxonomy for classification of errors (bugs) related to concurrent execution of application level software threads. By classifying concurrency bugs based on their corresponding observable properties, this research aims to examine and structure the state of the art in this field, as well as to provide practitioner support for testing and debugging of concurrent software. We also show how the proposed classification, and the different classes of bugs, relates to the state of the art in the field by providing a mapping of the classification to a number of recently published papers in the software engineering field.

  • 3.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Inam, Rafia
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Survey on Testing for Cyber Physical System2015In: Testing Software and Systems: 27th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2015, Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, November 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, 2015, p. 194-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) bridge the cyber-world of computing and communications with the physical world and require development of secure and reliable software. It asserts a big challenge not only on testing and verifying the correctness of all physical and cyber components of such big systems, but also on integration of these components. This paper develops a categorization of multiple levels of testing required to test CPS and makes a comparison of these levels with the levels of software testing based on the V-model. It presents a detailed state-of-the-art survey on the testing approaches performed on the CPS. Further, it provides challenges in CPS testing.

  • 4.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Model for Systematic Monitoring and Debugging of Starvation Bugs in Multicore Software2016In: 2016 ASE Workshop on Specification, Comprehension, Testing and Debugging of Concurrent Programs SCTDCP2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of multicore hardware, concurrent, parallel and multicore software are becoming increasingly popular. Software companies are spending a huge amount of time and resources to nd and debug the bugs. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are also important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. In this position paper, we propose a model for monitoring and debugging Starvation bugs as a type of concurrency bugs in multicore software. The model is composed into three phases: monitoring, detecting and debugging. The monitoring phase can support detecting phase by storing collected data from the system execution. The detecting phase can support debugging phase by comparing the stored data with starvation bug's properties, and the debugging phase can help in reproducing and removing the Starvation bug from multicore software. Our intention is that our model is the basis for developing tool(s) to enable solving Starvation bugs in software for multicore platforms.

  • 5.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, S.
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Runtime Verification Tool for Detecting Concurrency Bugs in FreeRTOS Embedded Software2018In: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 172-179, article id 8452035Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a runtime verification tool for embedded software executing under the open source real-time operating system FreeRTOS. The tool detects and diagnoses concurrency bugs such as deadlock, starvation, and suspension based-locking. The tool finds concurrency bugs at runtime without debugging and tracing the source code. The tool uses the Tracealyzer tool for logging relevant events. Analysing the logs, our tool can detect the concurrency bugs by applying algorithms for diagnosing each concurrency bug type individually. In this paper, we present the implementation of the tool, as well as its functional architecture, together with illustration of its use. The tool can be used during program testing to gain interesting information about embedded software executions. We present initial results of running the tool on some classical bug examples running on an AVR 32-bit board SAM4S. 

  • 6.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, S.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Concurrency bugs in open source software: a case study2017In: Journal of Internet Services and Applications, ISSN 1867-4828, E-ISSN 1869-0238, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixing-times would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software, understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful. This paper presents an empirical study focusing on understanding the differences and similarities between concurrency bugs and other bugs, as well as the differences among various concurrency bug types in terms of their severity and their fixing time, and reproducibility. Our basis is a comprehensive analysis of bug reports covering several generations of five open source software projects. The analysis involves a total of 11860 bug reports from the last decade, including 351 reports related to concurrency bugs. We found that concurrency bugs are different from other bugs in terms of their fixing time and severity while they are similar in terms of reproducibility. Our findings shed light on concurrency bugs and could thereby influence future design and development of concurrent software, their debugging and testing, as well as related tools.

  • 7.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afza, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    10 Years of research on debugging concurrent and multicore software: a systematic mapping study2017In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 49-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debugging – the process of identifying, localizing and fixing bugs – is a key activity in software development. Due to issues such as non-determinism and difficulties of reproducing failures, debugging concurrent software is significantly more challenging than debugging sequential software. A number of methods, models and tools for debugging concurrent and multicore software have been proposed, but the body of work partially lacks a common terminology and a more recent view of the problems to solve. This suggests the need for a classification, and an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the area. 

    This paper presents the results of a systematic mapping study in the field of debugging of concurrent and multicore software in the last decade (2005– 2014). The study is guided by two objectives: (1) to summarize the recent publication trends and (2) to clarify current research gaps in the field.

    Through a multi-stage selection process, we identified 145 relevant papers. Based on these, we summarize the publication trend in the field by showing distribution of publications with respect to year , publication venues , representation of academia and industry , and active research institutes . We also identify research gaps in the field based on attributes such as types of concurrency bugs, types of debugging processes , types of research  and research contributions.

    The main observations from the study are that during the years 2005–2014: (1) there is no focal conference or venue to publish papers in this area, hence a large variety of conferences and journal venues (90) are used to publish relevant papers in this area; (2) in terms of publication contribution, academia was more active in this area than industry; (3) most publications in the field address the data race bug; (4) bug identification is the most common stage of debugging addressed by articles in the period; (5) there are six types of research approaches found, with solution proposals being the most common one; and (6) the published papers essentially focus on four different types of contributions, with ”methods” being the type most common one.

