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  • 1.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Making the Important Measurable2011In: International Association for Management of Technology IAMOT 2011 Proceedings, Miami Beach, USA, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance measurements related to product development typically focuses on what is easy to quantify and not necessarily what is important to measure. This research uses a case study approach to test a new model for designing performance indicators (DPI) based on what is important for a specific organization developing new products. The foundation for an effective performance measurement system is that the performance measurements are derived from relevant performance criteria and objectives. The proposed DPI method is therefore based on three consecutive steps. The first step is to decide what performance objectives are needed to be fulfilled in order to realize the pursued strategy. This step is followed by the identification of performance criteria / success factors that will contribute to the realization of the performance objectives. Performance criteria are typically related to what needs to be achieved in order to fulfill the objectives while success factors focus more on how they are to be fulfilled. Based on the most important performance criteria /success factors the supporting performance indicators can be derived from the literature or by using the performance measure record sheet. The performance allocation tracker is developed as a result of applying the DPI method in a real case and it is an indicator of the performance of the studied development project. The properties of the indicators resulting from using the DPI method include similar characteristics as leading indicators of performance. It is concluded that by focusing on performance criteria and success factors in the development of performance indicators, leading indicators of performance is derived.

  • 2.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluating performance in the development of software-intensive products2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 516-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Organizational performance measurements in software product development have received a lot of attention in the literature. Still, there is a general discontent regarding the way performance is evaluated in practice, with few studies really focusing on why this is the case. In this paper research focusing on the context of developing software-intensive products in large established multi-national organizations is reported on. Objective: The purpose of this research is to investigate performance measurement practices related to software product development activities. More specifically, focus is on exploring how managers engaged in software product development activities perceive and evaluate performance in large organizations from a managerial perspective. Method: The research approach pursued in this research consist of exploratory multiple case studies. Data is collected mainly through 54 interviews in five case studies in large international organizations developing software-intensive products in Sweden. Focused group interviews with senior managers from eight companies have also been used in the data collection. Results: The results of this research indicate that managers within software product development in general are dissatisfied with their current way of evaluating performance. Performance measurements and the perception of performance are today focused on cost, time, and quality, i.e. what is easily measurable and not necessarily what is important. The dimensions of value creation and learning are missing. Moreover, measurements tend to be result oriented, rather than process oriented, making it difficult to integrate these measurements in the management practices. Conclusion: Managers that are dissatisfied with their performance measurement system and want to improve the current situation should not start by focusing on the current measurements directly; instead they should focus on how the organization perceives performance and how important performance criteria are being developed. By developing relevant performance criteria the first step in developing an effective performance measurement system is made. Moreover, it is concluded that manager's perception of performance is affected by the currently used measurements, hence limiting the scope of the performance criteria. Thus, a change in the way managers perceive performance is necessary before there can be any changes in the way performance is evaluated. 

  • 3.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Improving Traceability by Focusing on Value during Development2011In: 1st International Workshop on Value-Based Software Traceability (VALSOT 2011), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product delivering companies invest resources in software development activities in order to create value. Still, when performance in software development is to be measured, focus easily turns to time, cost, and quality in the later stages of the development process. Time, cost, and quality are important dimensions of performance but they are not revealing the complete picture. Missing is the value perspective. This paper outlines a method for how customer value can be used to evaluate performance and improve traceability during the development of a new product. The first step in the method is to value each requirement in the development project according to their perceived customer value. Hence, the value propagation can be monitored as the activities related the requirements are completed during the development. This information can then be used in order to improve traceability by visualizing the value propagation and performance during the development. The paper is concluded with outlining four key needs for future research.

  • 4.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Products in Development: Using Requirements to Determine the Value of Activities in a Development Project2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product delivering companies invest resources in software development activities in order to create value. Still, when performance in software development is to be measured, focus easily turns to time, cost, and quality in the later stages of the development process. Time, cost, and quality are important dimensions of performance but they are not revealing the complete picture. Missing is the value perspective. This paper outlines a method for how customer value can be used to evaluate performance and improve decision making during the development of a new product. The first step in the method is to value each requirement in the development project according to their perceived customer value. Hence, the value propagation can be monitored as the activities related the requirements are completed during the development. This information can then be used in order to decide on changed priorities through an understanding of the value propagation and performance during the development.

