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  • 1.
    Carlson, E. -S
    et al.
    aDivision of Safety and Transport, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, PO Box 857, Borås, SE-501 15, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. aDivision of Safety and Transport, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, PO Box 857, Borås, SE-501 15, Sweden.
    Zakirov, A.
    aDivision of Safety and Transport, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, PO Box 857, Borås, SE-501 15, Sweden.
    Dederichs, A.
    aDivision of Safety and Transport, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, PO Box 857, Borås, SE-501 15, Sweden.
    Evacuation tests with elevated platforms in railway tunnels2019In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 108, article id 102840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the purpose to increase the knowledge on human behaviour when evacuating along elevated platforms, an experiment was carried out at the subway station of Skarpnäck, Stockholm, in October 2016. The overall project objective was to develop basic data for guidelines regarding fire safety design concerning evacuation along elevated platforms. The experiment was designed as a group experiment divided into five different scenarios. In total, 111 persons of mixed gender and age participated. The results from the experiment show that the flow rate along the elevated platform decreased as the walkway was getting narrower. It could also be seen that along the first half of the walkway, where a train was located on the rail track next to the elevated platform, the flow rate was higher and the width of the walkway was used to a lager extent compared to the second half of the walkway where the platform was open to the track area. One of three wheelchair users who participated in the experiment expressed discomfort caused by the height and the width of the walkway and nearly half of the participants experienced problems with passing others walking slower than themselves. 

  • 2. Claesson, Alexander
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Lindström, Johan
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Laboratory fire experiments with a 1/3 train carriage mockup2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of six fire tests were conducted in a mock-up of a subway carriage that is about 1/3 of a full wagon length. They were carried out under a large scale calorimeter in a laboratory environment. The aim of the tests was to investigate the initial fire growth in a corner scenario using different types of ignition sources that could lead to a flashover situation. The ignition sources used were either a wood crib placed on a corner seat or one liter of petrol poured on the corner seat and the neighboring floor together with a backpack. The amount of luggage and wood cribs in the neighborhood of the ignition source was continuously increased in order to identify the limits for flashover in the test-setup. The tests showed that the combustible boards on parts of the walls had a significant effect on the fire spread. In the cases where the initial fire did not exceed a range of 400 – 600 kW no flashover was observed. If the initial fire grew up to 700 – 900 kW a flashover was observed. The maximum heat release rate during a short flashover period for this test set-up was about 3.5 MW. The time to reach flashover was highly dependent on the ignition type, wood cribs or backpack and petrol.

  • 3.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hansen, Rickard
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nyman, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Koncept för skydd mot brand och brandgasspridning i gruvor: Slutrapport2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättningen med projektet var att ta fram information om brandutveckling och rökspridning igruvor. Resultaten skulle användas för att ta fram rekommendationer för de deltagandegruvföretagen. Resultaten skulle också användas som underlag i framtida riskanalyser och i detsystematiska brandskyddsarbetet. Metoder och verktyg för att bestämma brandutveckling ifordon och rökspridning skulle valideras och utvärderas. Kunskapen skulle kunna användas inomgruvindustrin, men även för andra områden så som bränder i tunnlar under byggnation. Projektetska förstärka forskningsprofilen inom högskolan när det gäller brandsäkerhet iundermarksanläggningar och resultaten skall implementeras i grundutbildningen.

    Projektarbetet har varit delvis fokuserat mot gruvföretag och delvis mot konsultföretag somarbetar inom området. Bra samarbete och diskussioner med de företag i projektet som ansvararför gruv- eller besöksdrift har varit viktigt. Gruvföretagens behov av att få ordning på sinbrandskyddsdokumentation, förståelse för säkerhetsutrustning och insatsplanering samt sittsystematiska brandskyddsarbete, har haft stor betydelse för detaljutformningen av projektet ochpå vilket sätt det har slutligen genomförts. Samarbetet med konsultföretagen har haft en annaninriktning, där fokus istället varit erfarenhetsöverföring när det gäller scenariospel, brandtekniskdimensionering och ventilationsteknik. Deras stöd och hjälp har haft stor betydelse förgenomförandet av projektet.

  • 4.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    LTH.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Claesson, Alexander
    SP.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    SP.
    Fridolf, Karl
    LTH.
    Åkerstedt, Rolf
    SL.
    Nyman, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Forsén, Rickard
    FOI.
    Janzon, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Meyer, Gero
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bryntse, Anders
    FOI.
    Carlberg, Tobias
    FOI.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    FHS.
    Palm, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Metro Project: Final report2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the METRO project. The different parts of theproject – design fires, evacuation, integrated fire control, smoke control, extraordinarystrain onconstructions and fire- and rescue operations – are presented separately.

    The most complicated and expensive part of the project was the performance of thelarge scale fire and explosion tests in the Brunsberg tunnel, where the maximum heatrelease rates measured from the metro wagon was 77 MW.

    The main results from the project are new recommendations regarding design firesin mass transport systems, identification of key factors for fire and smoke spread in tunnelsand at stations as well as regarding the difficulties for disabled persons to evacuatefrom trains in tunnels, new recommended types of way guiding systems, safer design incase of explosions in trains and evaluation of the fire and rescue services’ possibilitiesand limitations in underground mass transport systems.

  • 5.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    LTH Brandteknik.
    Kumm, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Fire incidents during construction work of tunnels2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summaries guidelines and solutions related to fire safety in underground facilities during the construction phase. Development of different fire scenarios in underground facilities under construction are presented. Based on different design fire scenarios evacuation analysis was carried out. The incident situation of the fire services are discussed and proposals for solutions discussed. Numerous tunnel sites under construction were visited and conclusions obtained from the visits are presented. Test with a large scale tire of a front wheel loader was conducted in order to obtain input for the design fire of construction vehicle. Recommendations for constructors and authorities as well as for fire services are given. These recommendations are based on the work carried out during the project.