    We can further conclude that there is still quite a number of aspects that are not sufficiently covered in the field, most notably including (1) exploring correction  and fixing bugs  in terms of debugging process; (2) order violation, suspension  and starvation  in terms of concurrency bugs; (3) validation and evaluation research  in the matter of research type; (4) metric  in terms of research contribution. It is clear that the concurrent, parallel and multicore software community needs broader studies in debugging.This systematic mapping study can help direct such efforts.

  • 8.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Paul Enoiu, Eduard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Study on Concurrency Bugs in an Open Source Software2016In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 472, 2016, Vol. 472, p. 16-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixingtimes would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful.

  • 9.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Runtime Verification for Detecting Suspension Bugs in Multicore and Parallel Software2017In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, 2017, p. 77-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicore hardware development increases the popularity of parallel and multicore software, while testing and debugging the software become more difficult, frustrating and costly. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are both important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue, particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. Suspension-based-locking bug is one type of concurrency bugs. This position paper proposes a model based on runtime verification and reflection technique in the context of multicore and parallel software to monitor and detect suspension-based-locking bugs. The model is not only able to detect faults, but also diagnose and even repair them. The model is composed of four layers: Logging, Monitoring, Suspension Bug Diagnosis and Mitigation. The logging layer will observe the events and save them into a file system. The monitoring layer will detect the presents of bugs in the software. The suspension bug diagnosis will identify Suspension bugs by comparing the captured data with the suspension bug properties. Finally, the mitigation layer will reconfigure the software to mitigate the suspension bugs. A functional architecture of a runtime verification tool is also proposed in this paper. This architecture is based on the proposed model and is comprised of different modules. 

  • 10.
    Bakhshi Valojerdi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Nokia Bell Labs, Israel.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dependable Fog Computing: A Systematic Literature Review2019In: Proceedings - 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2019, 2019, p. 395-403, article id 8906732Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fog computing has been recently introduced to bridge the gap between cloud resources and the network edge. Fog enables low latency and location awareness, which is considered instrumental for the realization of IoT, but also faces reliability and dependability issues due to node mobility and resource constraints. This paper focuses on the latter, and surveys the state of the art concerning dependability and fog computing, by means of a systematic literature review. Our findings show the growing interest in the topic but the relative immaturity of the technology, without any leading research group. Two problems have attracted special interest: guaranteeing reliable data storage/collection in systems with unreliable and untrusted nodes, and guaranteeing efficient task allocation in the presence of varying computing load. Redundancy-based techniques, both static and dynamic, dominate the architectures of such systems. Reliability, availability and QoS are the most important dependability requirements for fog, whereas aspects such as safety and security, and their important interplay, have not been investigated in depth.

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  • 11.
    Bakhshi Valojerdi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fault-tolerant Permanent Storage for Container-based Fog Architectures2021In: Proceedings of the 2021 22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2021, p. 722-729Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Container-based architectures are widely used for cloud computing and can have an important role in the implementation of fog computing infrastructures. However, there are some crucial dependability aspects that must be addressed to make containerization suitable for critical fog applications, e.g., in automation and robotics. This paper discusses challenges in applying containerization at the fog layer and focuses on one of those challenges: provision of fault-tolerant permanent storage. The paper also presents a container-based fog architecture utilizing so-called storage containers, which combine built-in fault-tolerance mechanisms of containers with a distributed consensus protocol to achieve data consistency.

  • 12.
    Bakhshi Valojerdi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using UPPAAL to Verify Recovery in a Fault-tolerant Mechanism Providing Persistent State at the Edge2021In: 26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2021, Västerås: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our previous work we proposed a fault-tolerant persistent storage for container-based fog architecture. We leveraged the use of containerization to provide storage as a containerized application working along with other containers. As a fault-tolerance mechanism we introduced a replicated data structure and to solve consistency issue between the replicas distributed in the cluster of nodes, we used the RAFT consensus protocol. In this paper, we verify our proposed solution using the UPPAAL model checker. We explain how our solution is modeled in UPPAAL and present a formal verification of key properties related to persistent storage and data consistency between nodes.

  • 13.
    Bakhshi Valojerdi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Verifying the timing of a persistent storage for stateful fog applications2022In: 6th International Conference on Computer, Software and Modeling (ICCSM), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the failure semantics of a persistent fault-tolerant storage solution for stateful fog applications. This storage system is a container-based solution that provides data availability and consistency in a distributed container-based fog architecture. We evaluate the behavior of this storage system with a formal model that includes all the important time parameters and temporal aspects of the solution. This allows us to verify data consistency and other fault-tolerance properties of our system model while considering application startup latency, together with synchronization intervals and delays. We prove that the solution can tolerate failures at application, node, communication and storage level with the ability to automatically recover from failures and provides data consistency within the synchronization delay defined as t time units, which we can calculate for a given system configuration.