  • 5.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Integrating Perceived Customer Value in the Evaluation of Performance in Product Development2010In: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product delivering companies invest resources in product development activities in order to create value. Still, when performance in product development is to be evaluated, time, cost, and quality are in focus, especially in the later stages of the development when it is expensive and difficult to make any changes. Time, cost, and quality are important dimensions of performance but they are not revealing the complete picture. Missing is the value perspective. This paper outlines a method for how perceived customer value can be used to evaluate performance in product development and describes how it is verified through a case study. By using the perceived customer value of requirements, the value propagation throughout the development is possible to monitor based on both market and scope changes. In addition, a measure of productivity can be calculated by relating the perceived value to the spent effort. This information is used in order to visualize the value propagation and performance during the development. Hence, through this method it is possible to evaluate the productivity of activities from initial ideas to a final product. The paper is concluded with a discussion of managerial implications and how this method contributes to theory.

  • 6.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Chaudron, Michel
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Larsson, Stig
    ABB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Component-based Development Process and Component Lifecycle2005In: 2006 International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, ICSEA'06, 2005, p. 625-630Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of component- and component-based system development differs in many significant ways from the "classical" development process of software systems. The main difference is in the separation of the development process of components from the development process of systems. This fact has a significant impact on the development process. Since the component-basedapproach is a relatively young approach in software engineering, the main emphasis in the area has been in development of technologies, while process modeling is still an unexplored area. This paper analyses the basic characteristics of the component-based approach and its impact on the development process and lifecycle models. The generic lifecycle of component-based systems and thelifecycle of components are discussed, and the different types of development processes are discussed in detail: architecture-driven component development, productline development and COTS-based development. Finally a short case study illustrates the principles and specifics of component-based processes. 

  • 7.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Experience Report: Using Internal CMMI Appraisals to Institutionalize Software Development Performance Improvement2006In: Proceedings - 32nd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA, 2006, p. 216-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical to any successful performance improvement initiative is to achieve a state of continuous or institutionalized improvement. Some improvement can happen quickly, but long-term improvement is typically a matter of sustaining focus. This requires an infrastructure that keeps activities focused and drives them forward. In ABB, the IDEALSM model is used as a guide for setting up improvement activities in development centers. Central to the IDEALSM model is the diagnostic activity, i.e. the evaluation of current performance in the unit against a suitable reference model. Over the last eight years, ABB has used diagnostics in the form of internal CMM/CMMI appraisals to lay the foundation for improvement activities. In this experience report, the use of internal appraisals as a means for sustaining improvement focus will be discussed. Experiences and lessons learnt, as well as some of the specifics of ABB's internal appraisals will be presented.

  • 8.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eliciting Critical Information in a Pre-Study Phase of Developing a Drive System Platform for Automotive Applications2011In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Systems Engineering and Engineering Management for Sustainable Global Development, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not straightforward to execute a pre-study and elicit all relevant requirements when faced with developing a mechatronic platform, such as a hybrid electric drive system, aimed for reuse in many advanced vehicles. We present analysis of probing critical information areas and how to identify shortcomings by studying an industrial case and compiling textbook recommendations. We present a method, synthesized from literature, for probing critical subjects for a mechatronic platform development initiative and outline related methods to address shortcomings. Recognizing the critical information in an early phase is one key to leverage complexity in an advanced product line effort.

  • 9.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    What Information on Business Parameters is Required by Embedded Software Developers to do an Effective Job?2012In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol. 114, Springer, 2012, p. 273-278Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software design is tightly connected to the functionality and goals of the system it is used to control. For mechatronic systems such as an in-vehicle automotive system, software developers require information on the system goals including business parameters to effectively decide on architecture and functionality. This paper presents results from an case of developing a hybrid electric drive system platform, and presents the information areas that software and system engineers do perceive as important to effectively perform design. We note that business parameters are sought for and elaborate on what information is required. We analyze what these needs are and elaborate on how to address them by using methods from the literature. We conclude that the effort of developing embedded software cannot rely on statically specified business parameters; rather these would be estimated and refined by interaction throughout the development cycle.

