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  • 1.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Shared Stack Analysis in Transaction-Based Systems2007In: Work in Progress Proceedings RTSS'07, Tucson, Arizona, USA, 2007, p. 37-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present our ongoing work on shared stack analysis for hybrid (static and dynamic) scheduled fixed priority systems. We present two methods that extend our previous work to support stack analysis for the general tasks model with offsets where several transactions can share a common run-time stack. The aim of this work is to support stack analysis of a wider range of systems. 

  • 2.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Safe Shared Stack Bounds in Systems with Offsets and Precedences2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents two novel methods to bound the stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. The first method is based on branch-and-bound search for possible preemption patterns, and the second one approximates the first in polynomial time. The work extends previous methods by considering a more general taskmodel, in which all tasks can share the same stack. In addition, the new methods account for precedence and offset relations. Thus, the methods give tight bounds for a large set of realistic systems. The methods have been implemented and a comprehensive evaluation, comparing our new methods against each other and against existing methods, is presented. The evaluation shows that our exact method can significantly reduce the amount of stack memory needed. In our simulations, a decrease in the order of 40% was typical, with a runtime in the order of seconds. Our polynomial approximation consequently yields about 20% higher bound than the exact method. 

  • 3.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bounding Shared-Stack Usage in Systems with Offsets and Precedences2008In: ECRTS 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 20TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE ON REAL-TIME SYSTEMS, 2008, p. 276-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents two novel methods to bound the stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. The first method is based on branch-and-bound search for possible preemption patterns, and the second one approximates the first in polynomial time. The work extends previous methods by considering a more general task-model, in which all tasks can share the same stack. In addition, the new methods account for precedence and offset relations. Thus, the methods give tight bounds for a large set of realistic systems. The methods have been implemented and a comprehensive evaluation, comparing our new methods against each other and against existing methods, is presented. The evaluation shows that our exact method can significantly reduce the amount of stack memory needed.

  • 4.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient Memory Utilization in Resource Constrained Real-Time Systems2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents design and run-time techniques for efficient memory utilization in embedded real-time systems. The proposed techniques give developers means to reduce the memory consumption in the systems. Altogether, this gives possibilities to increases the added value of industrial systems, in the sense that more features can be fitted on existing hardware.

    The thesis begins by presenting the results of a series of interviews concerning common requirements in development of embedded real-time systems. Based on these results, the thesis presents a novel component model for development of resource constrained real-time systems. The model supports efficient memory usage through stack sharing and is formal enough to enable predictability of the resulting stack usage. To provide run-time support for stack sharing, the thesis presents an integration of the stack sharing strategy in an operating system for the component model. To determine the resulting memory usage under stack sharing, a novel analysis method is presented. In an evaluation, the thesis show that the analysis method is both fast and that it gives tight bounds on the resulting stack usage, which makes it suitable for industrial use. The thesis ends with a presentation showing the integration of the proposed analysis technique in an integrated development environment.

    The proposed techniques have been integrated in the commercial tool Rubus-ICE from Arcticus Systems. The techniques will be available for developers in the upcoming release of Rubus-ICE.

  • 5.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Introducing a Memory Efficient Execution Model in a Tool-Suite for Real-Time Systems2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis shows how development of embedded real-time systems can be made more efficient by introduction of an memory efficient execution model in a commercial development suite. To identify the need of additional support for execution models in development tools, the thesis investigate by a series of interviews, the common requirements in development of industrial embedded real-time systems. The results indicate that there exist functionality in industrial systems that could be more efficiently implemented in other execution models than the currently supported ones. The thesis then presents how use of multiple execution models (hybrid scheduling) can reduce processor utilization in real-world applications. Furthermore, the thesis presents an integration of an memory efficient execution model in an industrially used real-time operating system. In addition, the thesis describes an efficient technique to analyze memory consumptions of functionality executing under the introduced execution model.

    Embedded computers play an important role in peoples everyday life. Nowadays, we can find computers in product such as microwave ovens, washing machines, DVD players, cellular phones and cars, to mention a few examples. For example, a modern car may have more than 70 embedded control units handling functionality such as airbags, anti-lock braking, traction control etc. In addition, there is a clear trend indicating that the amount of computer controlled functionality in products will continue to increase. Many of today’s embedded systems are resource constrained and the software for them is developed for a few execution models. Even though researchers has proposed a numerous number of different execution models for embedded real-time systems, in practice however, only a few of the proposed execution models are supported in industrial development tools. This implies that developers often force fit functionality to be executed under these models, resulting in poor resource utilization and increasing complexity in software.