  • 14.
    Bakhshi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Najafabadi, Zahra
    Distributed and parallel system group, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Prodan, Radu
    Department of Information Technology, University of Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Storage placement in continuum computing for a robotic applicationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the timing performance of a persistent storage designed for distributed containerbased architectures in industrial control applications. The storage ensures data availability andconsistency while accommodating faults. The analysis considers four aspects: 1. placement strategy,2. design options, 3. data size, and 4. evaluation under faulty conditions. Experimental results considering the timing constraints in industrial applications indicate that the storage solution can meet criticaldeadlines, particularly under specific failure patterns. Moreover, this evaluation method is applicablefor assessing other container-based critical applications with timing constraints that require persistentstorage. Further comparison results reveal that, while the method may underperform current centralized solutions under fault-free conditions, it outperforms the centralized solutions in failure scenarios

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  • 15.
    Bakhshi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Nokia, Israel.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analyzing the performance of persistent storage for fault-tolerant stateful fog applications2023In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 144, article id 103004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the scalability and performance of a persistent, fault-tolerant storage approach that provides data availability and consistency in a distributed container-based architecture with intended use in industrial control applications. We use simulation to evaluate the performance of this storage system in terms of scalability and failures. As the industrial applications considered have timing constraints, the simulation results show that for certain failure patterns, it is possible to determine whether the storage solution can meet critical deadlines. The presented approach is applicable for evaluating timing constraints also of other container-based critical applications that require persistent storage.

  • 16.
    Bate, Iain
    et al.
    Univ York, Dept Comp Sci, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Malardalen Real Time Res Ctr, Vasteroas, Sweden..
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Malardalen Real Time Res Ctr, Vasteroas, Sweden..
    Better, Faster, Cheaper, and Safer Too - Is This Really Possible?2012In: 2012 IEEE 17TH CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES & FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), IEEE , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased levels of automation together with increased complexity of automation systems brings increased responsibility on the system developers in terms of quality demands from the legal perspectives as well as company reputation. Component based development of software systems provides a viable and cost-effective alternative in this context provided one can address the quality and safety certification demands in an efficient manner. In this paper we present our vision, challenges and a brief outline of various research themes in which our team is engaged currently within two major projects.

  • 17.
    Bate, Iain
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Better, Faster, Cheaper, and Safer Too: Is This Really Possible?2012In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2012, p. 6489706-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased levels of automation together with increased complexity of automation systems brings increased responsibility on the system developers in terms of quality demands from the legal perspectives as well as company reputation. Component based development of software systems provides a viable and cost-effective alternative in this context provided one can address the quality and safety certification demands in an efficient manner. In this paper we present our vision, challenges and a brief outline of various research themes in which our team is engaged currently within two major projects.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18. Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Safe Integration of Autonomous Machines in Underground Mining Environments2022In: ISSE 2022 - 2022 8th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, Conference Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous Machines (ASAMs) provide several benefits and have already emerged in mining environments. However, for cost-efficiency reasons and for ASAMs to reach their full potential, they should be capable of operating seamlessly with manually operated machines. Establishing the requirements for sufficient safety for such integration is a non-Trivial task. This paper proposes a methodology for safely integrating ASAMs in underground mining environments. First, we describe the purpose of the integration and define the constituent components. Second, we identify the conditions that ASAMs will likely encounter using ODD-UM, an operational design domain specification for underground mining. Third, we derive high-level requirements for individual components based on ODD-UM attributes. Such requirements are allocated into the constituent components and considered as assumptions for the safety analysis. Fourth, we perform STPA (System-Theoretic Process Analysis) to analyze safety-related control requirements for the integrated system. Our methodology could help the system integrator to systematically identify integration requirements to be enforced in constituent components and safety control systems. Index Terms-Underground Autonomous Mining, Integration Requirements, ODD-UM, STPA, Safety-guided Design.

  • 19.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fattouh, Anas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Context-specific Operational Design Domain for Underground Mining (ODD-UM)2022In: Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 29th European Conference, EuroSPI 2022, Salzburg, Austria, August 31 – September 2, 2022, Proceedings / [ed] Murat Yilmaz; Paul Clarke; Richard Messnarz; Bruno Wöran, 2022, p. 161-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and Semi-autonomous Machines (ASAM) can benefit mining operations. However, demonstrating acceptable levels of safety for ASAMs through exhaustive testing is not an easy task. A promising approach is scenario-based testing, which requires the OperationalDesign Domain (ODD) definition, i.e., environmental, time-of-day, and traffic characteristics. Currently, an ODD specification exists for automated Driving Systems (ADS), but, as it is, such specification is not adequate enough for describing the mine nuances. This paper presents a context-specific ODD taxonomy called ODD-UM, which is suitable for underground mining operational conditions. For this, we consider the taxonomy provided by the British Publicly Available SpecificationPAS 1883:2020. Then, we identify attributes included in the standard ISO 17757:2019 for ASAM safety and use them to adapt the original odd to the needs of underground mining. Finally, the adapted taxonomy is presented as a checklist, and items are selected according to the data provided by the underground mining sector. Our proposed ODDUM provides a baseline that facilitates considering the actual needs for autonomy in mines by leading to focused questions.