  • 10.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    What Information on Business Parameters Is Required by Embedded Software Developers to Do an Effective Job?2012In: SOFTWARE BUSINESS, ICSOB 2012 / [ed] Cusumano, MA Iyer, B Venkatraman, N, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2012, p. 273-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software design is tightly connected to the functionality and goals of the system it is used to control. For mechatronic systems such as an in-vehicle automotive system, software developers require information on the system goals including business parameters to effectively decide on architecture and functionality. This paper presents results from an case of developing a hybrid electric drive system platform, and presents the information areas that software and system engineers do perceive as important to effectively perform design. We note that business parameters are sought for and elaborate on what information is required. We analyze what these needs are and elaborate on how to address them by using methods from the literature. We conclude that the effort of developing embedded software cannot rely on statically specified business parameters; rather these would be estimated and refined by interaction throughout the development cycle.

  • 11.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dersten, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nordlander, P. -A
    BAE Systems AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Defining a method for identifying architectural candidates as part of engineering a system architecture2014In: 8th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2014 - Proceedings, 2014, p. 266-271Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering system architectures for complex systems involves the tasks of analyzing architectural drivers, identifying architectural concerns, identifying valid architecture candidates, and evaluation of alternatives. One problem to overcome when architecting a system is the identification of valid of architectural candidates. We have developed a step-wise method for performing system architecture analysis and tested it on a sub-system in a project developing a drive system for heavy automotive applications. In this paper we present the complete method of nine steps for engineering an architecture and we elaborate in detail on the procedure to identify architectural candidates based on previously identified architectural drivers. We present a diagram depicting the proposed information model, its concepts and their relationships. In addition, the expectations on such a method as expressed by practitioners have been elicited, and we elaborate on the validity by examining how well the method indicate fulfillment. Our conclusion is that the proposed method does not fail to deliver on any of the needs and this gives an indication of usefulness. When identifying architectural candidates it is important to use proper criteria in the process. Our conclusion is that the practitioners should focus on candidates that affect the system at hand (within system boundaries), and on the candidates that address the architecturally significant system use. This is reflected in our method where we prescribe evaluation of the design candidates by validating that they solve only the right problem and by ensuring that they address the system at hand.

  • 12.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nordlander, P. -A
    BAE Systems AB, Sweden.
    A method for analyzing architectural drivers when engineering a system architecture2013In: SysCon 2013 - 7th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, Proceedings, 2013, p. 711-717Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A very important task in systems architecting is to understand the needs of the system and identify which ones have architectural ramifications, i.e., architectural drivers. The understanding of architectural drivers enables the later engineering tasks including evaluation of architectural alternatives. Systems engineering guidelines provide models and advice for what information entities to consider, but only limited proposals of how to proceed. In this paper, we device and present a method to perform analysis of architectural drivers and we apply it to an industrial case of developing a hybrid electric drive system for heavy automotive applications. We present data on what practitioners expect from such a method, we present the method and rationale, and preliminary results from applying the method to the case. We note that the process and information model are fairly general and could be considered useful for any developer of a complex system. We believe the proposed method closes some of the gap between the general models described in the system engineering guidelines and an industrially applicable method.

  • 13.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Effective Change AB.
    Nordlander, Per-Åke
    BAE Systems AB.
    Tailoring a method for system architecture analysis2013In: 9th Annual Software Engineering Institute Architecture Technology User Network Conference, SATURN, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The architecture of a system involves some of the decisions that, more than others, affect the outcome of a development effort in terms of meeting system goals, system qualities, and overall project success. Engineering the system architecture of a complex system involves the tasks of analyzing architectural drivers, identifying crucial design considerations, and performing decision making among alternatives. Systems engineering guidelines provide models and advice for what information entities to consider when engineering the architecture of a system, e.g., architectural concerns, but only limited guidance of how to do it. The guides are limited both in preciseness of definition of the information entities, e.g., what defines an architectural requirement, and also in process description, e.g., how do the information entities relate and what order to proceed through the work tasks. These questions need to be addressed by any development team that faces an architectural driver analysis in an actual case. We are currently performing system architecture analysis in a project developing a hybrid electric drive system for heavy automotive applications. Our analysis method is instantiated using The Method Framework for Engineering System Architectures, MFESA . We also used elements of other theories, including CAFCR, QAW and ATAM. Execution of the project is on going and roughly half of the method activities have been carried out so far. The steps we have performed in order to instantiate and tailor the method are summarized; 1, Define the criteria for what practitioners perceive as a practical method for analyzing system architecture, 2, Instantiate a method by tailoring the MFESA tasks that are applicable to the case, 3, Interpret meaning and make add-ons and changes necessary. We have instantiated a method from the MFESA framework. Based on the practitionersÂ’ criteria, we alter the method to suit the case. We point out three additions that are not directly derived from the MFESA framework and could be useful in other cases. The most significant changes were: 1. We employ use-cases as a means to model and identify architecturally significant requirements. We choose to start with use-cases and progress by elaborating the architecturally significant ones by defining detailed scenarios. 2. We interpret and define the concepts proposed by MFESA and define their relationships. 3. We propose a stepwise procedure for carrying out the work. To summarize, we have participated in a development project and were given the task to provide a system architecture definition. We defined our method by using the MFESA framework and added some method components from other theories. Still, the resulting method is not directly applicable. In order to perform the method, we had to clarify the interpretation of some of the work products and define the relationship between information entities. In addition, we had to specify a stepwise working procedure. Some of the additions could be considered as case-specific tailoring and some may be useful in general. We present lessons learned from this case and discuss a possible validation effort for an architectural analysis method.

