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  • 1.
    Abubaker, J.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Pell, M.
    SLU.
    Nitrous Oxide Production from Soils Amended with Biogas Residues and Cattle Slurry2013In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1046-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of residues generated from biogas production has increased dramatically due to the worldwide interest in renewable energy. A common way to handle the residues is to use them as fertilizers in crop production. Application of biogas residues to agricultural soils may be accompanied with environmental risks, such as increased N2O emission. In 24-d laboratory experiments, N2O dynamics and total production were studied in arable soils (sandy, clay, and organic) amended with one of two types of anaerobically digested biogas residues (BR-A and BR-B) generated from urban and agricultural waste and nondigested cattle slurry (CS) applied at rates corresponding to 70 kg NH4+-N ha(-1). Total N2O-N losses from the sandy soil were higher after amendment with BR-B (0.32 g N2O-N m(-2)) than BR-A or CS (0.02 and 0.18 g N2O-N m(-2), respectively). In the clay soil, N2O-N losses were very low for CS (0.02 g N2O-N m(-2)) but higher for BR-A and BR-B (0.25 and 0.15 g N2O-N m(-2), respectively). In the organic soil, CS gave higher total N2O-N losses (0.31 g N2O-N m(-2)) than BR-A or BR-B (0.09 and 0.08 g N2O-N m(-2), respectively). Emission peaks differed considerably between soils, occurring on Day 1 in the organic soil and on Days 11 to 15 in the sand, whereas in the clay the peak varied markedly (Days 1, 6, and 13) depending on residue type. In all treatments, NH4+ concentration decreased with time, and NO3- concentration increased. Potential ammonium oxidation and potential denitrification activity increased significantly in the amended sandy soil but not in the organic soil and only in the clay amended with CS. The results showed that fertilization with BR can increase N2O emissions and that the size is dependent on the total N and organic C content of the slurry and on soil type. In conclusion, the two types of BR and the CS are not interchangeable regarding their effects on N2O production in different soils, and, hence, matching fertilizer type to soil type could reduce N2O emissions. For instance, it could be advisable to avoid fertilization of organic soils with CS containing high amounts or organic C and instead use BR. In clay soil, however, the risk of N2O emissions could be lowered by choosing a CS.

  • 2.
    Ashihmina, Olga
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hajem, Nedaa
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    REMEDIATION OF TNT USING PINE BARK IN A BATCH STUDY: COMETABOLIC REDUCTION AND SORPTION2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is regulated as a hazardous material. The objective of this study was to evaluate two bioremediation methods, namely, sorption and anoxic degradation for the removal of TNT from contaminated water in 7-day long batch experiment. TNT was co-metabolized with glucose under oxygen-limiting conditions using a mixed inoculum culture from a wastewater treatment plant, enriched with glucose and TNT. By the third day of the experiment most of TNT was adsorbed onto the pine bark and 96-98% of TNT was degraded. The results also indicated that the concentration of glucose is an important factor for the effective degradation of TNT, which is consistent with earlier research; the content of 0.15% w/v resulted in a more rapid TNT removal in comparison with 0.50% w/v. Two metabolites; 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) were detected. The para nitro group of TNT was preferentially reduced compared to the ortho nitro group. On the seventh day of incubation the concentration of 4-ADNT had decreased by 10% and 2-ADNT was no longer detectable. 

  • 3.
    Avelin, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Aulin, Robert
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Forest biomass for bioenergy production – comparison of different forest species2014In: / [ed] J. Yan, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest biomass is a renewable and sustainable source of energy that can be used for producing electricity, heat, and biofuels. The production of biomass for energy is considered to be an important step in developing sustainable communities and managing greenhouse gas emissions effectively. Biomass properties vary and are commonly associated with plant species. Hence, efficient methods to predict biofuel characteristics will greatly affect the utilization and management of feedstock production. In this paper attempt was made to correlate various chemical characteristics with NIR spectra. Wood chips from various plant species was analyzed for lignin content, heating value, ash content and NIR and the results were evaluated with correlation, PCA and PCR. Initial evaluation showed promising results where chemical components in the wood correlate to NIR spectra. A selection of results will be presented in this paper. Further analysis as well as results from PCA and PCR models will be presented in the full paper version.

  • 4.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Electricity consumption and load demand in single-family house2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Exploring variance in residential electricity consumption: Household features and building properties2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, p. 637-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved means of controlling electricity consumption plays an important part in boosting energy efficiency in the Swedish power market. Developing policy instruments to that end requires more in-depth statistics on electricity use in the residential sector, among other things. The aim of the study has accordingly been to assess the extent of variance in annual electricity consumption in single-family homes as well as to estimate the impact of household features and building properties in this respect using independent samples t-tests and one-way as well as univariate independent samples analyses of variance. Statistically significant variances associated with geographic area, heating system, number of family members, family composition, year of construction, electric water heater and electric underfloor heating have been established. The overall result of the analyses is nevertheless that variance in residential electricity consumption cannot be fully explained by independent variables related to household and building characteristics alone. As for the methodological approach, the results further suggest that methods for statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in indentifying key indicators for policy update and development.