  • 6.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. SICS, Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Thane, Henrik
    Safety integrity AB, Sweden.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS, Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Inadequate risk analysis might jeopardize the functional safety of modern systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 90s, researchers began to focus on security as an important property to address in combination with safety. Over the years, researchers have proposed approaches to harmonize activities within the safety and security disciplines. Despite the academic efforts to identify interdependencies and to propose combined approaches for safety and security, there is still a lack of integration between safety and security practices in the industrial context, as they have separate standards and independent processes often addressed and assessed by different organizational teams and authorities. Specifically, security concerns are generally not covered in any detail in safety standards potentially resulting in successfully safety-certified systems that still are open for security threats from e.g., malicious intents from internal and external personnel and hackers that may jeopardize safety. In recent years security has again received an increasing attention of being an important issue also in safety assurance, as the open interconnected nature of emerging systems makes them susceptible to security threats at a much higher degree than existing more confined products.

    This article presents initial ideas on how to extend safety work to include aspects of security during the context establishment and initial risk assessment procedures. The ambition of our proposal is to improve safety and increase efficiency and effectiveness of the safety work within the frames of the current safety standards, i.e., raised security awareness in compliance with the current safety standards. We believe that our proposal is useful to raise the security awareness in industrial contexts, although it is not a complete harmonization of safety and security disciplines, as it merely provides applicable guidance to increase security awareness in a safety context

  • 7.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient Event-Triggered Tasks in an RTOS2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, 2005, p. 31-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we add predictable and resource efficient event-triggered tasks in an RTOS. This is done by introducing an execution model suitable for example control software and component-based software. The execution model, denoted single-shot execution (SSX), can be realized with very simple and resource efficient run-time mechanisms and is highly predictable, hence suitable for use in resource constrained real-time systems. In an evaluation, we show that significant memory reductions can be obtained by using the SSX model.

  • 8.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Analysing Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem formulation applicable for any preemptive system model based on dynamic (run-time) properties. We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack usage by using static (compile time) information about the system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant and commercially available system model: A hybrid, statically and dynamically, scheduled system. Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 9.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. CC Systems, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Determining Maximum Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2007In: Proceedings of the 9th Real-Time in Sweden (RTiS'07), Västerås, Sweden, 2007, p. 118-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the

    maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack,

    real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem

    formulation applicable for any preemptive system model

    based on dynamic (run-time) properties.

    We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack

    usage by using static (compile time) information about the

    system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant

    and commercially available system model: A hybrid,

    statically and dynamically, scheduled system.

    Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly

    reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared

    to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets

    a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 10.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Determining Maximum Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2006In: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2006, p. 445-453Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem formulation applicable for any preemptive system model based on dynamic (run-time) properties. We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack usage by using static (compile time) information about the system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant and commercially available system model: A hybrid, statically and dynamically, scheduled system.

    Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 11.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Staffan
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Introducing a Plug-In Framework for Real-Time Analysis in Rubus-ICE2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the development of a plug-in framework for integration of real-time analysis methods in the Rubus Integrated Component Environment (Rubus-ICE). We also present the implementation, and evaluate the integration, of two state of the art analysis techniques (i) response-time analysis for tasks with offsets and (ii) shared stack analysis, as plug-ins, in the Rubus-ICE framework.

    The paper shows that the proposed framework is well suited for integration of complex analysis methods. However, experience also show that analysis methods are not easily transferred from an academic environment to industry. The main reason for this, we believe, originates from differences in requirements and assumptions between industry and academia.

  • 12.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Staffan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, John
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Framework for Real-Time Analysis in Rubus-ICE2008In: 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION, PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 782-788Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In this paper we present the development of a plug-in framework for integration of real-time analysis methods in the Rubus Integrated Component Environment (Rubus-ICE). We also present the implementation, and evaluate the integration, of two state of the art analysis techniques (i) response-time analysis for tasks with offsets and (ii) shared stack analysis, as plug-ins, in the Rubus-ICE framework. The paper shows that the proposed framework is well suited for integration of complex analysis methods. However experience also show that analysis methods are not easily transferred from an academic environment to industry. The main reason for this, we believe, originates from differences in requirements and assumptions between industry and academia. 