  • 14.
    Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Garre, Per
    Sony Ericcson Mobile Communications.
    Larsson, Stig
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    A Model for Technology Transfer in Practice2006In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology transfer, and thus industry-relevant research, involves more than merely producing research results and delivering them in publications and technical reports. It demands close cooperation and collaboration between industry and academia throughout the entire research process. During research conducted in a partnership between Blekinge Institute of Technology and two companies, Danaher Motion Saro AB (DHR) and ABB, we devised a technology transfer model that embodies this philosophy. We initiated this partnership to conduct industry-relevant research in requirements engineering and product management. Technology transfer in this context is a prerequisite: it validates academic research results in a real setting, and it provides a way to improve industry development and business processes.

  • 15.
    Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Garre, Per
    Danaher Motion Särö AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Stig
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Industry evaluation of the Requirements Abstraction Model2008In: Requirements Engineering Journal, ISSN 0947-3602, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 163-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software requirements are often formulated on different levels and hence they are difficult to compare to each other. To address this issue, a model that allows for placing requirements on different levels has been developed. The model supports both abstraction and refinement of requirements, and hence requirements can both be compared with each other and to product strategies. Comparison between requirements will allow for prioritization of requirements, which in many cases is impossible if the requirements are described on different abstraction levels. Comparison to product strategies will enable early and systematic acceptance or dismissal of requirements, minimizing the risk for overloading. This paper presents an industrial evaluation of the model. It has been evaluated in two different companies, and the experiences and findings are presented. It is concluded that the requirements abstraction model provides helpful improvements to the industrial requirements engineering process.

  • 16.
    Hallmans, Daniel
    et al.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Jägemar, Marcus
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Identifying Evolution Problems for Large Long Term Industrial Evolution Systems2014In: 38TH ANNUAL IEEE INTERNATIONAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND APPLICATIONS CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS (COMPSACW 2014), 2014, no 6th, p. 384-389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large infrastructure systems with a life time of more than 30 years, such as telecommunication or power transmission systems, are difficult to maintain since they suffer from the end-of-life plague of software, hardware and knowledge. Large companies have traditionally tackled this problem successfully, but maybe not with complete efficiency in all cases. We find system evolution to be an increasingly interesting problem as infrastructure becomes more complicated. Our increasingly complex and advanced society demands more of the infrastructure making system evolution an interesting alternative to system replacement. From the point of view of the ISO/IEC 15288 development process we have identified life cycle issues connected to long life time scenarios and the different life cycle stages. In this paper we contribute with a modification of the utilisation and support stage in ISO/IEC 15288 into an evolution stage where a system is not only retired and replaced but rather evolved into the next generation. Using this approach changes the view of system development for this specific type of systems towards a way of incremental development, where new functions can be added at the same time as old legacy parts are replaced with functionally equivalent modules based on new hardware. We have based our solution on the experience from investigations of life cycle issues for two large infrastructure systems.

  • 17.
    Hallmans, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Method for Handling Evolvability in a Complex Embedded System2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Handling of obsolete software and/or hardware components together with management of function updates in a complex embedded system with an expected life time of more than 30 years can be a very difficult to almost impossible task. This types of challenges can be found in a large number of companies in, for example, the power transmission industry, power plants, aviation etc. In this paper we present the basic steps in a proposed method for handling evolvability in such embedded systems with long expected life cycles. The key elements of the proposed method are the definition of function dependencies, release planning, and test requirements.