  • 6.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP, Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP, Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Brandsäkerhet i tunnlar under byggtiden2009In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 52-54Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsintitut.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsintitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds universitet.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms Brandförsvar.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund.
    Taktik och Metodik vid brand i Undermarksanläggningar (TMU) - Sammanfattningsrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report compiles the results from the TMU-project. The focus is on fire-fighting performance, capability and organization in underground constructions. The emphasis was on large-scale testing with authentic fire conditions and fire-fighting equipment, development of tools for prediction of hazardous conditions and capabilities of  fire-fighting during different conditions, organizational management and tactics, education and development  of recommendations.  The project was divided into different work packages and these are presented in this final summary report. The test fires performed in the project created severe conditions for fire-fighters who moved in smoke for over 180 m before fighting fully developed fires in a range of 18 to 33 MW. The fires consisted of wood pallets placed in a semi-open steel container, simulating a train wagon fire. The walking speed and connection time for hoses and connections were registered and documented by infra-red cameras. The most important results from these tests is that the time taken to approach the fire depends on parameters as type of equipment, preparation, possibilities for use of infra-red (IR) cameras and the capacity of the extinguishing media. The heat radiation from the fire was found to be important to overcome in order to get close enough to fight the fire. Recommendations and tactics for fighting fires in underground constructions are given. 

  • 8.
    Kumm, M
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Nyman, H
    Dahlquist, E
    Lundin, K
    The impact from outside wind on air movments in a telecom tunnel2005Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Kumm, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Boras, Sweden.
    Entrainment in a free jet generated by Positive Pressure Ventilator2014In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, no 6, p. 1499-1515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of a simple flow model to describe the entrainment into the air cone created by a positive pressure ventilator (PPV) fan are compared to experimental data. Velocity profiles measured in the air cone of a conventional PPV ventilator are used. The entrainment coefficient and the cone angle were determined for the fan investigated. The correspondence between calculated and measured values is discussed and disparities explained. The findings from the tests are turned into practical guidance for the fire brigade and the advantages and limitations of the simplified model are discussed.

  • 10.
    Kumm, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nilsson, D.
    Laboratory Exercises and Interactive Methods as a Tool for Effective Learning in Higher Education2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Brandbelastning i besöksgruvor2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När gruvdriften upphör och gruvan läggs ner kan anläggningen få alternativa användningsområden och ibland är det bara fantasin som sätter gränserna. Flertalet gruvor har blivit turistattraktioner och ett sätt att bevara bygdens kulturarv. När gruvan var i drift var personerna som rörde sig i gruvan vana vid miljön och brandbelastningen vitt skild från de underjordiska samlingslokaler anläggningarna ibland blir i sin nya skepnad. Brandbelastningen har i många fall blivit betydligt lägre, medan utrymningssituationen blivit mer komplex. Denna delrapport beskriver den inventering och analys av brandbelastningen i Sala Silvergruva och Falu gruva som utförts inom ramen för det KKS-finansierade forskningsprojektet Koncept för skydd mot brand och brandgasspridning i gruvor (Concept for fire and smoke spread prevention i mines) – GRUVAN. Rapporten är tänkt att kunna ge vägledning för räddningstjänsten i dess bedömning om ett troligt brandscenario och ger konkreta råd till anläggningsägare med liknande verksamhet.

  • 12.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Carried Fire Load in Mass Transport Systems: – a study of occurrence, allocation and fire behavior of bags and luggage in metro and commuter trains in Stockholm2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fire in an underground mass transport system is a great challenge for the fire and rescue services. The outcome of both the evacuation and the fire and rescue operation is dependent of the fire behavior. The fire load will influence the duration of the fire and the possible damage on the construction. It will also affect the fire and rescue services possibilities and need to extinguish the fire.  When designing new trains high fire safety requirements are raised on the carriage, the interior and the used material. The fire accidents in the Baku Metro in 1995 and in the funicular railway in the Kaprun tunnel in 2000 shows that the carried fire load also has a great impact of the fire. In this report  the carried fire load in the Baku and Kaprun fires are discussed and the occurrence and location of carried fire load in the Stockholm mass transport systems is described. Based on the field study in Stockholm typical bags and luggage have been chosen and fire test have been performed at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. The test includes different sizes of bags and luggage with representative contents as well as prams and shopping bags.

  • 13.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Contingency planning for Constructors during Construction of Tunnels2010In: / [ed] IQPC, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the fire and rescue services has limited possibilities to perform rescue operations or to fight fires in tunnels under construction, the tunnel constructors have to work systematically with both prevention and mitigation within the field. During the construction phase the tunnel surroundings are essentially different from the phases later in the tunnel life cycle. The construction phase can be divided in two main parts – the tunnel before and after the break through. The possibilities both for safe evacuation and successful fire and rescue operations are considerable lower if a fire would occur when the tunnel only have one opening, before the break-through, when the tunnel has a “dead end” the smoke only can spread in one direction. A smoke filled tunnel not only put the evacuating people at risk, but also slows down the transportation speed of the fire and rescue services. Recent calculations shows that the fire and rescue services in some cases, with methods and equipment used today, do not reach the rescue chambers or the evacuating people in time. This paper discusses the fire and rescue services limitations under the construction phase, but from the contractor perspective. Recommendations regarding systematic fire prevention, risk reduction and fire mitigation are made and the importance of the interaction between the fire and rescue services and the tunnel contractors are discussed and analyzed.

  • 14.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Insatsövning i Sala Silvergruva2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bränder i anläggningar under mark ställer höga krav på både anläggningsägare och räddningstjänst. Till skillnad från bränder ovan mark, där både räddningsledaren och insatspersonalen lättare kan se hur branden utvecklas och brandgaserna sprids, är bränder under mark ofta komplexa och komplicerade. Räddningstjänsten i Sala-Heby kan utan hjälp av intilliggande räddningstjänster utföra samtidig rökdykning med två rökdykarpar. En räddningsinsats i gruvan kommer att vara komplicerad både beroende på komplexa miljön, men också beroende på de begränsade resurser som finns att tillgå innan förstärkning. Sala silvergruva är idag en ren besöksgruva och ingen gruvbrytning sker.  Vid arrangemang kan fler än 150 personer befinna sig nere i gruvan, viket ställer höga krav på kompetens hos både räddningsledare och insatspersonal. Denna rapport beskriver utförandet och resultaten av de insatsövningar som utförts inom ramen för det KKS-finansierade forskningsprojektet GRUVAN. Övningarna och försöken har genomförts både som fullskaliga försök med räddningsinsats i rökfylld gruva och som table-top övningar med personal i ledande befattningar. Försöken och övningarna har åtföljts av enkäter, intervjuer och diskussioner. Analysen av försöken visar på den viktiga roll som objektets egen personal har vid en incident eller olycka, vikten av byggnadstekniska åtgärder vid ombyggnad från gruva i drift till besöksgruva samt behovet av ett effektivt och utvecklat förebyggande brandskyddsarbete.