  • 20. Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Grante, C.
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Arguing Operational Safety for Mixed Traffic in Underground Mining2023In: 2023 18th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSe 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practitioners report improved productivity as one of the main benefits of using autonomous dump trucks in underground mining. However, manned vehicles are still needed to transport materials and personnel in the tunnels, which requires practices that may diminish autonomy benefits. Thus, both fleets shall be efficiently mixed to maximize the autonomy potential. In addition, sufficient safety shall be demonstrated for operations approval. This paper proposes a strategy to populate a GSN (Goal Structuring Notation) structure to argue for the sufficient safety of mixed traffic operations in underground mining. Our strategy considers SoS (System of Systems) concepts to describe the operations baseline and the initial argumentation line, i.e., risk reduction mitigation strategies for existing SoS components. Such a strategy is further detailed with risk reduction mitigation arguments for control systems. Mitigation strategies at both levels are derived from safety analysis supported by STPA (System-Theoretic Process Analysis), a safety analysis technique that aligns well with the SoS perspective. We also incorporate regulatory frameworks addressing machinery to align the arguments with mandatory statements of the machinery directive. Our strategy combines SoS concepts with analysis techniques and regulatory frameworks to facilitate safety case argumentation for operations approval in the European mining context. 

  • 21.
    Dehlaghi Ghadim, Alireza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Res Inst, S-50115 Pitea, Sweden..
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Res Inst, S-50115 Pitea, Sweden..
    Anomaly Detection Dataset for Industrial Control Systems2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 107982-107996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) have been targeted by cyberattacks and are becoming increasingly vulnerable as more ICSs are connected to the internet. Using Machine Learning (ML) for Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) is a promising approach for ICS cyber protection, but the lack of suitable datasets for evaluating ML algorithms is a challenge. Although a few commonly used datasets may not reflect realistic ICS network data, lack necessary features for effective anomaly detection, or be outdated. This paper introduces the 'ICS-Flow' dataset, which offers network data and process state variables logs for supervised and unsupervised ML-based IDS assessment. The network data includes normal and anomalous network packets and flows captured from simulated ICS components and emulated networks, where the anomalies were applied to the system through various cyberattacks. We also proposed an open-source tool, "ICSFlowGenerator," for generating network flow parameters from Raw network packets. The final dataset comprises over 25,000,000 raw network packets, network flow records, and process variable logs. The paper describes the methodology used to collect and label the dataset and provides a detailed data analysis. Finally, we implement several ML models, including the decision tree, random forest, and artificial neural network to detect anomalies and attacks, demonstrating that our dataset can be used effectively for training intrusion detection ML models.

  • 22.
    Dehlaghi-Ghadim, Alireza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Conti, Mauro
    University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    ICSSIM — A framework for building industrial control systems security testbeds2023In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 148, article id 103906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of the smart industry, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) moved from isolated environments to connected platforms to meet Industry 4.0 targets. The inherent connectivity in these services exposes such systems to increased cybersecurity risks. To protect ICSs against cyberattacks, intrusion detection systems (IDS) empowered by machine learning are used to detect abnormal behavior of the systems. Operational ICSs are not safe environments to research IDSs due to the possibility of catastrophic risks. Therefore, realistic ICS testbeds enable researchers to analyze and validate their IDSs in a controlled environment. Although various ICS testbeds have been developed, researchers' access to a low-cost, extendable, and customizable testbed that can accurately simulate ICSs and suits security research is still an important issue.

    In this paper, we present ICSSIM, a framework for building customized virtual ICS security testbeds in which various cyber threats and network attacks can be effectively and efficiently investigated. This framework contains base classes to simulate control system components and communications. Simulated components are deployable on actual hardware such as Raspberry Pis, containerized environments like Docker, and simulation environments such as GNS-3. ICSSIM also offers physical process modeling using software and hardware in the loop simulation. This framework reduces the time for developing ICS components and aims to produce extendable, versatile, reproducible, low-cost, and comprehensive ICS testbeds with realistic details and high fidelity. We demonstrate ICSSIM by creating a testbed and validating its functionality by showing how different cyberattacks can be applied.