  • 13.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Present and Future Requirements in Developing Industrial Embedded Real-Time Systems - Interviews with Designers in the Vehicle Domain2006In: 13th Annual IEEE International Conference and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems (ECBS), Potsdam, Germany, 2006, p. 139-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we aim at capturing the industrial viewpoint of todays and future requirements in development of embedded real-time systems. We do this by interviewing ten senior designers at four Swedish companies, developing embedded applications in the vehicle domain.

    This study shows that reliability and safety are the main properties in focus during development. It also shows that the amount of functionality has been increasing in the examined systems. Still the present requirements are fulfilled using considerably homogenous development methods.

    The study also shows that, in the future, there will be even stronger requirements on dependability and control performance at the same time as requirements on more softer and resource demanding functionality will continue to increase. Consequently, the complexity will increase, and with diverging requirements, more heterogeneous development methods are called for to fulfil all application specific requirements.

  • 14.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Supporting Engineering Requirements in the Rubus Component Model2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a component model for development of distributed real-time systems.

    The model is developed to support development of embedded control systems for ground vehicles. The model aims at supporting three important activities in real-time development, (i) design, (ii) analysis and (iii) synthesis. These activities emphasise different and sometimes conflicting requirements that need to be balanced. For example, developers desire freedom in designing to solve complex tasks, analysis tools require the design to be formal enough for analysis and synthesis need to be efficient for low run-time footprint. We have considered industrial requirements for these activities and developed the RubusCMv3 component model. The model has been developed in close cooperation with industrial partners and it is currently being evaluated on real systems.

  • 15.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, John
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Rubus Component Model for Resource Constrained Real-Time Systems2008In: 2008 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INDUSTRIAL EMBEDDED SYSTEMS, 2008, p. 177-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a component model for development of distributed real-time systems.

    The model is developed to support development of embedded control systems for ground vehicles. The model aims at supporting three important activities in real-time development, (i) design, (ii) analysis and (iii) synthesis. These activities emphasise different and sometimes conflicting requirements that need to be balanced. For example, developers desire freedom in designing to solve complex tasks, analysis tools require the design to be formal enough for analysis and synthesis need to be efficient for low run-time footprint. We have considered industrial requirements for these activities and developed the RubusCMv3 component model. The model has been developed in close cooperation with industrial partners and it is currently being evaluated on real systems.

  • 16.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Risk-based decision-making fallacies: Why present functional safety standards are not enough2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 153-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional safety of a system is the part of its overall safety that depends on the system operating correctly in response to its inputs. Safety is defined as the absence of unacceptable/unreasonable risk by functional safety standards, which enforce safety requirements in each phase of the development process of safety-critical software and hardware systems. Acceptability of risks is judged within a framework of analysis with contextual and cultural aspects by individuals who may introduce subjectivity and misconceptions in the assessment. While functional safety standards elaborate much on the avoidance of unreasonable risk in the development of safety-critical software and hardware systems, little is addressed on the issue of avoiding unreasonable judgments of risk. Through the studies of common fallacies in risk perception and ethics, we present a moral-psychological analysis of functional safety standards and propose plausible improvements of the involved risk-related decision making processes, with a focus on the notion of an acceptable residual risk. As a functional safety reference model, we use the functional safety standard ISO 26262, which addresses potential hazards caused by malfunctions of software and hardware systems within road vehicles and defines safety measures that are required to achieve an acceptable level of safety. The analysis points out the critical importance of a robust safety culture with developed countermeasures to the common fallacies in risk perception, which are not addressed by contemporary functional safety standards. We argue that functional safety standards should be complemented with the analysis of potential hazards caused by fallacies in risk perception, their countermeasures, and the requirement that residual risks must be explicated, motivated, and accompanied by a plan for their continuous reduction. This approach becomes especially important in contemporary developed autonomous vehicles with increasing computational control by increasingly intelligent software applications.