  • 15.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rekommendationer gällande brand och utrymning i besöksgruvor2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under perioden 2007 till 2010 har projektet GRUVAN – Koncept för skydd mot brand och brandgasspridning pågått i samarbete mellan Mälardalens högskola och Sala silvergruva, LKAB, Falu gruva, Swepro och Brandskyddslaget. Projektet har finansierats via KK-stiftelsen. Räddningstjänsterna i Sala-Heby och Dala-Mitt har varit knutna till projektet. Projektet har varit uppdelat på två huvudområden – gruvor i drift och besöksgruvor. Medan lagstiftningen gällande gruvor i drift är mycket tydlig och via SveMin har en väl etablerad organisation med regler och rekommendationer inom brandskyddsområdet har en större osäkerhet funnits, hos både lagstiftare, objektsägare och räddningstjänster, för vilka krav som ställs för gruvor som gjorts om till rena besöksgruvor. Denna rapport belyser de osäkerheter som upptäckts och diskuterar problemställningen ur ett lagperspektiv. Rekommendationer på skäliga brandskyddslösningar ges och checklistor för räddningstjänsten respektive objektsägaren har utformats.

  • 16.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rescue operations during construction of tunnels: -a study of the fire and rescue services possibilities and their interaction with the tunnel contractor2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decades a number of successful research projects have been performed in Europe and in the rest of the world regarding fire in tunnels. The project mainly deals the conditions for newly built or already existing tunnels. During the construction phase most of the fire technical installations designed for the ready tunnel not yet are in operation, the evacuation and response routes can be very long and the fire load essentially different from the ready tunnel. This report describes the basic problems with rescue operations in tunnels and discusses the possibilities and limitations for rescue operations during construction. Examples are given for chosen type tunnels and recommendations are given. The Swedish national legislation is analyzed and discussed. Finally recommendations for the contingency planning and the interaction between the fire- and rescue services and the tunnel contractor are made.

  • 17. Kumm, Mia
    Riskhänsyn i samhällsplaneringen2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många storstadsområden genomgår en stark expansion. Städerna både förtätas och breder ut sig, vilket innebär att viktig infrastruktur som vägar, järnvägar och tunnlar oundvikligt kommer närmare olika typer av bebyggelse. Nya typer av komplexa byggnader och byggnadsverk ser dagens ljus samtidigt som tillgängligheten ökar. Detta i kombination med vår tids nya typer av hot och risker gör att andra bedömningar än tidigare gällande brand och andra risker kan behöva göras vid samhällsplaneringen. Utvecklingen och kunnandet inom brand- och riskområdet har gått snabbt framåt, vilket ger nya möjligheter att bedöma skäligheten i olika åtgärder för att skydda människor, byggnader och viktig infrastruktur. De nya möjligheterna skapar också nya frågor. Kan sannolikhet för att en viss händelse skall inträffa alltid jämställas med bygglagstiftningens funktionskrav? Vad är acceptabel risk? Vilka är realistiska scenarier att bedöma risk efter? Denna artikel beskriver och jämför dagens olika krav på säkerhet vid samhällsbyggande samt diskuterar kring frågorna hur problemen kan hanteras.

  • 18.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Räddningsinsatser i kärntekniska anläggningar under mark: En kunskapsöversikt inför byggandet av ett svenskt slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar kunskapsläget gällande räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar. Projektet har finansierats av Nationella brandsäkerhetsgruppen (NBSG) inför byggandet av ett svenskt slutförvar av använt kärnbränsle.

    Projektet har innefattat en studie av designbränder i gruvor och tunnlar underbyggnation samt hur en räddnings- och släckinsats kan utföras under motsvaradeförhållanden. Erfarenheter från planering av räddningsinsatser i andra kärntekniskaanläggningar under mark har dragits från nationella och internationellaintervjuer och enkäter. Slutligen har en sammanställning och utvärdering av utrustning och materiel, som kan utgöra en taktisk resurs vid räddningsinsatser i liknande anläggningar, gjorts.

  • 19.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Räddningstjänstens förflyttningshastighet under mark: En förstudie om slangdragning i olika undermarksmiljöer2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Räddningsinsatser under mark kan ta lång tid i anspråk och påverkas dels av själva branden men också av de möjligheter räddningstjänsten har till snabb förflyttning. Förflyttningshastigheten påverkas dels av sikten, markens lutning och ytråhet, belastningen och tillgängliga hjälpmedel, men också av de regelverk som är till för att säkerställa arbetsmiljön för räddningstjänstens personal. Denna rapport ger en översikt om problemområdet och de studier som tidigare genomförts samt redovisar förflyttningshastigheter vid genomförda försök i gruvor och tunnlar under byggnation. Försöken påvisar behovet av effektiva hjälpmedel för räddningstjänsten samt visar hur olika metoder för slangutlägg direkt kan påverka resultatet av en räddningsinsats, främst i trängre utrymmen med långa inträngningsvägar. De genomförda försöken är avsedda att ligga till grund för utformningen av vidare försök där hela system och metoder jämförs systematiskt. Behovet av samverkan mellan objektsägare och räddningstjänst belyses och forsknings- och utvecklingsbehovet analyseras.