  • 23.
    Dehlaghi-Ghadim, Alireza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Anomaly Detection Dataset for Industrial Control SystemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Brandt, Joachim
    Ericsson Ltd.
    Street, Mark
    Ericsson Ltd.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Fully Automated Test Management for Large Complex Systems2010In: ICST 2010 - 3rd International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, Paris, 2010, p. 412-420Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of large and complex software intensive systems with continuous builds typically generates large volumes of information with complex patterns and relations. Systematic and automated approaches are needed for efficient handling of such large quantities of data in a comprehensible way. In this paper we present an approach and tool enabling autonomous behavior in an automated test management tool to gain efficiency in concurrent software development and test. By capturing the required quality criteria in the test specifications and automating the test execution, test management can potentially be performed to a great extent without manual intervention. This work contributes towards a more autonomous behavior within a distributed remote test strategy based on metrics for decision making in automated testing. These metrics optimize management of fault corrections and retest, giving consideration to the impact of the identified weaknesses, such as fault-prone areas in software.

  • 25.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analysis of Mistakes as a Method to Improve Test Case Design2011In: International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation(ICST), Berlin, 2011, p. 70-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Test Design - how test specifications and test cases are created - inherently determines the success of testing. However, test design techniques are not always properly applied, leading to poor testing. We have developed an analysis method based on identifying mistakes made when designing the test cases. Using an extended test case template and an expert review, the method provides a systematic categorization of mistakes in the test design. The two main classes of identified mistakes are (1) lack of comprehension (of the employed test design technique, target of test etc.) and (2) incomplete test case construction (due to lack of detail, missing clean-up, ambiguities, etc.). The detailed categorization of mistakes provides a basis for improvement of the Test Case Design, resulting in better tests. In developing our method we have investigated over 700 test cases created by novice testers. In a comparison with industrial test cases we could confirm that many of our mistake categories remain relevant also in an industrial context. Our contribution is a new method to improve the effectiveness of test case construction through proper application of test design techniques, leading to an improved coverage without loss of efficiency.

  • 26.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Pettersson, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Framework for Comparing Efficiency, Effectiveness and Applicability of Software Testing Techniques2006In: Proceedings - Testing: Academic and Industrial Conference - Practice and Research Techniques, TAIC PART 2006, 2006, p. 159-170, article id 1691683Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing is expensive for the industry, and always constrained by time and effort. Although there is a multitude of test techniques, there are currently no scientifically based guidelines for the selection of appropriate techniques of different domains and contexts. For large complex systems, some techniques are more efficient in finding failures than others and some are easier to apply than others are. From an industrial perspective, it is important to find the most effective and efficient test design technique that is possible to automate and apply. In this paper, we propose an experimental framework for comparison of test techniques with respect to efficiency, effectiveness and applicability. We also plan to evaluate ease of automation, which has not been addressed by previous studies. We highlight some of the problems of evaluating or comparingtest techniques in an objective manner. We describe our planned process for this multi-phase experimental study. This includes presentation of some of the important measurements to be collected with the dual goals of analyzing the properties of the test technique, as well as validating our experimental framework.

  • 27.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Hansson, Hans
    Experiments with Component Test to Improve Software QualityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Experiments with Component Tests to Improve Software Quality2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In commercial systems, time to market pressure often result in short cuts in the design phase where component test is most vulnerable. It is hard to define how much testing is cost effective by the individual developers, and hard to judge when testing is enough. Verification activities constitute a major part of the product cost. Failures unearthed during later phases of product development escalate the cost substantially. To reduce cost in later stages of testing by reducing failures is important not only for Ericsson, but for any software producer. At Ericsson, we created a scheme, Software Quality Rank (SQR). SQR is a way to improve quality on components. SQR consists of five steps, where the first is where the actual "ranking" of components takes place. Then a selection of components is targeted for improvement in five levels. Most components are targeted for rank 3, which is the cost-efficient quality level. Rank 5 is the target for safety-critical code. The goal of SQR was to provide developers with a tool that prioritizes what to do before delivery to next system test phase. SQR defines a stepwise plan, which describes how much and what to test on component level for each rank. It gives the process for how to prioritize components; re-introduces reviews; requires usage of static analysis tools and defines what coverage to be achieved. The scheme has been used with great success at different design organizations within and outside Ericsson and we believe it supports industry in defining what cost-efficient component test in a time to market situation.

  • 29.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Combitech., Ericsson AB.
    Component Testing is Not Enough - A Study of Software Faults in Telecom Middleware2007In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4581, Springer, 2007, p. 74-89Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interrelationship between software faults and failures is quite intricate and obtaining a meaningful characterization of it would definitely help the testing community in deciding on efficient and effective test strategies. Towards this objective, we have investigated and classified failures observed in a large complex telecommunication industry middleware system during 2003-2006. In this paper, we describe the process used in our study for tracking faults from failures along with the details of failure data. We present the distribution and frequency of the failures along with some interesting findings unravelled while analyzing the origins of these failures. Firstly, though "simple" faults happen, together they account for only less than 10%. The majority of faults come from either missing code or path, or superfluous code, which are all faults that manifest themselves for the first time at integration/system level; not at component level. These faults are more frequent in the early versions of the software, and could very well be attributed to the difficulties in comprehending and specifying the context (and adjacent code) and its dependencies well enough, in a large complex system with time to market pressures. This exposes the limitations of component testing in such complex systems and underlines the need for allocating more resources for higher level integration and system testing.