  • 6.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Iana, Vassileva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: demand response and customer perception2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 5008-5025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households’ response to, and assessing customers’ perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods.

  • 7.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Active buildings in smart grids - Exploring the views of the Swedish energy and buildings sectors2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 117, p. 185-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart grids is expected to shift the role of buildings in power networks from passive consumers to active players that trade on power markets in real-time and participate in the operation of networks. Although there are several studies that report on consumer views on buildings with smart grid features, there is a gap in the literature about the views of the energy and buildings sectors, two important sectors for the development. This study fills this gap by presenting the views of key stakeholders from the Swedish energy and buildings sectors on the active building concept with the help of interviews and a web survey. The findings indicate that the active building concept is associated more with energy use flexibility than self-generation of electricity. The barriers to development were identified to be primarily financial due to the combination of the current low electricity prices and the high costs of technologies. Business models that reduce the financial burdens and risks related to investments can contribute to the development of smart grid technologies in buildings, which, according to the majority of respondents from the energy and buildings sectors, are to be financed by housing companies and building owners. 

  • 8.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Buildings in the future energy system: Perspectives of the Swedish energy and buildings sectors on current energy challenges2015In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 107, p. 254-263, article id Article number 6090Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings are expected to play a key role in the development and operation of future smart energy systems through real-time energy trade, energy demand flexibility, self-generation of electricity, and energy storage capabilities. Shifting the role of buildings from passive consumers to active players in the energy networks, however, may require closer cooperation between the energy and buildings sectors than there is today. Based on 23 semi-structured interviews and a web survey answered by key stakeholders, this study presents the views of the energy and buildings sectors on the current energy challenges in a comparative approach. Despite conflicting viewpoints on some of the issues, the energy and buildings sectors have similar perspectives on many of the current energy challenges. Reducing CO2 emissions is a shared concern between the energy and buildings sectors that can serve as a departure point for inter-sectoral cooperation for carbon-reducing developments, including the deployment of smart energy systems. The prominent energy challenges were identified to be related to low flexibilities in energy supply and use, which limit mutually beneficial cases, and hence cooperation, between the energy and buildings sectors today.

  • 9.
    Chusova, Olga
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nolvak, H.
    Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, Tartu 51014, Estonia.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Truu, J.
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Oopkaup, K.
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Truu, M.
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Effect of pine bark on the biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and on the bacterial community structure in a batch experiment2014In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 35, no 19, p. 2456-2465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pine bark, a low-cost industrial residue, has been suggested as a promising substitute for granular activated carbon in the on-site treatment of water contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). However, the complex organic structure and indigenous microbial community of pine bark have thus far not been thoroughly described in the context of TNT-contaminated water treatment. This two-week batch study examined the removal efficiency of TNT from water by (1) adsorption on pine bark and (2) simultaneous adsorption on pine bark and biotransformation by specialized TNT-biotransforming microbial inocula. The bacterial community composition of experimental batches, inocula and pine bark, was profiled by Illumina sequencing of the V6 region ofthe 16S rRNA gene. The results revealed that the inocula and experimental batches were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and that the tested inocula had good potential for TNT biotransformation. The type of applied inocula had the most profound effect on the TNT-transforming bacterial community structure in the experimental batches. The indigenous microbial community of pine bark harboured phylotypes that also have a potential to degrade TNT. Altogether, the combination of a specialized inoculum and pine bark proved to be the most efficient treatment option for TNT-contaminated water.

  • 10.
    Chusova, Olga
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nõlvak, H.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Truu, J.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Truu, M.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Oopkaup, K.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Biotransformation of pink water TNT on the surface of a low-cost adsorbent pine bark2015In: Biodegradation, ISSN 0923-9820, E-ISSN 1572-9729, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 375-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This two-week anaerobic batch study evaluated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal efficiency from industrial pink water by (1) adsorption on low-cost adsorbent pine bark, and (2) adsorption coupled with TNT biotransformation by specialised microbial communities. Samples of the supernatant and acetonitrile extracts of pine bark were analysed by HPLC, while the composition of the bacterial community of the experimental batches, inocula and pine bark were profiled by high-throughput sequencing the V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Integrated adsorption and biotransformation proved to be the most efficient method for TNT removal from pink water. The type of applied inoculum had a profound effect on TNT removal efficiencies and microbial community structures, which were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The analysis of acetonitrile extracts of pine bark supported the hypothesis that the microbial community indigenous to pine bark has the ability to degrade TNT.

  • 11.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jamieson, M.
    Tranås Utbildningscentrum, Sweden .
    Kinyaga, V.
    Desert Research Foundation of Namibia, Namibia.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Assessing biogas potential of slaughter waste: Can biogas production solve a serious waste problem at abattoirs?2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 2600-2603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of solid waste and wastewater in Namibia is a growing concern. This study investigated the biogas potential of slaughter waste at a small stock abattoir in southern Namibia. Laboratory experiments with five different mixes of blood; stomach content and manure from sheep were tested. Preliminary findings suggest that the most optimum mixture of slaughter waste was relatively large amounts of stomach and intestine content. The blood proportion should be kept relatively low, since the high nitrogen contents in the blood may inhibit the biogas production. The substrate mixture reflecting the actual ratio of waste generated in the slaughter process resulted in the highest methane production. This suggests that it is possible to produce viable amounts of biogas only using the waste produced at the abattoir, without adding other green substrate. Findings presented here together with results from a larger biogas digester, will be elaborated in the full paper.