  • 20.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rökfyllnadsförsök i Falu och Sala gruvor2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sala silvergruva var aktiv redan på 1400-talet men det finns indikationer på att brytning i mindre skala fanns redan på 1100-talet. Gruvans storhetstid var under 1500- och 1600-talen och 1908 upphörde den huvudsakliga brytningen av silver till förmån för andra metaller. Brytningen upphörde helt 1962 och gruvan används idag till besöks- och museiverksamhet. När aktiv brytning skedde genom tillmakning – den malmbrytningsteknik där berget hettas upp genom eldning så att det spricker – fanns stor kunskap om hur röken rörde sig i gruvan vid olika väder och vindförhållanden. Gruvan avdelades också med träportar, som kunde användas för att styra röken. Dessa dörrar har på de flesta platser tagits bort. Under århundradena har kunskapen i stort gått förlorad om hur termiken i gruvorna fungerar – en kunskap som idag skulle vara värdefull vid en brand. Under våren 2010 utfördes rökfyllnadsförsök i Falu gruva och Sala silvergruva i samarbete mellan Mälardalens högskola, gruvorna samt räddningstjänsterna Sala-Heby och Dala-Mitt. Försöken utfördes inom ramen för det KKS-finansierade forskningsprojektet GRUVAN och syftade till ge underlag för räddningstjänstens vidare insatsplanering och utveckling av metoder för brandgasevakuering i gruvmiljöer utan mekanisk ventilation. Försöken utfördes med konströk och en pölbrand med metanol motsvarande den dimensionerande brand som tidigare tagits fram inom projektet. Rökens spridning dokumenterades, yttre vind och väderpåverkan studerades och olika metoder för att evakuera röken med hjälp av naturlig ventilation och mobila fläktar studerades. Det arbete som utförts inom projektet visar på att det i huvudsak är låg brandbelastning i de deltagande gruvorna men att även en mindre brand skulle orsaka svårigheter för utrymning och räddningsinsats. Då den förväntade brandeffekten är låg och berget snabbt kyler röken visar försöken också att säkra flyktplatser dit besökare och personal kan utrymma i väntan på räddningstjänsten kan vara ett bra komplement till utrymningsvägar ut till det fria.

  • 21.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Smoke control in tunnels: ventilation using mobile fans2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 22.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vindens påverkan på räddningsinsatser i tunnlar – Vindens påverkan på luftrörelser i tunnel, en jämförelse mellan teori, vindtunnelförsök och fullskaleförsök i Masthamnstunneln2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar de forsok avseende den yttre vindens paverkan pa luftrorelserna inne i tunneln , som har utforts i Masthamnstunneln i Stockholm samt i Malardalens hogskolas vindtunnel pa Hasslo. Malsattningen med dessa forsok har varit att insamla tillforlitliga och tillrackliga matvarden for att kunna jamfora de tva olika teorier som finns for beraknande av vindens paverkan pa luftrorelser inne i tunneln. Den konventionella teorin bygger pa att vinden orsakar ett overtryck pa lovart(vind)- sidan och ett undertryck pa lasidan och att luftrorelserna i tunneln ar att hanvisa till dessa tryckskillnader. Den alternativa teorin bygger pa att vinden har ett val att antingen stromma runt berget eller in genom tunneln. Inom ramen for detta projekt har de tva teorierna jamforts med uppmatta varden i modellskala i vindtunnel och i fullskala ute i verkligheten. Vid vindpablasning fran nordvast, dvs i riktning mot tunnelmynningens reella inloppsriktning, kan tendenser ses att luftrorelserna i tunneln orsakas av genomblasning, medan det vid sned vindpablasning, i detta fall fran nordost, tenderar att battre korrelera med teorin om tryckdriven stromning. I fall med mycket sned vindpablasning (≥45⁰) korrelerar bada teorierna daligt och i langa tunnlar med hogt inre motstand visar tidigare matningar att luftrorelserna i tunneln skulle kunna vara tryckdrivna. Det aterstar dock en hel del osakerheter som bor studeras narmare for att fa tillforlitliga resultat. Exempel pa sadana omraden ar; betydelsen av tunnelportalernas utformning, betydelsen av porositeten (tunnelns area i forhallande till det omgivande berget), forbattrade varden pa in- och utloppsforluster samt forbattrade varden pa motstandskoeficienter for berg och bergssidor.

  • 23.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Andreasson, Rolf
    Rtj Båstad.
    Emergency Exercise Hallandsås Tunnel 7th of November 20082009Report (Other academic)
  • 24. Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Karlstad universitet.
    A TUNNEL COVER FOR A TUNNEL FOR CONTROLLED VENTILATION OF GAS2006Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A system, in accordance with the invention, relates to ventilating a tunnel 1 in the event of fire or emission of gases or aerosols. The system comprises a tunnel cover 20 and a mobile fan 21. The tunnel cover 20 has an opening 29 through which the fan 21 blows air. This increases the static pressure at the cover 20, which change the direction of air at a desired direction. One of the advantages of the invention is that the tunnel cover 20 makes it possible to utilise considerably smaller mobile fans 21 to ventilate a tunnel 1 in the event of fire or emission of gases than when using earlier known techniques.

  • 25.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Fire and Rescue Operations during Construction of Tunnels2010In: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, March 17-19, 2010 / [ed] SP, 2010, p. 383-394Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decades a great deal of research has been performed regarding different fields of fire safety and fire development in existing tunnels. During constructions of tunnels the physical conditions of the establishment as well as the fire load, the possibilities to evacuate and perform a fire and rescue operation are essentially separated from the conditions in the opened tunnel. During the construction phase, the safety installations prior to the finished state, often is not yet installed or in function. Before the break through, the tunnel can have a “dead end”, which can make both evacuation and fire and rescue operations very difficult. Many different organizations can be involved in the construction work with the tunnel and it is not uncommon that the workers have different nationalities. Both these conditions can, in case of an incident, influence the alarm chain and the quality of the information that reaches the emergency services. The incident commander (IC) in a large fire- and rescue operation has to survey a complex situation, where conventional methods and normal tactical approaches can be difficult to use. This paper discusses the fire- and rescue services possibilities to perform a fire and rescue operation during the different phases of the construction. Limitations, based on information from real fires and full-scale tests are analyzed and discussed. Both technical and organizational solutions for self-rescue or as support for the fire- and rescue services are valued and discussed.