  • 30.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Component Testing is not Enough - A Study of Software Faults in Telecom Middleware2007In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4581, 2007, p. 74-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interrelationship between software faults and failures is quite intricate and obtaining a meaningful characterization of it would definitely help the testing community in deciding on efficient and effective test strategies. Towards this objective, we have investigated and classified failures observed in a large complex telecommunication industry middleware system during 2003- 2006. In this paper, we describe the process used in our study for tracking faults from failures along with the details of failure data. We present the distribution and frequency of the failures along with some interesting findings unravelled while analyzing the origins of these failures. Firstly, though "simple" faults happen, together they account for only less than 10%. The majority of faults come from either missing code or path, or superfluous code, which are all faults that manifest themselves for the first time at integration/system level; not at component level. These faults are more frequent in the early versions of the software, and could very well be attributed to the difficulties in comprehending and specifying the context (and adjacent code) and its dependencies well enough, in a large complex system with time to market pressures. This exposes the limitations of component testing in such complex systems and underlines the need for allocating more resources for higher level integration and system testing.

  • 31.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    ARTES - A network for Real-Time research and graduate Education in Sweden 1997-20062006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book summarizes the results of the Swedish national real-time systems research initiative ARTES and provides a few representative examples of the science and scientific results that have emerged from ARTES.

    ARTES was supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF), with a total of 95 MSEK between 1998 and 2006. ARTES has unified and given strength to the Swedish real-time and embedded systems research community, and contributed substantially to advancing Sweden's international position in this area. ARTES has had a catalytic and coordinating effect for a total research effort extending far beyond the funding provided by SSF. It has created important synergies between disciplines, ensured industrial relevance in research, and facilitated important academic and industrial networking for approximately 100 senior researchers and some 200 post-graduate students.

  • 32.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Message from the ICST 2018 General Chair2018In: 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 201825 May 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. xii-xiiiConference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Composable Safety (Invited talk)2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7612 / [ed] Frank Ortmeier, Peter Daniel, Springer, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ouimet, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Real-Time Systems2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a textbook developed for use in the Master Programme Module E-M.6 "Real-Time Systems" as part of the Postgraduate Distance studies organized by Fraunhofer IESE and the Distance and International Studies Center at the Technical University of Kaiserslauten, Germany.

  • 35.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Real-time in embedded systems2017In: Systems, Controls, Embedded Systems, Energy, and Machines, CRC Press , 2017, p. 16-26-16-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The PROGRESS Centre for Predictable Embedded Software Systems - Half-time report (edited version)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presentation of the achievements and activities within the PROGRESS national strategic research centre 2006-2008

  • 37.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Real-Time in Networked Embedded Systems2018In: Embedded Systems Handbook: Second Edition, CRC Press , 2018, p. 1-1-1-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    2 + 10 > 1 + 50 !2000In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 1800, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2000, Vol. 1800 LNCS, p. 734-737Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In traditional design of computer based systems some effort, say 1, is spent on the early modeling phases, and some very high effort, say 50, is spent on the later implementation and testing phases. It is the conjecture of this paper that the total effort can be substantially reduced if an increased effort, say 2, is spent on the early modeling phases. Such a shift in focus of efforts will also greatly improve the overall effects (both quality and cost-wise) of the systems dev eloped, there by leading to a better (denoted by "≻") design process. In this paper, w e specifically consider the design of safety-critical distributed real-time systems. © 2000 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 39.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Reliability modelling of time-critical distributed systems2000In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2000, p. 94-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cost conscious industries, such as automotive, it is imperative for designers to adhere to policies that reduce system resources to the extent feasible, even for safety-critical sub-systems. However, the overall reliability requirement, typically in the order of 10-9 faults/hour, must be both analysable and met. Faults can be hardware, software or timing faults. The latter being handled by hard-real time schedulability analysis, which is used to prove that no timing violations will occur. However, from a reliability and cost perspective there is a tradeoff between timing guarantees, the level of hardware and software faults, and the per-unit cost for meeting the overall reliability requirement. This paper outlines a reliability analysis method that considers the effect of faults on schedulability analysis and its impact on the reliability estimation of the system. The ideas have general applicability, but the method has been developed with modeling of external interferences of automotive CAN buses in mind. We illustrate the method using the example of a distributed braking system.