  • 12.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Diaz, J G
    Faculty of Science, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.2015In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 72, no 10, p. 1723-1729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Malaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Malaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.8 ± 2.2% of NH4-N and 41.4 ± 41.4% of PO4-P.

  • 13.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Cultivation of microalgae for potential heavy metal reduction in a wastewater treatmet plant2012In: / [ed] Jinyue Yan, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorption capacity of microalgae in 10 different mixtures of wastewater and lake water was evaluated for their ability to reduce heavy metal concentrations in wastewater. Cu, Zn and Ba concentrations were mostly reduced whereas Al and As concentrations actually increased in some samples. Co and Ni concentrations were more reduced in samples with pure wastewater compared to samples with wastewater/lake water mixtures. Hence, a mixture of wastewater and lake water seemed to decrease the metal reduction process in the water. Finally, for Fe and Mn concentrations, there was no significant difference between samples with pure wastewater and wastewater/lake water mixture. In positive cases reduction of heavy metal concentrations in the samples with 50-70% of wastewater worked best.

  • 14.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Liu, Xiaoling
    Tsinghua University, China.
    Li, S
    Tsinghua University, China.
    CULTIVATION OF INDIGENOUS ALGAE FOR INCREASED BIOGAS PRODUCTION2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased demand for biogas in the society and one way to meet this is to use cultivated microalgae as fermentation substrate. In the present study, a co-digestion experiment was established where municipal food waste was fermented with harvested microalgae cultivated in lake water. The experiment was carried out as a laboratory batch experiment with fermentation bottles, where 0, 12, 25 and 37% of the food waste was replaced with harvested microalgae, respectively. The results showed that the biogas production was generally improved after addition of microalgae. During the first 25 days of fermentation, replacement of 12% food waste with microalgae gave the highest biogas production rate. However, higher proportions of microalgae (25% and 37%) slightly decreased the gas production rate compared to 12% and compared to using food waste alone. 

  • 15.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    M.A., Shabiimam
    Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India..
    Truu, Jaak
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Ligi, Teele
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Truu, Marika
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Characterization of algal and microbial community dynamics in a wastewater photo-bioreactor using indigenous algae from lake mälaren2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae grown in photo-bioreactors can be a valuable source for biomass especially when combined with the treatment of wastewater. While most published research has been studying pure cultures, consortia of algae and bacteria from the wastewater have more complex dynamics affecting both the biomass production and pollutant removal. In this paper we investigate dynamics of algal and bacterial communities in mixed culture photo-bioreactors using chlorophyll and real-time PCR analysis. Wastewater photo-bioreactors were inoculated with water from a nearby lake to add native algae species. The results indicated a decline in bacterial 16S rDNA copy numbers before algae started to multiply. The photo-bioreactors inoculated with lake algae produced more biomass and grew faster than the algae originating only from wastewater. The reactors were effective in removing ammonia from the wastewater which seemed work to mostly through nitrification thus causing an increase in nitrate concentration. There was also an increase in Cr, Co and Ni ion concentrations during the experiment suggesting they may have moved from organic complexes to the water phase as free ions.

  • 16.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    M.A., Shabiimam
    Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India..
    Truu, Jaak
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Truu, Marika
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Ligi, Teele
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Characterization of algal and microbial community growth in a wastewater treating batch photo-bioreactor inoculated with lake water2015In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 11, no Sept, p. 421-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae grown in photo-bioreactors can be a valuable source of biomass, especially when combined with wastewater treatment. While most published research has studied pure cultures, the consortia of algae and bacteria from wastewater have more complex community dynamics which affect both the biomass production and pollutant removal. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of algal and bacterial growth in wastewater treating batch photo-bioreactors. The photo-bioreactors were inoculated with water from a nearby lake. Lake water was obtained in August, November and December in order to add native algal species and study the effects of the season. The photo-bioreactors inoculated with lake water obtained in August and November produced more biomass and grew faster than those that only contained the algae from wastewater. The results indicated a rapid decline in bacterial abundance before algae began to multiply in reactors supplemented with lake water in November and December. The reactors were also successful in removing nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater.

  • 17.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Truu, Jaak
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Inhibition of nitrification in municipal wastewater treating photobioreactors: effect on algal growth and nutrient uptake2016In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 202, p. 238-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of inhibiting nitrification on algal growth and nutrient uptake was studied in photobioreactors treating municipal wastewater. As previous studies have indicated that algae prefer certain nitrogen species to others, and because nitrifying bacteria are inhibited by microalgae, it is important to shed more light on these interactions. In this study allylthiourea (ATU) was used to inhibit nitrification in wastewater-treating photobioreactors. The nitrification-inhibited reactors were compared to control reactors with no ATU added.