  • 26.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Karlstad universitet.
    Mobile Ventilation as a Tactic Resource at Tunnel Fires2008In: Proceedings from the Third International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. Stockholm, Sweden, March 12-14 2008 / [ed] Anders Lönnermark, Haukur Ingason, 2008, p. 289-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emergency operation in case of a tunnel fire can easily become a complex operation. The objectives are to save people in danger, save the tunnel and its installations as well as vehicles trapped inside the tunnel and also, if it’s possible and necessary, reduce the effects on the environment. The strategy and the tactics in an emergency operation are very much depending on the specific tunnel, the fire behaviour and the resources from the fire brigade. One of the key factors is to ventilate the tunnel in order to take the smoke away from the people in danger or to support the fire fighting operation. The possibilities to effectively ventilate the tunnel depend on the knowledge of the fire brigade, the available pre-installed or mobile installations and equipment for ventilation and the tactical approach chosen. In tunnels with only natural ventilation or to improve existing ventilation in tunnels, mobile fans can be used. The possibilities to redirect the flow are dependent of the capacity of the fans, the tunnel geometry and the counteracting forces from outside wind or the thermal buoyancy from the fire. In this paper the tactical approach with ventilation is further analysed and the possibilities and limitations are studied and discussed.

  • 27.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Karlstad universitet.
    Tunneltäckning för effektivare brandventilation2005Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28. Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Erdös, Antal
    Budapest Fire Department Hungary.
    Jidling, Stefan
    International Infrastructure Safety Co-operation between Academy and Authorities within the European Union2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004, the Swedish Government implemented a special promotion initiative in Hungary. 1 The aim of the initiative was to develop contacts between Sweden and Hungary prior to Hungary’s accession to the EU. Within the frame of the Svédületes project a conference on the thematic field Safety in Infrastructure was arranged by Malardalen University, the Budapest and Stockholm Fire Departments and the two metro operators BKV and SL. This conference was the beginning of an extensive co-operation in research and exchange of know-how between the project members. Seminars, excercises and visits have been held in both countries during the past year. This paper describes how the project was carried through from idea to established relations. Ways for implementation of academic results to useful practical knowledge is discussed. Forms of financing similar projects are introduced and the future planned co-operation is presented. The project are seen as a first step for future rewarding co-operation between universities, public authorities and infrastructure owners in wider circles.

  • 29.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Can combinations of small fans be used for smoke evacuation in tunnels?2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of recent tests performed in the Masthamn and Stadsgard tunnels in Sweden. The aim of the tests was to investigate if combinations of smaller fans could be used for smoke control in tunnels. The systems possibilities and limitations are discussed and improving measures evaluated. The tests show that combinations of ordinary PPV fans can be used in moderate length single track rail tunnels if a tunnel cover to avoid short circuit over the fans is used. In shorter tunnels or with no counteracting wind the fans can be used without the cover.

  • 30.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Kan mobila fläktar användas för brandgasevakuering i tunnlar?2005In: VVS-tidningen Energi & Miljö, no 5, p. 56-58Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Då behovet att minska transportavstånd och att utnyttja mark till bebyggelse i stadsmiljö hela tiden ökar byggs idag fler och fler tunnlar och överbyggda anläggningar. Tunnlar har också en lång livslängd och används ofta under ett hundratal år. Detta innebär att det idag finns en mängd tunnlar som ännu används, men är byggda efter den standard som var aktuell vid tiden för byggnationen. Fasta ventilationssystem är inte heller en självklarhet i alla nybyggda tunnlar.

    Längre vägtunnlar har oftast fasta ventilationssystem inbyggda eftersom de avgaser som bilarna släpper ut också i normalfallet behöver ventileras bort. Sådana ventilationssystem kan också användas för att styra brandgaserna – brandröken - i händelse av en brand. Spårtunnlar, kortare vägtunnlar och distributionstunnlar för kablar eller rör saknar ofta fasta system för ventilation. Spårtunnlarna ventileras genom kolvverkan när tågen kör igenom tunneln och trycker luften framför sig, medan distributionstunnlarna ofta inte behöver ventileras eftersom människor normalt inte befinner sig i tunneln.

  • 31. Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Jönsson, Robert
    LTH Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Wester, Lars
    Competence Development in Co-operation between Universities and Rescue Services2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 the Swedish government implemented the new Civil Protection Act. The new reformed legislation involved a number of significant changes, for the fire and rescue services as well as for local authorities, private companies and owners of buildings. The changes have created a need for education, both for persons involved in fire prevention in the public sector and in private companies. The new tasks that have been imposed the fire and rescue services also raise the demand for competence development among professionals. This paper discusses the changes and possibilities from a competence development perspective and describes how fire and rescue services and academic institutions can co-operate in gain for all parts.

  • 32.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Zakirov, Artur
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Indikatorer för att bedöma räddningstjänstens insatsförmåga: -med hänsyn till de lokala förhållandena2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det inledande stycket i Lagen om skydd mot olyckor (2003:778) står att bestämmelserna i lagstiftningen syftar till att bereda människors liv och hälsa samt egendom och miljö ett med hänsyn till de lokala förhållandena tillfredsställande och likvärdigt skydd mot olyckor. Denna rapport ger en översiktlig bild av lagstiftarens intentioner och fokuserar på faktorer som är avgörande för att kunna identifiera jämförbara kommuner och indikatorer för att bedöma om deras förmåga att genomföra räddningsinsatser är likvärdig. Indikatorerna har tagits fram för att senare kunna användas i ett utvecklat metodstöd för länsstyrelserna vid bedömningar av förändringar i de kommunala programmen för skydd mot olyckor.

    Projektet har utförts på uppdrag av Tillsynsenheten vid Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap.

  • 33.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Innovative Measures for Environmental Technologies at Tunnel Fires2008In: Research of Technogenic Envionment Protection: RTU-49th International Scientific Conference. October 9-10, 2008, Riga / [ed] Silvija Minkevica, 2008, p. 152-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many tunnels are built below the ground water level. In case of a fire or oil spill there is a risk of environmental contamination of ground water supplies or sensitive recipients. Successful treatment of extinguishing water or spills needs rapid attention in such cases. This paper discusses the environmental consequences of a tunnel fire or an oil spill inside the tunnel. It is suggested from the present study of existing technologies, that the work of development within this field be divided into three different areas where two are pro-active while the last requires the development of new technologies for on-site collection and treatment of water. In sensitive areas, this treatment could be combined with in-situ surveys and treatments both prior to and after an incident.