  • 17.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kristina, Lundqvist
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Regression verification of AADL models through slicing of system dependence graphs2014In: QoSA 2014 - Proceedings of the 10th International ACM SIGSOFT Conference on Quality of Software Architectures (Part of CompArch 2014), 2014, p. 103-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design artifacts of embedded systems are subjected to a number of modifications during the development process. Verified artifacts that subsequently are modified must nec- essarily be re-Verified to ensure that no faults have been introduced in response to the modification. We collectively call this type of verification as regression verification. In this paper, we contribute with a technique for selective regression verification of embedded systems modeled in the Architec- ture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). The technique can be used with any AADL-based verification technique to eficiently perform regression verification by only selecting verification sequences that cover parts that are afiected by the modification for re-execution. This allows for the avoid- ance of unnecessary re-verification, and thereby unnecessary costs. The selection is based on the concept of specification slicing through system dependence graphs (SDGs) such that the efiect of a modification can be identified.

  • 18.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    AQAT: The Architecture Quality Assurance Tool for Critical Embedded Systems2017In: Proceedings - International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, ISSRE, Volume 2017, 2017, p. 260-270, article id 8109092Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Architectural engineering of embedded systems comprehensively affects both the development processes and the abilities of the systems. Verification of architectural engineering is consequently essential in the development of safety- and mission-critical embedded system to avoid costly and hazardous faults. In this paper, we present the Architecture Quality Assurance Tool (AQAT), an application program developed to provide a holistic, formal, and automatic verification process for architectural engineering of critical embedded systems. AQAT includes architectural model checking, model-based testing, and selective regression verification features to effectively and efficiently detect design faults, implementation faults, and faults created by maintenance modifications. Furthermore, the tool includes a feature that analyzes architectural dependencies, which in addition to providing essential information for impact analyzes of architectural design changes may be used for hazard analysis, such as the identification of potential error propagations, common cause failures, and single point failures. Overviews of both the graphical user interface and the back-end processes of AQAT are presented with a sensor-to-actuator system example.

  • 19.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Torelm, M.
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    AQAF: An architecture quality assurance framework for systems modeled in AADL2016In: Proceedings - 2016 12th International ACM SIGSOFT Conference on Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2016, 2016, p. 31-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture engineering is essential to achieve dependability of critical embedded systems and affects large parts of the system life cycle. There is consequently little room for faults, which may cause substantial costs and devastating harm. Verification in architecture engineering should therefore be holistically and systematically managed in the development of critical embedded systems, from requirements analysis and design to implementation and maintenance. In this paper, we address this problem by presenting AQAF: an Architecture Quality Assurance Framework for critical embedded systems modeled in the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). The framework provides a holistic set of verification techniques with a common formalism and semantic domain, architecture flow graphs and timed automata, enabling completely formal and automated verification processes covering virtually the entire life cycle. The effectiveness and efficiency of the framework are validated in a case study comprising a safety-critical train control system. 

  • 20.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Torelm, Martin
    Bombardier Transp., Sweden .
    Experience Report: Evaluating Fault Detection Effectiveness and Resource Efficiency of the Architecture Quality Assurance Framework and Tool2017In: Proceedings - International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, ISSRE. Volume 2017, 2017, p. 271-281, article id 8109093Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Architecture Quality Assurance Framework (AQAF) is a theory developed to provide a holistic and formal verification process for architectural engineering of critical embedded systems. AQAF encompasses integrated architectural model checking, model-based testing, and selective regression verification techniques to achieve this goal. The Architecture Quality Assurance Tool (AQAT) implements the theory of AQAF and enables automated application of the framework. In this paper, we present an evaluation of AQAT and the underlying AQAF theory by means of an industrial case study, where resource efficiency and fault detection effectiveness are the targeted properties of evaluation. The method of fault injection is utilized to guarantee coverage of fault types and to generate a data sample size adequate for statistical analysis. We discovered important areas of improvement in this study, which required further development of the framework before satisfactory results could be achieved. The final results present a 100% fault detection rate at the design level, a 98.5% fault detection rate at the implementation level, and an average increased efficiency of 6.4% with the aid of the selective regression verification technique.

  • 21.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Thane, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis2018In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018, Luxembourg, Luxemburg, 2018, p. 166-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's systems are being built to connect to public or semi-public networks, are able to communicate with other systems, e.g., in the context of Internet-of-Things (IoT), involve multiple stakeholders, have dynamic system reconfigurations, and operate in increasingly unpredictable environments. In such complex systems, assuring safety and security in a continuous and joint effort is a major challenge, not the least due to the increasing number of attack surfaces arising from the increased connectivity. In this paper we present an approach that aims to bridge the gap between safety and security engineering. The potential of the approach is illustrated on the example of E-gas system, discussing the cases when unintentional faults as well as malicious attacks are taken into consideration when assuring safety of the described system. 