    Microalgae had higher growth in the inhibited reactors, resulting in a higher chlorophyll a concentration. The species mix also differed, with Chlorella and Scenedesmus being the dominant genera in the control reactors and Cryptomonas and Chlorella dominating in the inhibited reactors. The nitrogen speciation in the reactors after 8 days incubation was also different in the two setups, with N existing mostly as NH4-N in the inhibited reactors and as NO3-N in the control reactors.

  • 18.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Truu, Marika
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Truu, Jaak
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Ligi, Teele
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Tiirik, Kertu
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Effect of lake water on algal biomass and microbial community structure in municipal wastewater based lab-scale photobioreactors2015In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 99, no 21, p. 6537-6549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photobioreactors are a novel environmental technology that can produce biofuels with the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the lake water addition to the production of algal biomass, and phylogenetic and functional structure of the algal and bacterial communities in the lab-scale bioreactors treating municipal wastewater.

    The lake water addition has significant benefit to the overall algal biomass growth and nutrient reduction in the reactors with wastewater and lake water (ratio 70/30 v/v). The metagenome based survey showed that the most abundant algal phylum in these reactors was Chlorophyta with Scenedesmus being the most prominent genus. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with most dominant families being Sphingobacteriaceae, Cytophagaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Nocardiaceae and Nostocaceae. These photobioreactors were also effective in reducing the overall amount of pathogens in wastewater compared to reactors with wastewater/tap water mixture. Functional analysis of the photobioreactor metagenomes revealed an increase in relative abundance genes related to photosynthesis, synthesis of vitamins important for auxotrophic algae, and decrease in virulence and nitrogen metabolism subsystems in lake water reactors.

  • 19.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Oopkaup, Kristjan
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Truu, Jaak
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Comparative analysis of the metagenomes extracted from wastewater treating photobioreactorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The metagenomes of lab-scale municipal wastewater treating batch photobioreactors were studied with a focus on nitrogen metabolism, pathogen abundance and antibiotic resistance genes. Previous studies based on the dataset showed that in general, as algae growth in the reactors increased, nitrogen metabolism and virulence genes decreased. With this study, a more detailed view of these gene groups is presented.

  • 20.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Innovative Measures for Environmental Technologies at Tunnel Fires2008In: Research of Technogenic Envionment Protection: RTU-49th International Scientific Conference. October 9-10, 2008, Riga / [ed] Silvija Minkevica, 2008, p. 152-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many tunnels are built below the ground water level. In case of a fire or oil spill there is a risk of environmental contamination of ground water supplies or sensitive recipients. Successful treatment of extinguishing water or spills needs rapid attention in such cases. This paper discusses the environmental consequences of a tunnel fire or an oil spill inside the tunnel. It is suggested from the present study of existing technologies, that the work of development within this field be divided into three different areas where two are pro-active while the last requires the development of new technologies for on-site collection and treatment of water. In sensitive areas, this treatment could be combined with in-situ surveys and treatments both prior to and after an incident.

     

    The two pro-active steps are characterization and categorization of tunnels along with the development of a digital system where site specific properties can be modeled. Additionally, at the fire scene, new mobile technologies are needed for effective treatment.Finally the paper discusses the environmental challenges the fire officer has to with deal during an incident and the need for further education of first responders on how to deal with these issues both in terms of short term and long term incident management priorities.

  • 21.
    Loutfi, Amy
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro Universitet.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Using e-noses for environmental monitoring: ICCE 2009, Abstracts, 12th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment 14-17 June 2009Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Mara, Grube
    et al.
    Latvia University, Latvia.
    Olga, Chusova
    Marita, Gavare
    Latvia University, Latvia.
    Karlis, Shvirksts
    Latvia University, Latvia.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Application of FT-IR Spectroscopy for Investigation of Pink Water Remediation by Pine Bark2015In: Open Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1874-0707, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates the application of FT-IR spectroscopy for investigating the remediation of pink water with the low cost adsorbent pine bark. The removal of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from pink water by adsorption to pine bark was accompanied by a reduction in intensities of peaks at 1544 and 1347 cm-1 in the spectra of acetonitrile extracts of the pine bark. Hierarchial cluster analysis differentiated samples with high (30-180 mg/L) and low (0-4 mg/L) TNT concentrations, demonstrating the potential of this approach as a quick screening method for the control of the removal of TNT from pink water. The amount of lignin in pine bark was inversely proportional to the size of the pine bark particles, while the concentration of phenolic hydroxyl groups increases with increasing size of pine bark particles. FT-IR spectra showed that as well as TNT, pine bark can also adsorb nitramine explosives such as RDX and HMX.