     

    The two pro-active steps are characterization and categorization of tunnels along with the development of a digital system where site specific properties can be modeled. Additionally, at the fire scene, new mobile technologies are needed for effective treatment.Finally the paper discusses the environmental challenges the fire officer has to with deal during an incident and the need for further education of first responders on how to deal with these issues both in terms of short term and long term incident management priorities.

  • 34. Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Nordman, Fredrik
    Användande av statiska tryckskillnader för att höja mobila fläktars kapacitet vid brandgasevakuering i tunnlar2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from full-scale tests where the reversed airflow in different tunnels were measured. Two cases for each set up of fans were studied.In the first case the fans were placed standing free at the tunnel mouth downstream the natural airflow in the tunnel. The fans were started and the reversed airflow in the tunnel consisted of the primary flow through the fans plus the additional air due to entrainment. For the second case studied a tunnel cover was placed at the tunnel mouth with the fans placed in the middle. In this case the reversed airflow in the tunnel was given only from the primary flow through the fans.  The results show that the tunnel cover can help to capture the counteracting wind force and create a potential pressure difference which makes it possible to reverse the flow in the full cross section and to ventilate longer tunnels than without the tunnel cover. The effects of the tunnel cover were also shown in model scale tests, where both the potential and the dynamic pressure were measured. The results from the tests will later be used to validate mathematical models.

  • 35. Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Nyman, Hans
    Brandsäkerhet i kabel och distributionstunnlar2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällets sårbarhet har de senaste åren synliggjorts genom de bränder i kabeltunnlar som orsakat stora störningar och produktionsbortfall. De samhällsekonomiska förlusterna har aktualiserat frågan om förbättrat brandskydd och ökad tillförlitlighet hos infrastruktur under mark. Nybyggnation av kabel- och distributionstunnlar kräver ofta stora tekniska och ekonomiska resurser. Detta i kombination med att tunnlar har en lång livslängd gör att befintliga tunnlar i hög grad utnyttjas när behovet av utökat kablage och ökat behov av fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla ska tillgodoses. Artikeln diskuterar översiktligt brandskydd i kabel- och distributionstunnlar och ger förslag på brandskyddstekniska åtgärder vid både nybyggnad av och utbyggnad i befintliga tunnlar. I artikeln diskuteras också ventilationssystem i denna typ av tunnlar i samband med brand och vid en eventuell insats från Räddningstjänsten. Artikeln behandlar också hur brandsäkerheten kan hanteras under de perioder, vid exempelvis nydragningar eller utbyte av kablar, som personer vistas under längre tid i tunneln. En diskussion förs slutligen om de yttre faktorer som kan påverka brandgasernas spridning och möjligheterna att styra dessa i önskad riktning.

  • 36. Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Nyman, Hans
    Hasselrot, Kjell
    Försök med mobila fläktar i Masthamnstunneln, Stockholm2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tunnlar byggs i allt större utsträckning och trenderna går mot fler och större underjordsstationer, inte enbart för tunnelbana, utan även för pendel- och fjärrtåg. På de större resecenter som byggs koncentreras flera olika trafikslag och genomströmningen av trafikanter är stor. Ventilationen av brandgaser i händelse av en brand är av central betydelse såväl vid utrymning av trafikanter och personal som ur ett insatsperspektiv.

    Kunskapen gällande ventilation av brandgaser i tunnel har ökat markant det senaste decenniet. Dock finns idag en mängd tunnlar som ännu används, men är byggda efter den standard som var aktuell vid tiden för byggnationen. Tunnlarna har en lång livstid och skall kunna nyttjas kanske hundra år framåt i tiden.

    Syftet med detta försök är att se om de mindre fläktar, som Räddningstjänsten redan förfogar över, kan vara ett alternativ vid evakuering av brandgaser i trafiktunnlar. Målsättningen är också att peka på de begränsningar som föreligger vid användandet och föreslå en strategi för den fortsatta utvärderingen.

  • 37.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nyman, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Vindens påverkan på bränder i tunnlar – Tunnelportalgeometrins betydelse för luftrörelser i tunnel orsakade av yttre vind2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har omfattat vindtunnelmatningar i modellskala bade for en ren tunnel, utan omgivande berg, samt matningar i modellskala av verklighetens Masthamnstunnel i Stockholms Hamn. Inom ramen for projektet har lufthastigheter inne i tunnelmodellen studerats for olika anblasningsvinklar och olika porositet - storleksforhallanden mellan tunnelns tvarsnittsarea och det omgivande berget. Forsoken har visualiserats for att oka forstaelsen for de komplexa fenomen som upptrader vid olika anblasningsvinklar och anblasningshastigheter. Aven i modellen over Masthamnstunneln har lufthastigheter vid olika vindpablasning studerats och jamforts med tidigare forsok i vindtunnel och full skala. Tidigare matvarden i full skala har justerats efter kalibrering av givare och pa nytt jamforts med matningar i vindtunnel. Effekten av skogsbekladd terrang har studerats och indikerar stod for teorin om att luftrorelser i tunnlar i vissa fall ar stromningsdrivna istallet for som konventionellt ansett tryckdrivna. Avslutningsvis har konstaterats att ompletterande studier bor utforas for att slutgiltigt utreda de alternativa teorierna, gallande exempelvis instromningsforluster vid tunnelmynningen samt  luftmotstands-koefficienter for olika bergoverbyggnader. I handelse av en brand i en tunnel kommer brandens forlopp och darmed forutsattningarna for en raddningsinsats paverkas av de yttre vindforhallandena varfor ytterligare studier kan motiveras refererande till insatspersonalens sakerhet.