  • 22.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Efficient Development of Real-Time Systems Using Hybrid Scheduling2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, ESA'05, 2005, p. 53-59Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will show how advanced embedded realtime systems, with functionality ranging from time-triggered control functionality to event-triggered user interaction, can be made more efficient. Efficient with respect to development effort as well as run-time resource utilization. This is achieved by using a hybrid, static and dynamic, scheduling strategy. The approach is applicable even for hard real-time systems since tight response time guarantees can be given by the response time analysis method for tasks with offsets. An industrial case study will demonstrate how this approach enables more efficient use of computational resources, resulting in a cheaper or more competitive product since more functionality can be fitted into legacy, resource constrained, hardware.

  • 23.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Towards Efficient Development of Embedded Real-Time Systems, the Component Based Approach2006In: The 2006 International Conference on Embedded Systems & Applications (ESA'06), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present our joint view for efficient development of efficient and dependable ERTS (Embedded Real-Time Systems). This view is based on the three main viewpoints of (1) the software designer, (2) the analysis tools, and (3) the code synthesis tools/run-time environment.

    Our position is that any approach that is to achieve (i) decreased development effort, (ii) increased software quality, and (iii) efficient resource utilization, needs to take all three viewpoints into consideration.

    We exemplify how our work with execution-model independent software components fits into this joint view and outline some research directions.

  • 24.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    et al.
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Specifying Software Requirements for Safety-Critical Railway Systems: an Experience Report2017In: International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality REFSQ, Essen, Germany, 2017, p. 363-369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software safety requirements are fundamental in the definition of risk reduction measures for safety critical systems, since they are developed to satisfy the system safety constraints as identified by mandated safety analyses. It is therefore imperative that the requirements are defined clearly and precisely. We describe our experiences in introducing a safety compliant method of writing safety software requirements for railway projects in a distributed organization. Our goal was twofold, to develop requirements specifications that comply with the EN 50128 standard and that are understandable by the persons involved in the software development. We introduced methods to transform natural language requirements to functional requirements described as scenarios, sequence, use-case and state-machine diagrams. Our experience shows that new ways of expressing requirements, even if proper to solve technical issues such as compliance with standards, bring other challenges to the organization like people’s reluctance to changes in working routines and process updates.

  • 25.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    et al.
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zhou, Jiale
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Ontological Approach to Elicit Safety Requirements2017In: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2017, 2017, p. 713-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety requirements describe risk mitigations against failures that may cause catastrophic consequences on human life, environment and facilities. To be able to implement the correct risk mitigations, it is fundamental that safety requirements are de- fined based on the results issued from the safety analysis. In this paper, we introduce a heuristic approach to elicit safety requirements based on the knowledge about hazard’s causes, hazard’s sources and hazard’s consequences (i.e. hazard’s components) acquired during the safety analysis. The proposed approach is based on a Hazard Ontology that is used to structure the knowledge about the hazards identified during the safety analysis in order to make it available and accessible for requirements elicitation. We describe how this information can be used to elicit safety requirements, and provide a guidance to derive the safety requirements which are appropriate to deal with the hazards they mitigate.

  • 26.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    A Hazard Domain Ontology for Preliminary Hazard Analysis in Reuse Scenarios2016Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Hazard Modeling Language for Safety-Critical Systems Based on the Hazard Ontology2017In: 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'17, 2017, p. 301-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a key safety-concerned activity, applied during the early stages of safety-critical systems development process, aiming to provide stakeholders with a general understanding of potential hazards. The identified hazards will be described and serve as a basis to further identify mitigation mechanisms in the subsequent development process. However, since various stakeholders will be involved in the identification process, a common understanding of the nature of hazards among stakeholders, such as what a hazard consists of and how to describe it without ambiguities, is of crucial importance to achieve the goal of PHA. In this work, we propose a hazard modeling language (HML) based on a hazard domain ontology, i.e., the Hazard Ontology, in order to facilitate the specification of identified hazards. In addition, we present an approach to the transformation from natural language hazard descriptions into the HML specification. Finally, an industrial PHA example is used to illustrate the usefulness of our work.