  • 23.
    Muter, Olga
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Demilitarization industry sludge: assessment of toxicity and biodegradation potential2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Desert Research Foundation of Namibia.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    RECIRCULATION OF BIOGAS RESIDUE TO AGRICULTURAL LAND IN NAMIBIA– RISKS AND POTENTIALS IN FULL UTILIZATION OF ORGANIC WASTE2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current situation of waste disposal in Namibia is under developed. The country has a large meat and dairy industry as well as some breweries and wineries and today, none of the organic wastes are reused, recycled or utilized for energy utilization. Little has been done in order to collect and utilize the resources in the organic waste from these industries but there is currently some early stage projects in planning related to biogas production from organic wastes. This study aims at evaluating the potential for some three planned biogas projects in Namibia at early stage, especially regarding the management of the biogas residue. In this processes, a first screening of the potential biogas substrate in the southern part of Namibia (south of Windhoek) was conducted. Moreover, the paper aims to point out the potentials in using organic waste for biogas production and thereafter recycling the nutrient rich residue to the farmland of Namibia. The risks in such utilization will be touched upon, such as the toxic effects of the alkali rich liquid phase or the NO2-emissions. Of which the first can be considered a risk but also a potential if the alkali residue partly can replace the use of pesticide. We conclude that the availability of substrates, i.e. organic wastes, is sufficient for supplying one or several biogas plants to the area. According to our conclusions, fertilization with biogas residue should be promoted in Namibia as an alternative to the current fertilization. 

  • 25.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Muter, Olga
    Latvia University.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Institute for Catalan Water Research.
    Cepurnieks, Guntis
    National Diagnostic Centre, Latvia.
    Bartkevics, Vadims
    National Diagnostic Centre, Latvia.
    Toxicity assessment and biodegradation potential of water-soluble sludge containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluen2013In: Water Science & Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 68, no 8, p. 1707-1714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he water-soluble phase of trinitrotoluene-containing sludge (SLP) was characterized with regard to trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentration, ecotoxicity, and a model biodegradation experiment as evaluation criteria for further development of appropriate treatment technologies. SLP contained 67.8 mg TNT/l. The results of germination and root-elongation tests indicated that SLP had a species-specific phytotoxic effect. The results of a 21 day degradation experiment demonstrated TNT conversion to 4-amino-2,6-DNT and 2-amino-4,6-DNT, with a simultaneous reduction in the total concentration of nitroaromatics. Addition of inoculum stimulated the TNT degradation process. The presence of the sludge solid phase inhibited microbial activity. Measurement of microbial enzyme activity was used to assess changes in the microbial community during the biodegradation process.

  • 26.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Biological degradation of explosives in columns - new research ideas2006In: The Swedish Section for Detonics and Combustion, Fourth International Disposal Conference November 13-14, 2006, Katrineholm, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet , 2006, p. 9-11Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Treatment of explosives contaminated water by using pine bark in a batch process: potentials and kinetics2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Waste water from ammunition disposal can be of high volumes and heavily contaminated with toxic substances such as explosives and heavy metals. In the present paper, a contaminated waste water from a Swedish disposal industry was treated with the organic byproduct pine bark (Pinus Silvestris) as an adsorbent for capture of primarily the very common explosives substance TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluen). Traditionally, TNT is primarily a military explosive, and the source can be leaching from production, disposal or stockpiles of ammunition. TNT is toxic, both acute and chronically, and resistant to natural microbiological degradation why it can cause severe effects to an eco-system.

  • 28.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Treatment of TNT contaminated sludge by using a pilot scale bioreactor: a low cost method for on-site waste management2010In: Second International Conference of Hazardous and Industrial Waste Management, Chania, Crete, Greece, October 5-8, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro Universitet.
    Retention of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluen (TNT) and heavy metals from industrial waste water by using the low cost adsorbent pine bark in a batch experiment2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro Univ.
    Retention of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and heavy metals from industrial waste water by using the low cost adsorbent pine bark in a batch experiment2011In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 2052-2058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pine bark is a low cost sorbent originating from the forest industry. In recent years, it has been found to show promise as an adsorbent for metals and organic substances in contaminated water, especially landfill leachates and storm water. This study aims to investigate if pine bark can replace commercial adsorbents such as active carbon. An industrial effluent, collected from a treatment plant of a demilitarization factory, was diluted to form concentration ranges of contaminants and shaken with pine bark for 24 hours. Metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Ni) and explosives, e. g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), were analysed before and after treatment. The aim of the experiment was twofold; firstly, it was to investigate whether metals are efficiently removed in the presence of explosives and secondly, if adsorption of explosive substances to pine bark was possible. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption process where this was possible. It was found that metal uptake was possible in the presence of TNT and other explosive contaminants. The uptake of TNT was satisfactory with up to 80% of the TNT adsorbed by pine bark.