  • 38.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Palm, Anders
    Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Sweden.
    Rescue Operations in Underground Mass Transport Systems at Fires and Deliberate Attacks2012In: Proceedings from the Fifth Iternational Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, New york, USA, March 14-16, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lönnermark and Haukur Ingason, Borås: SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden , 2012, p. 223-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue operations in mass transport systems underground often constitute a great challengefor the first responders. In rush-hour traffic at important junctions thousands of people can be locatedat a relatively small area. At underground fires or deliberate attacks in these premises the need forassistance or rescue can be extensive and the possibilities to reach those in distress are limited. In caseof deliberate attacks with explosives the risk for a second delayed attack, aimed at the first responders,has to be considered. The blast load and structural response can destroy important functions, used forevacuation, in the metro carriage and harm passengers in the exposed and adjacent carriages. This canincrease the need for assistance from the fire and rescue services. In this paper the possibilities for thefirst responders to assist and rescue persons at the event of fire or explosion in a tunnel is discussed,based on the research results from the full scale tests performed within the METRO-project.

  • 39.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Palm, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Storstockholms brandförsvar .
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Räddningsinsats i tunnelmiljö: Fullskaleförsök i Tistbrottet, Sala2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2013 six full-scale fire tests were performed with combined movement and extinguishing in the Tistbrottet Mine in Sala. Earlier these two parts have not been combined under controlled test conditions, where measurements and observations have been documented as thouroughly, as in the Tistbrottet test series. The BA fire fighters task, in all performed tests, were to advance into the tunnel and extinguish the fire. The six different tests were represented of conventional hose lay-out with hose baskets, conventional hose lay-out with hose harnesses, full hose lay-out with empty system until reaching the scene of the fire, CAFS, cutting extinguisher and conventional hose lay-out with wagon aided movement and depot air supply. The tests showed that conventional hose lay-out with water filled hoses is time consuming, but that bot hose harnesses and later filling of the hoses can shorten the time. It was also shown that systems with lower water flows initially effectively can fight the fire, but that the amount of applied water is cruicial for if re-ignition occurs or not. Thermal image cameras are generally not customized for use in underground constructions and further development of both equipment and education material is needed.

  • 40.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund, Sweden.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms brandförsvar, Sweden.
    Värmekamera vid brand under mark: Ett utbildningsmaterial för räddningstjänsten2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är framtagen inom ramen för det MSB-finansierade projektet TMU – Taktik och metodik vid brand under mark – och avsedd att användas som ett utbildningsmaterial för räddningstjänsten. Utbildningsmaterialet förutsätter viss grundläggande kunskap om användning av värmekamera vid brand, men kräver ingen tidigare erfarenhet av användning i undermarksmiljö. Rapporten innehåller såväl teoretiska delar som praktiska övningsexempel. Områden som behandlas är användning vid orientering och förflyttning, bedömning av brand, brandgasspridning och värmetransport samt riskbedömning för rökdykarens säkerhet.

  • 41. Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Roseen, Ulrika
    Mälardalens brand och räddningsförbund.
    Aparicio, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Ventilation av brandgaser i trafiktunnel – en förstudie2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport innehåller tre delar; litteraturstudie och kunskapsöversikt för ventilation av brandgaser i tunnel, litteraturstudie av brand i kablar i tunnlar och svårtillgängliga utrymmen samt framtagande av förenklade mätmetoder för mätning av luftflöden i spårtunnel. Litteraturstudien gällande ventilation av brandgaser har utförts av Mia Kumm med hjälp av Ulrika Roséen, kapitlen om kablar har skrivits av Guillermo Aparicio medan framtagningen av de förenklade mätmedoderna utförts som ett examensarbete av Kristian Birath och Daniel Johansson på institutionen för Samhällsteknik (f d Energiteknik) på Mälardalens högskola, med Arne Grundberg, SL Infrateknik AB, och Mia Kumm som handledare och Ingemar Josefsson som examinator. Inom ramen för förstudien har också förberedande tester av mindre övertrycksfläktar genomförts. Resultaten från dessa tester redovisas separat i rapporten ”Försök med mobila fläktar i Masthamnstunneln, Stockholm” Då utrymning av personal och trafikanter samt räddningstjänsten insats starkt påverkas av förekomsten av brandgaser i tunneln och utgången av olyckan många gånger kan hänföras till möjligheten till brandgaskontroll har även dessa områden fått en naturlig del i denna rapport. Vi vill särskilt tacka Anders Bergqvist vid Stockholms Brandförsvar för hjälp med förklaringar och förtydliganden gällande insatstaktiska problem vid  äddningsinsatser i tunnlar, Haukur Ingason vid Sveriges Provnings- och forskningsinstitut för hjälp med kontakter och värdefulla synpunkter samt Anders Carlsson och Arne Grundberg på SLInfrateknik ABs säkerhetsavdelning för all praktisk hjälp.

  • 42.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Söderström, Jenny
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    EPS insulated façade fires from a fire and rescue perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the challenges the fire and rescue services can meet at façade fires involving EPS insulation during construction and use of a building. The EPS characteristics are discussed in respect to the fire and rescue operation and results from orientating fire tests performed at a fire and rescue services training and test field are presented. Types of evacuation solutions, involving the fire and rescue services, where façade fires can delay or completely rule out the possibilities for safe evacuation, are presented. The restrictions in the Swedish building codes regarding use of combustible insulation are analysed and reflections over the practical problems with following the instructions to keep an EPS insulated façade safe through the building’s whole lifespan are made. A number of occurred fires involving EPS are discussed and analysed from a fire and rescue perspective. Finally, recommendations are given for the fire and rescue services and future research fields are proposed.

  • 43.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Claesson, Alexander
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lindström, Johan
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Gas composition during a fire in a train carriage2014In: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the interdisciplinary research project METRO, two full-scale fire tests were performed with ignition inside commuter train carriages in a tunnel. Both tests developed to fully flashover conditions. The fire development was very different in the two tests. The main reason was the difference in initial combustion behaviour between the case with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with a refurbished carriage using aluminium sheet covering the combustible lining as the exposed interior surface. In the case with combustible lining a ceiling flame was developed, radiating towards the seats and the luggage spreading the fire more quickly than in the case without exposed combustible lining. Also in the gas concentrations, significant differences could be observed between the two tests. During the tests, concentrations of O2, CO and CO2 were sampled and analysed at three different heights. The paper focuses on the time resolved results of the gas concentration. The development in gas concentration at different levels is presented and discussed in relation to the fire development in the carriage. Results from calculations of time to incapacitation and fractions of an incapacitating does are also included.