  • 28.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Bombardier Transportation AB, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    An Environment-Driven Ontological Approach to Requirements Elicitation for Safety-Critical Systems2015In: 23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference RE'15, 2015, p. 247-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment, where a safety critical system (SCS) operates, is an important source from which safety requirements of the SCS can originate. By treating the system under construction as a black box, the environment is typically documented as a number of assumptions, based on which a set of environmental safety requirements will be elicited. However, it is not a trivial task in practice to capture the environmental assumptions to elicit safety requirements. The lack of certain assumptions or too strict assumptions will either result in incomplete environmental safety requirements or waste many efforts on eliciting incorrect requirements. Moreover, the variety of operating environment for an SCS will further complicate the task, since the captured assumptions are at risk of invalidity, and consequently the elicited requirements need to be revisited to ensure safety has not been compromised by the change. This short paper presents an on-going work aiming to 1) systematically organize the knowledge of system operating environment and, 2) facilitate the elicitation of environmental safety requirements. We propose an ontological approach to achieve the objectives. In particular, we utilize conceptual ontologies to organize the environment knowledge in terms of relevant environment concepts, relations among them and axioms. Environmental assumptions are captured by instantiating the environment ontology. An ontological reasoning mechanism is also provided to support elicitation of safety requirements from the captured assumptions.

  • 29.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Ontological Approach to Hazard Identification for Safety-Critical Systems2017In: 2017 2nd International Conference on Reliability Systems Engineering, ICRSE 2017, Beijing, China, 2017, article id 8030746Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazard identification is an essential but very de- manding task for the development of safety-critical systems (SCSs). Current practices suffer from one or several drawbacks listed below: 1) a common hazard conceptualization is missing and thereby ambiguities may arise and, 2) there is still a need to formalize the experience of analysts and lessons learned from previous system development in a structured way to facilitate future reuse. and, 3) some hazard identification techniques require well-known system behaviors represented by models, such as automata and sequence diagrams, to identify hazards, and however such models are typically susceptible to changes or even not available in early stages. In this paper, we propose an ontological approach to support hazard identification in the early stages of the development of SCSs. The approach aims to improve hazard identification results in terms of completeness and unambiguity. A robotic strolling assistant system is used to evaluate the proposed approach.

  • 30.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Ontological Approach to Identify the Causes of Hazards for Safety-Critical Systems2017In: 2017 2nd International Conference on System Reliability and Safety ICSRS'17, 2017, p. 405-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a key safety-concerned technique, applied in early stages of safety critical systems development, aiming to provide stakeholders with a general understanding of potential hazards together with their causes. Various studies have asserted that most significant flaws in hazard analysis techniques are related to the omission of causes associated with the identified hazards. In addition, identified causes are sometimes described in too generic terms to provide useful guidance for subsequent activities. In this paper, we propose an approach to explore and identify the causes associated with the hazards from a PHA, aiming to improve the results of hazard causes identification in terms of completeness and usefulness. To achieve the goal, the proposed approach utilizes the hazard-related concepts and relations defined in a hazard domain ontology presented in our previous work. Furthermore, an application scenario of a train control system is used to evaluate our approach.

  • 31.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Bombardier Transportation, Sweden.
    An Ontological Interpretation of the Hazard Concept for Safety-Critical Systems2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 27TH EUROPEAN SAFETY AND RELIABILITY CONFERENCE (ESREL 2017), PORTOROZ , SLOVENIA, 18–22 JUNE 2017, 2017, p. 183-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hazard concept has been extensively used in the literature and defined in an informal way, which serves as a guidance on identifying the potential hazards during the development of safety-critical systems. Intuitively, the definitions seem to be consistent and easy to understand. However, when we take a closer look at these definitions, ambiguities may arise, and real-world semantics need to be defined. In this work, we propose a hazard domain ontology, i.e., the Hazard Ontology (HO), to provide an ontological interpretation of hazard. To tackle the aforementioned issues, the HO is grounded in the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) to utilize the benefits provided by taking foundational concepts into account. Finally, we show some useful findings when we use the proposed ontology to analyze the hazard descriptions from an industrial passenger train project.

1 - 31 of 31
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