  • 40.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Beating the Automotive Code Complexity Challenge2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Real-Time in Networked Embedded Systems2009In: Networked Embedded Systems, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Törngren, Matrin
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden .
    SaveCCM - a component model for safety-critical real-time systems2004In: Conference Proceedings of the EUROMICRO, Volume 30, 2004, 2004, p. 627-635Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based development has proven effective in many engineering domains, and several general component technologies are available. Most of these are focused on providing an efficient software-engineering process. However for the majority of embedded systems, run-time efficiency and prediction of system behaviour are as important as process efficiency. This calls for specialized technologies. There is even a need for further specialized technologies adapted to different types of embedded systems, due to the heterogeneity of the domain and the close relation between the software and the often very application specific system. This paper presents the SaveCCM component model, intended for embedded control applications in vehicular systems. SaveCCM is a simple model in which flexibility is limited to facilitate analysis of real-time and dependability. We present and motivate the model, and provide examples of its use.

  • 43.
    Huselius, Joel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Andersson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Automatic Generation and Validation of Models of Legacy Software2006In: Proceedings of the 12:th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), Sydney, Australia, 2006, p. 342-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modeling approach is not used to its full potential in maintenance of legacy systems. Often, models do not even exist. The main reasons being that the economic implications and practical hurdles in manually maintaining models of in-use legacy systems are considered too high by the industry. In this paper, we present a method for automated validation of models automatically generated from recordings of executing real-time embedded systems. This forms an essential constituent of a unified process for the automatic modeling of legacy software. We also present a study in which we automatically model a state-of-practice industrial robot control system, the results of which are clearly positive indicators of the viability of our approach.

  • 44.
    Huselius, Joel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Evaluating the Quality of Models Extracted from Embedded Real-Time Software2007In: Proceedings of the International Symposium and Workshop on Engineering of Computer Based Systems, 2007, p. 577-585Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the high cost of modeling, model-based techniques are yet to make their impact in the embedded systems industry, which still persist on maintaining code-oriented legacy systems. Re-engineering existing code-oriented systems to fit model-based development is a risky endeavor due to the cost and efforts required to maintain correspondence between the code and model. We aim to reduce the cost of modeling and model maintenance by automating the process, thus facilitating model-based techniques. We have previously proposed the use of automatic model extraction from recordings of existing embedded real-time systems. To estimate the quality of the extracted models of timing behavior, we need a framework for objective evaluation. In this paper, we present such a framework to empirically test and compare extracted models, and hence obtain an implicit evaluation of methods for automatic model extraction. We present a set of synthetic benchmarks to be used as test cases for emulating timing behaviors of diverse systems with varying architectural styles, and extract automatic models out of them. We discuss the difficulties in comparing response time distributions, and present an intuitive and novel approach along with associated algorithms for performing such a comparison. Using our empirical framework, and the comparison algorithms, one could objectively determine the correspondence between the model and the system being modeled.

  • 45.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. SICS, Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Thane, Henrik
    Safety integrity AB, Sweden.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS, Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Inadequate risk analysis might jeopardize the functional safety of modern systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 90s, researchers began to focus on security as an important property to address in combination with safety. Over the years, researchers have proposed approaches to harmonize activities within the safety and security disciplines. Despite the academic efforts to identify interdependencies and to propose combined approaches for safety and security, there is still a lack of integration between safety and security practices in the industrial context, as they have separate standards and independent processes often addressed and assessed by different organizational teams and authorities. Specifically, security concerns are generally not covered in any detail in safety standards potentially resulting in successfully safety-certified systems that still are open for security threats from e.g., malicious intents from internal and external personnel and hackers that may jeopardize safety. In recent years security has again received an increasing attention of being an important issue also in safety assurance, as the open interconnected nature of emerging systems makes them susceptible to security threats at a much higher degree than existing more confined products.

    This article presents initial ideas on how to extend safety work to include aspects of security during the context establishment and initial risk assessment procedures. The ambition of our proposal is to improve safety and increase efficiency and effectiveness of the safety work within the frames of the current safety standards, i.e., raised security awareness in compliance with the current safety standards. We believe that our proposal is useful to raise the security awareness in industrial contexts, although it is not a complete harmonization of safety and security disciplines, as it merely provides applicable guidance to increase security awareness in a safety context

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  • 46.
    Javed, Muhammad Atif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Thane, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards dynamic safety assurance for Industry 4.02021In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 114, article id 101914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of Industry 4.0 is to be faster, more efficient and more customer-centric, by enhancing the automation and digitalisation of production systems. Frequently, the production in Industry 4.0 is categorised as safetycritical, for example, due to the interactions between autonomous machines and hazardous substances that can result in human injury or death, damage to machines, property or the environment. In order to demonstrate the acceptable safety of production operations, safety cases are constructed to provide comprehensive, logical and defensible justification of the safety of a production system for a given application in a predefined operating environment. However, the construction and maintenance of safety cases in alignment with Industry 4.0 are challenging tasks. For their construction, besides the modular, dynamic and reconfigurable nature of Industry 4.0, the architectural levels of the things, fog and cloud computing have to be considered. The safety cases constructed at system design and development phases might be invalidated during production operations, thus necessitating some means for dynamic safety assurance. Moreover, flexible manufacturing in Industry 4.0 also underlines the need for safety assurance in a dynamic manner during the operational phase. Currently published studies are not explicitly supporting the safety assurance of Industry 4.0, which is the focus of this paper with special emphasis on dynamic safety assurance. At first, the Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) techniques are used for the identification and mitigation/elimination of potential hazards. Next, based on the hazard analysis results, we derived the safety requirements and safety contracts. Subsequently, safety cases are constructed using the OpenCert platform and safety contracts are associated with them to enable necessary changes during runtime. Finally, we use a simulations based approach to identify and resolve the deviations between the system understanding reflected in the safety cases and the current system operation. The dynamic safety assurance is demonstrated using a use case scenario of materials transportation and data flow in the Industry 4.0 context.