  • 31.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro Universitet.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Treatment of metal contaminated water by using pine bark – a multivariate approach2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Eriksson, Pekka
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro Universitet.
    Simultaneous treatment of TNT and heavy metals in waste water from demilitarization industry by using pine bark (Pinus Silvestris)2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fredrik, Vallin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Eva, Thorin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Algal blooms - an environmental problem or a potential energy resource? the potentials for algae cultivation in lake Mälaren, an eutrophicated lake in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Structor Miljöteknik.
    Eneroth, Peder
    Flexiclean.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Treatment of heavily contaminated storm water from an industrial site area by filtration through an adsorbent barrier with pine bark (Pinus Silvestris), polonite and active carbon in a comparison study2011In: Water and Industry, IWA Specialist conference, 1-5 May 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate a simple and robust filtration method for separation of of heavy metals from storm water. The storm water, collected at a metals manufacturing site, is heavily contaminated with heavy metals, A first analysis of a water sample collected from the site in mid Sweden showed exceptionally high concentrations of especially Zn, which was present in concentrations exceeding 200 mgL-1. The basic idea is to filter the water as it flows out of the industry area through a passive barrier in the storm water well pipeline. The advantages with using pine bark are many,  it is, for instance, a waste material that can be recycled into a new life cycle step and it has been shown to be a promising materia in previous studies l for capturing  heavy metal contaminants . Pine bark was in this study compared to two other materials; polonite and the conventional adsorbent active carbon. The forestry by-product pine bark (Pinus silvestris) consists of approximately 85-90 % dried and granulated pine bark and 10-15 % wood fibres. Polonite is a manufactured product originating from the cretaceous rock opoka. A laboratory  experiment was  set up, where  the storm water from the industrial site was filtered through all three filter materials in a pilot-scale model of the proposed installation. The filter cartridge model could be filled with approximately 2.2 L filter material. 3 L of the storm water was poured through the material through natural percolation, approximately 0.35 Lmin-1. Treated and untreated storm water was analyzed for heavy metals, suspended solids, electric conductivity and pH. Active carbon showed the highest level of adsorption, with nearly 100 % of all metals adsorbing to the filter. However, significant concentrations of As was desorbed from the material into the filtered water. Pine bark retained 90 % of the metals, even the Zn which was present in high concentrations. Polonite could only adsorb 70 % of the heavy metals and released Cr from the material.

  • 35.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wastewater phosphorous removal by blast furnace slag: Laboratory and field investigations in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Biogödsel och kompost - en resurs för jordbruket: Resultat från ett fältförsök2007Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med ORC-försöket var att undersöka hur olika organiska gödselmedel med ursprung från både stad och land inverkar på markens kemiska, fysikaliska och mikrobiologiska egenskaper. Skördens mängd och kvalitet var en annan viktig faktor som studerades. De olika behandlingarna utgjordes av hushållskompost blandat med parkavfall, biogödsel från biogasframställning, rötslam från reningsverk, flytgödsel från svin samt fast gödsel från nötkreatur. Som en jämförelse fanns även ogödslade respektive handelsgödslade led med i försöket.

    Parcellerna lades ut i fältet efter noggranna studier med hjälp av NIR- (near infrared radiation) mätningar för att hitta försöksrutor som avvek så lite som möjligt från varandra avseende de fysikaliska markegenskaperna. Tillsatserna av de olika organiska restprodukterna skedde sen på ett sätt som i möjligaste mån skulle efterlikna bondens normala brukningsmetoder. De flytande gödselmedlena, dvs svingödsel respektive biogödsel från biogasrötning tillsattes på försommaren i växande gröda. Kompost, rötslam och kogödsel, som alla har en mer fast karaktär, tillsattes istället strax före plöjning på hösten. Jordprover för analys ca fyra veckor efter skörd.

    Förutom att studera diverse kemiska och fysikaliska mått, som pH, lerhalt, koncentrationer av kol, kväve, fosfor, svavel mm, användes även mikrobiologiska mått för att undersöka vilken effekt de olika gödningsmedlen hade på markegenskaperna. Markens mikroorganismer påverkas i hög grad av sin omgivning samtidigt som deras aktivitet har betydelse för markens odlingsegenskaper, till exempel vad gäller näringstillförsel och energiflöden. Att studera hur olika mikroorganism-grupper påverkas av de organiska gödningsmedlen kan alltså vara ett sätt att få ett mått på hur marken reagerar på tillsatsen av dessa. Mängden och kvaliteten på skörden från varje provruta analyserades dessutom årligen för att kunna jämföra den direkta gödslingseffekten av de olika tillsatserna på skördeutbytet.

    Resultaten från de långliggande fältförsöken visade att de organiska gödningsmedlen hade flera positiva effekter på såväl grödans tillväxt och kvalitet som markens kemiska och mikrobiologiska egenskaper. Inte i något fall observerades några direkta negativa effekter av vare sig kompost, biogödsel eller rötslam på markens produktivitet.

    I organiska gödningsmedel är näringsämnena inte alltid direkt tillgängliga för växtrötter och mikroorganismer utan frigörs allteftersom de omsätts i marken. Detta är en skillnad jämfört med handelsgödsel, där näringsämnena förekommer i mycket lättlöslig och lättillgänglig form. Vid användning av organiska gödningsmedel kan det därför ibland vara befogat att tillföra extra näringsämnen, framförallt kväve, för att tillgodose grödans behov, åtminstone de första åren innan ett kväveförråd hunnit byggas upp i marken. Komposten hade jämförelsevis lägst halt av lättillgängligt kväve, eftersom en del av detta förloras vid själva komposteringsprocessen. I en biogasprocess däremot, som sker i ett helt slutet system, förloras nästan inget kväve utan detta återfinns i slutprodukten. I ORC-försöket var det också biogödseln från rötning av källsorterat hushållsavfall som stod sig bäst i jämförelse med handelsgödsel i fråga om skördeutbyte och kvalitet. Biogödseln hade en positiv inverkan på flera av de mikrobiologiska aktiviteter som mättes i laboratoriet.