  • 44.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Lindström, Johan
    Li, Y. Z.
    Claesson, Alexander
    Kumm, Mia
    Ingason, Haukur
    Full-scale fire tests with a commuter train in a tunnel2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three large scale fire tests were performed with a commuter train inside a tunnel. Two of

    the tests used an ignition source inside the train carriage and in one test a pool fire was

    placed under the carriage. Both tests wire a fire initiated inside the carriage developed to

    flashover conditions. The difference between the two cases was that in one test a standard

    X1 carriage was used, while in the second case an X1 carriage was refurbished with more

    modern seats and a non-combustible aluminium lining on the walls and in the ceiling. The

    time to flashover was significantly different between the two test cases. In the test with

    the original seats and linings (test 2) the maximum heat release rate (HRR) was 76.7 MW

    and occurred 12.7 min after ignition. The maximum HRR in the case where more modern

    seats and aluminium lining were used (test 3), was 77.4 MW and occurred after 117.9

    min. For these HRR calculations, the maximum gas temperature near the tunnel ceiling

    was used. The corresponding HRR calculated with oxygen consumption calorimetry was

    approximately 75 MW in test 3. Based on the temperature measurements in the carriage,

    the carriage was flashed over after 12 min in test 2 and after 119 min in test 3.

    The main reason for the difference was the difference in initial combustion behaviour

    between the case with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with noncombustible

    (aluminium) lining as the exposed interior surface. In the case with

    combustible lining a ceiling flame was developed, radiating towards the seats and the

    luggage spreading the fire more rapidly than in the case without exposed combustible

    lining.

    The maximum HRR calculated from the experimental results are significantly higher than

    those obtained in other documented test series. The luggage in, under or between different

    seats was found to increase the fire spread significantly in both cases. This conclusion

    was drawn from other tests performed within the same project prior to the full-scale tests

    which are reported in full elsewhere.

  • 45.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Lindström, Johan
    Li, Y. Z.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Kumm, Mia
    Large-scale Commuter Train Tests - Results from the METRO Project2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three fire tests wereperformed under and inside commuter train carriages in a tunnel. Both tests initiatedinside the carriage developed to fully flashover conditions. The time toflashover was significantly different between the two cases. In the test with theoriginal seats and linings the maximum heat release rate (HRR) was 76.7 MW and occurred12.7 min after ignition. The maximum HRR in the case where more modern seatsand aluminium lining were used, occurred after 117.9 min. The main reason forthe difference was the difference in initial combustion behaviour between thecase with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with aluminium as theexposed interior surface. In the case with combustible lining a ceiling flame wasdeveloped, radiating towards the seats and the luggage spreading the fire morequickly than in the case without exposed combustible lining. When the growthrate of the fire was rapidly increasing, a flame was observed at the ceiling.The maximum HRR calculated from the experimental results are significantlyhigher than those obtained in other documented test series. The luggage in,under or between different seats is presumed to increase the fire spreadsignificantly in both cases. This was obvious from results performed within thesame project prior to the full-scale tests.

  • 46.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Palm, Anders
    The Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Sweden.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborg Fire & Rescue Services, Sweden.
    Kumm, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Recommendations for Firefighting in Underground Facilities2016In: Proceedings from the Seventh International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Montréal, Canada March 16-18, 2016, SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Borås, 2016, p. 115-125Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for a successful fire and rescue operation in an underground facility, e.g., a tunnel, introduces challenges both in the planning phase and during the incident. This is because these types of facilities can be very complex, and thus, specific tactics are needed compared to the more common incidents, e.g. in residential premises. When planning a fire and rescue operation and developing the tactics many different aspects need to be considered: complexity of the facility, the expected number of people involved in the operation, information available about the incident, the purpose of operation, etc. This paper contains recommendations for firefighting in underground facilities. The recommendations are structured in accordance to the sequential time period during which some specific fire safety design measures are taken. These periods are the design phase, the construction phase and finally when the facility is in operation. The recommendations presented in this paper are based on the results of the Swedish TMU research project (Tactics and methodologies for firefighting in underground facilities), results from other research projects and experience from real fire and rescue operations.

  • 47.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms Brandförsvar, Sweden.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Rekommendationer för räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report contains recommendations for firefighting in underground facilities. This implies results from a research project and the recommendations are based on case studies, interviews, experiments and discussion with different fire departments. The recommendations are structured in accordance to the time period of the actual incident occurrence or the time period during which some specific measures are taken. These periods are project period, construction phase and finally when the facility is in operation. The recommendations are based on the work in the TMU project (Tactics and methodologies for firefighting in underground facilities), results from other research projects and experience from real fire and rescue operations.  

  • 48.
    Palm, Anders
    et al.
    Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Res, SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Borås, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden..
    Full Scale Firefighting Tests in the Tistbrottet Mine2016In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1519-1537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes full-scale fire-fighting tests performed in an underground mine. A total of six different methods to fight a full scale fire in a mine tunnel were tested. The methods involved different fire-fighting equipment but were comparable regarding fundamental conditions such as length of response-route, fire-fighting set-up, and smoke and fire size. The aim was to compare different equipment and methods to reach and eventually extinguish the fire. Fire fighters using breathing apparatus (BA) were monitored regarding air consumption, movement speed and local actions and decisions. The results are presented and analyzed in respect to fire-fighting efficiency, front BA operations including moving speed and performed actions, as well as the time to successfully put out the fire. Measurements of heat release rates, temperatures and moving speeds are given in order to quantify the efficiency of the operation. Results indicate that a timespan of 15-30 min is needed for the firefighters to reach the fire source and achieve the extinguishing criteria in five of the tests. The standard equipment and nozzles shows good performance in the tests. A limiting factor on the firefighter's endurance is the amount of air that is available. As a result from these findings the endurance of BA-teams could improve if focus is put on team organization, lightweight equipment and air supply.

  • 49.
    Palm, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Storstockholms brandförsvar.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Full-scale tests of alternative methods for fire fighting in underground structures2014In: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014, 2014, p. 573-582Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 49 of 49
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