  • 47.
    Javed, Muhammad Atif
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Safe and secure platooning of automated guided vehicles in Industry 4.02021In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 121, article id 102309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are widely used for materials transportation. Operating them in a platooned manner has the potential to improve safety, security and efficiency, control overall traffic flow and reduce resource usage. However, the published studies on platooning focus mainly on the design of technical solutions in the context of automotive domain. In this paper we focus on a largely unexplored theme of platooning in production sites transformed to the Industry 4.0, with the aim of providing safety and security assurances. We present an overall approach for a fault- and threat tolerant platooning for materials transportation in production environments. Our functional use cases include the platoon control for collision avoidance, data acquisition and processing by considering range, and connectivity with fog and cloud levels. To perform the safety and security analyses, the Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) and Threat and Operability (THROP) techniques are used. Based on the results obtained from them, the safety and security requirements are derived for the identification and prevention/mitigation of potential platooning hazards, threats and vulnerabilities. The assurance cases are constructed to show the acceptable safety and security of materials transportation using AGV platooning. We leveraged a simulation-based digital twin for performing the verification and validation as well as fine tuning of the platooning strategy. Simulation data is gathered from digital twin to monitor platoon operations, identify unexpected or incorrect behaviour, evaluate the potential implications, trigger control actions to resolve them, and continuously update assurance cases. The applicability of the AGV platooning is demonstrated in the context of a quarry site.

  • 48.
    Kraft, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kienle, Holger
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Software Maintenance Research in the PROGRESS Project for Predictable Embedded Software Systems2011In: 15th European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering (CSMR'11) / [ed] Mens, T; Kanellopoulos, Y; Winter, A, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 335-338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PROGRESS is a project and strategic research centre at Malardalen University in Sweden that is funded for 2006-2010 by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF). PROGRESS research targets embedded software in the vehicular, automation, and telecom domains, focusing on the areas of component technology, verification and analysis for predictability, predictable execution, as well as reuse and maintenance of legacy embedded software. We first describe the funding, organization and research areas of PROGRESS, and then give several examples of PROGRESS research that addresses maintenance of legacy embedded software with the goal to improve program comprehension, quality assurance, and debugging. Specifically, we describe research in tracing and trace visualization, impact analysis of temporal behavior, slicing, and system-specific static analyses.

  • 49.
    Leander, Bjorn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB Proc Automat, S-72180 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindstrom, Tomas
    ABB AB Proc Automat, S-72180 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Toward an Ideal Access Control Strategy for Industry 4.0 Manufacturing Systems2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 114037-114050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial control systems control and supervise our most important and critical infrastructures, such as power utilities, clean water plants and nuclear plants, as well as the manufacturing industries at the base of our economy. These systems are currently undergoing a transformation driven by the Industry 4.0 evolution, characterized by increased connectivity and flexibility. Consequently, the cybersecurity threat landscape for industrial control systems is evolving as well. Current strategies used for access control within industrial control systems are relatively rudimentary. It is evident that some of the emerging cybersecurity threats related to Industry 4.0 could be better mitigated using more fine-grained access control policies. In this article we discuss and describe a number of access control strategies that could be used within manufacturing systems. We evaluate the strategies in a simulation experiment, using a number of attack-scenarios. Moreover, a method is outlined for automatic policy-generation based on engineering-data, which is aligned with one of the best performing strategies.

  • 50.
    Leander, Björn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ES (Embedded Systems).
    A Recipe-based Algorithm for Access Control in Modular Automation Systems2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the emerging trend towards modular automation, a need for adaptive, strict access control between interacting components has been identified as a key challenge. In this article we discuss the need for such a functionality, and propose a workflow-driven method for automatic access control policies generation within a modular automation system. The solution is based on recipes, formulated using Sequential Function Charts (SFC). The generated policies are expressed using Next Generation Access Control (NGAC), an Attribute Based Access Control (ABAC) standard developed by NIST. We provide (1) a definition of required policies for device-to device interactions within a modular automation system, (2) an algorithm for automatic generation of access policies, (3) a formal proof of the correctness of this algorithm, and (4) an illustration of its use.

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