    Det är värt att notera att även rötslam från reningsverk, som ju debatterats en hel del, inte visade några negativa effekter på grödans tillväxt eller markmikroorganismernas aktivitet. Rötslammets innehåll av fosfor var högre än för de andra gödningsmedlen, däremot var kväveinnehållet inte lika högt som hos biogödseln.

  • 37.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Introductory Chapter for Water Resources2013In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences / [ed] Scott A. Elias, Elsevier, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a vital part of the ecosystem and clean water and is a prerequisite for life on Earth. At the same time, freshwater is a finite resource that can be increased only slightly. Large amounts of freshwater are utilized each year to support energy production, agriculture, urbanization, industry, and mining. Hence, in order to support global development, existing water resources need to be managed in a sustainable manner and lately, much research has been focused on suggesting successful strategies for management of the world's water resources. Interesting findings deal with important aspects related to water resources, such as desalination methods, management of existing water reserves, and innovative water treatment methods. The rapidly increasing demand for water and sanitation is an obvious challenge and it is of great importance water strategies and policies take into account both ecological and socioeconomic aspects.

  • 38.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Abubaker, Jamal
    SLU.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Emissions of N2O and CH4 from agricultural soils amended with two types of biogas residues2012In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 44, p. 112-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas residues contain valuable plant nutrients, important to the crops and also to soil microorganisms. However, application of these materials to the soils may contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) causing global warming and climate change. In the present study, incubation experiment was carried out, where the emission rates of N2O and CH4 were measured after amending two soils with two types of biogas residues: (1) a regular residue from a large scale biogas plant (BR) and (2) a residue from an ultrafiltration membrane unit connected to a pilot-scale biogas plant (BRMF). The emissions of N2O and CH4 were measured at two occasions: at 24 h and at 7 days after residue amendment, respectively. Amendment with filtered biogas residues (BRMF) led to an increase in N2O emissions with about 6-23 times in organic and clay soil, respectively, in comparison to unfiltered biogas residues (BR). Methane emission was detected in small amounts when filtered biogas residue was added to the soil. Amendment of unfiltered biogas to the organic soil resulted in net consumption. In conclusion, fertilization with BRMF can be combined with risk of an increase N2O emission, especially when applied to organic soils. However, in order to transfer these results to real life agriculture, large scale field studies need to be carried out

  • 39.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Arthurson, Veronica
    SLU.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Abubaker, Jamal
    SLU.
    Svensson, Kalle
    Hushållningssällskapet.
    Land application of organic waste: Effects on the soil ecosystem2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 2210-2218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing populations and the increasing use of existing resources has led to growth in organic waste emissions. Therefore, a sustainable approach to managing this waste has become a major concern in densely populated areas. Biological treatment is an efficient method for reducing the amount of organic waste, and for producing energy. A large number of biogas plants and compost facilities that use organic waste as a substrate for electricity and fuel production are being built around the world. The biological treatment process in these plants produces large amounts of organic waste, and there is therefore a growing need to find a sustainable use for this material. Organic waste, such as biogas residues and compost can be a valuable fertilizer for agricultural soils. They can serve as a source of plant nutrients and can also improve soil structure and water holding capacity. However, as organic residues are known to contain both heavy metals and organic contaminants there is a need for long term field experiments to ensure that soil and plant quality is maintained. In order to investigate the potential risks and benefits of using organic waste in agriculture, an 8 year field experiment was established in central Sweden. Under realistic conditions, compost and biogas residues from source-separated household waste were compared with traditional mineral fertilizer. We examined crop yield and soil chemical and microbiological properties. The main conclusion from the field experiment was that biogas residues resulted in crop yields almost as high as the mineral fertilizer NPS. In addition, several important soil microbiological properties, such as substrate induced respiration, potential ammonium oxidation and nitrogen mineralization were improved after application of both biogas residues and compost. Moreover, no negative effects could be detected from using either of the organic wastes. In particular the genetic structure of the soil bacterial community appeared to resist changes caused by addition of organic waste.

  • 40.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Arthursson, Veronica
    SLU.
    Can Organic Wastes Replace Mineral Fertilizers?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ericsson, Anders
    Brunnby Farm, HS Konsult, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pell, Mikael
    Swedish Univ Agr Sc, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Use of organic wastes in agriculture2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 2472-2476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the number of biogas plants and wastewater treatment plants continues to grow, there is an urgent need to find sustainable usage of the organic wastes produced in these facilities Recycling of organic wastes within agriculture can reduce the need for mineral fertilizer and restore organic carbon deficiency in the soil. The results from a 16-year long field experiment, where agricultural lands have been amended using sewage sludge and biogas residue is presented in this paper. Plant nutrients, organic contaminants and metals have been analyzed in order to evaluate the impact of the wastes on soil and crop quality. The results show that only small differences in plant uptake of metals and organic pollutants appear after 16 years. In addition, biogas residues performed well as a fertilizers, although not as well as mineral fertilizers.