  • 18.
    Hallmans, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Industrial Requirements on Evolution of an Embedded System Architecture2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of obsolete software- and hardware-components along with the addition of new components and functionalities in existing embedded systems can be a very difficult or almost impossible task. If there at the same time is a requirement put on the system that it should be in operation for more than 30 years, then the evolution of the embedded system architecture over such a long duration of time will be an even more challenging problem to solve. A large number of different industries, for example the process and power transmission industries, are faced with this type of challenges on a daily basis. The contribution of our research presented in this paper is a set of questions and answers on how it is possible to replace and update an old control system, with examples inherent in process and power transmission applications. We also look at different methods that can be used during the development of new systems such that they will provide a natural support for evolvability, targeting future control system applications.

  • 19.
    Hallmans, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Sandström, K.
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    A method and industrial case: Replacement of an FPGA component in a legacy control system2015In: Proceeding - 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2015, 2015, p. 208-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant part of industrial systems have requirements on long life times. Such requirements on the complete system impose requirements on its corresponding embedded systems to be operational for an equally long time. As a consequence it is of paramount importance to be able to replace obsolete components of the embedded systems during the life time of the system, and to be able to update part of the design due to new requirements. In this paper we present a method to manage component replacement in such systems, and we present an industrial case study highlighting the work needed to replace an FPGA chip with another, including all corresponding legacy FPGA design challenges that comes with such a replacement. We have found one larger problem inherent in the ability to use the included components in a way that is not possible with the new circuits replacing the old ones. This problem significantly increased the work needed when performing the conversion and migration from the old design to the new, since parts of the design had to be redesigned from a functional perspective.

  • 20.
    Jonsson, H.
    et al.
    System Development Department, Etteplan Industry AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Agile practices in regulated railway software development2012In: 2012 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW),: Proceeding, 2012, p. 355-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex software is becoming an important component of modern safety-critical systems. To assure the correct function of such software, the development processes are heavily regulated by international standards, often making the process very rigid, unable to accommodate changes, causing late integration and increasing the cost of development. Agile methods have been introduced to address these issues in several software domains, but their use in safety-critical applications remains to be investigated. This paper provides an initial analysis of agile practices in the context of software development for the European railway sector, regulated by the EN 50128 standard. The study complements previous studies on the use of agile methods in other regulated domains. A systematic mapping between EN 50128 requirements and agile practices showed that all practices support some objectives of the standard. Important supporting features recognized were focus on simple design, test automation, coding standards, continuous integration and validation. However, several problematic areas were also identified, including vague requirement analysis and change management. Most agile practices must be adapted to suit regulated software development and this analysis outlines a subset of the required changes. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 21.
    Jonsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Technical System Development Etteplan Oyj .
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Synthesizing a Comprehensive Framework for Lean Software Development2013In: Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications: 39th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2013, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean principles, originating from Japanese automotive industry, are anticipated to be useful to improve software development processes. Albeit its popularity there is still no generally accepted, clear and detailed definition of what lean software development actually means. This makes it difficult to perform research on the effects of lean software development and determine its usefulness in various contexts. To fill in that research gap this paper analyzes the state of the art based on 20 key Lean concepts derived from nine seminal sources identified in a systematic literature review. The original explanations of the key concepts have been elaborated further and synthesized into a framework for lean software development consisting of a set of goals, recommended activities and practices. The detailed results for the key concept Value are reported. The proposed framework is expected to serve as a basis for further research and for Lean assessment of organizations.

  • 22.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Larsson, Stig
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Merging In-House Developed Software Systems: A Method for Exploring Alternatives2006In: Perspectives in Software Architecture Quality: Short papers of the 2nd International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures (QoSA 2006), June 27-29, 2006, Västeras, Sweden, Universität Karlsruhe , 2006, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Project Monitoring and Control In Model-Driven and Component-Based Development of Embedded Systems : The CARMA Principle and Preliminary Results2010In: ENASE 2010 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, 2010, p. 253-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper describes how the combination of the Model-Driven Development (MDD) and Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) paradigms can support project monitoring and control, and project risk reduction. The core principle for this is articulated and named CARMA, and our research agenda and preliminary results are described. Through interviews, industry input, process simulation, tool implementation and pilot projects, and describing an extension of CMMI, we are exploring the CARMA principle in order to provide guidelines for MDD/CBSE projects.