  • 42.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Microbiological degradation of explosives in bioreactor2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Microbiological degradation of explosives in bioreactor2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Grube, Mara
    Latvia University.
    Gavare, Marita
    Latvia University.
    Cultivation of algae with indigenous species – potentials for regional biodiesel, biogas and biofuel production.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Grube, Mara
    University of Latvia.
    Gavare, Marita
    University of Latvia.
    Cultivation of algae with indigenous species: potentials for regional biofuel production2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 10, p. 3280-3285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The massive need for sustainable energy has led to an increased interest in new energy resources, such as production of algae, for use as biofuel. There are advantages to using algae, for example, land use is much less than in terrestrial biofuel production, and several algae species can double their mass in one day under optimized conditions. Most algae are phototrophs and some are nitrogen fixing. Algae production therefore requires only small amounts of amendments such as carbon sources and nutrients. In the present paper an experiment was performed using water sampled from Lake Mälaren in Sweden. The lake water is considered nutrient rich, has relatively neutral pH and is rich in organic compounds and suspended solids. The idea behind this research was to enhance indigenous algae production rather than inoculate new species into the system. A simple experimental setup was designed where algae biomass growth was measured regularly over a 13 day period. FT-IR absorption spectra were evaluated in order to determine protein, lipid, carbohydrate and silicate contents of the algae. The algae community structure was characterized throughout the production cycle. Futhermore, the potential for energy supply for the transportation sector in the Mälardalen region from algae cultivated as tested in the experiment was evaluated.

  • 46.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Microbiological degradation of explosives in bioreactor – experiences from Nammo Vingåkersverken.2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Pell, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Svensson, K.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1246-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100 kg N ha-1 year-1. The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, μSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, μPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (μPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes.

  • 48.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    Effect of wood ash and compost on nitrification and denitrification in soil.2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood ash from biofuel combustion plants and compost from source-separated household waste are commonly spread on forest, agricultural and horticultural soils as a valuable Source of plant nutrients. However, due to anthropogenic activities, wood ash may contain high concentrations of heavy metals. Heavy metals are toxic to microorganisms and therefore, soil microbial response to wood ash Should be considered when soil is amended with ash. Compost is known to improve soil structure and may also act as a bioremediating agent, mitigating any toxic effects of wood ash on soil microorganisms. In the present study, the aim was to investigate whether wood ash has any toxic effect on soil microbial activity and, if this is the case, whether Compost Could mitigate these effects. The effect of wood fly ash oil potential ammonium oxidation rate (PAO) and potential denitrification rate (PDA) in arable soil was investigated in one dose-response assay and in two pot experiments With or Without plants, respectively. The treatments were amendment with wood fly ash, compost or a combination of wood fly ash and compost. PAO and PDA were assessed immediately or after 7 and 90 days in the different experiments. Wood fly ash decreased PDA to 16-56% compared to the control, while PAO varied between 82% and 205%. Sole compost addition stimulated both processes. This positive effect was also observed in the combined wood fly ash-compost treatment. In conclusion, wood ash had a toxic effect on PDA, both on an immediate, short-term and long-term basis. Amendment of compost clearly mitigated this toxic effect. The observed toxicity could be an effect of the metal content of ash.

  • 49.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    Arthurson, Veronica
    SLU.
    Abubaker, Jamal
    SLU.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Combined mineral N and organic waste fertilization effects oncrop growth and soil properties2014In: The Journal of Agricultural Sciences, ISSN 0021-8596, Vol. 152, no 01, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An 8-year-long field experiment (1998–2006) was established in Sweden with the aim of evaluating the effects of applying organic wastes in combination with mineral nitrogen (N) to agricultural soil. Sewage sludge (SS), biogas residues (BR) and municipal compost (CO) were applied annually at rates corresponding to 50 kg N/ha and supplementary mineral N fertilizer lso applied at rates corresponding to 50 kg N/ha. The effects were evaluated by analysing crop yield and soil chemical and microbiological properties. The results showed that none of the fertilizers produced significantly higher yield of barley over the 8-year period compared to any other. Biogas residue proved to be particularly beneficial for the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) in soil and increased the proportion of active to dormant micro-organisms. Treatment with SS increased plant-available phosphorus (P-AL) and N mineralization (N-min), whereas CO increased the basal respiration (B-resp). Changes in the microbial community structure were assayed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP); the T-RFLP signatures of the soil bacterial community were largely unaffected by the addition of organic waste. Of the chemical properties assayed, the largest increases were seen in P-AL, where SS produced the highest value. Treatmentswith the organicwastes showed no negative effects other than a slight decrease in B-resp induced by SS and BR. In conclusion, the microbiological activity in the soil responded more rapidly than the changes in the community structure and the chemical properties to changes in the soil environment.

  • 50.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Svensson, Kalle
    SLU.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU.
    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for assessment of spatial soil variation in an agricultural field2005In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 126, no 3-4, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 83
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