  • 24.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Progress Process Guidelines (PPG)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report proposes how the emerging model-driven and component-based paradigms can be utilized in embedded systems development to achieve a potentially high level of project monitoring and control, and thus reduce project risks. The guidelines are formulated as an extension of CMMI.

  • 25.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Guidelines for a Development Process for Component-Based Embedded Systems2009In: COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE AND ITS APPLICATIONS - ICCSA 2009, Springer, 2009, p. 43-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is more and more built from pre-existing components. This is true also for the embedded software domain, and there is a need to consider how development processes need to be changed to best utilize the component-based paradigm, and how processes and technologies must be designed to support each other. To facilitate this change towards component-based embedded software, this paper presents a set of process guidelines, named the Progress Process Guidelines (PPG), which is based on the structure of CMMI. This paper presents the structure of the PPG, and presents and analyzes the PPG parts which most closely relate to system verification, which is typically an important and difficult activity for embedded software.

  • 26.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Concretizing the vision of a future integrated system: Experiences from industry2005In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 2005, p. 143-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When an organization faces new types of collaboration, for example after a company merger, there is a need to integrate the existing software. Important challenges are how to create a realistic vision of a future integrated system, how to make the vision concrete enough to be able to work towards the vision, and of course to carry out the actual integration process. This paper focuses on how to concretize the vision. We have carried out a multiple case study, consisting of 9 cases. This paper presents the observations made in the form of recurring patterns that can be used as recommendations for other organizations facing the same challenge.

  • 27.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Crnković, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Process patterns for software systems In-house integration and merge - Experiences from industry2005In: Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2005. 31st EUROMICRO Conference, 2005, p. 180-187Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When an organization faces new types of collaboration, for example after a company merger, there is a need to integrate the existing software. Two main process challenges are how to arrive at a realistic vision of a future integrated system, and how to actually carry out the integration process. We have performed a multiple case study, consisting of 9 cases. This paper presents the observations made in the form of recurring patterns that can be used as recommendations for other organizations facing the same challenge. Also discussed are the similarities and differences between already known software process best practices and the integration patterns found.

  • 28. Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Crnković, Ivica
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Blankers, Laurens
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Computing Science, Netherlands.
    Architectural reuse in software systems in-house integration and merge - Experiences from industry2005In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2005, p. 123-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When organizations cooperate closely, for example after a company merger, there is typically a need to integrate their in-house developed software into one coherent system, preferably by reusing from all of the existing systems. The parts that can be reused may be arbitrarily small or large, ranging from code snippets to large self-containing components. Not only implementations can be reused however; sometimes it may be more appropriate to only reuse experiences in the form of architectural solutions and requirements. In order to investigate the circumstances under which different types of reuse are appropriate, we have performed a multiple case study, consisting of nine cases. Our conclusions are, summarized: reuse of components from one system requires reuse of architectural solutions from the same system; merge of architectural solutions cannot occur unless the solutions already are similar, or if some solutions from one are incorporated into the other. In addition, by hierarchically decomposing the systems we make the same observations. Finally, among the cases we find more architectural similarities than might had been expected, due to common domain standards and common solutions within a domain. Although these observations, when presented, should not be surprising, our experiences from the cases show that in practice organizations have failed to recognize when the necessary prerequisites for reuse have not been present.

  • 29.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Quantitative Survey on Software In-house Integration2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As organizations merge or collaborate closely, an important question is how their existing software assets should be handled. If these previously separate organizations are in the same business domain - they might even have been competitors - it is likely that they have developed similar software systems. To rationalize, these existing software assets should be integrated, in the sense that similar features should be implemented only once.

    We have previously made qualitative observations on this topic. This report describes the follow-up study, which was performed in the form of a questionnaire aimed at validating and quantifying the previous observations. This report describes the research design, present the questionnaire together with all responses, and make some statistical analyses. This will form a basis for further publications with deeper analyses.

  • 30.
    Land, Rikard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Software In-House Integration: Quantified Experiences from Industry2006In: Proceedings 32nd Euromicro Conference onSoftware Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), 2006, p. 198-205Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When an organization faces new types of collaboration, for example after a company merger, there is a need to consolidate the existing in-house developed software. There are many high-level strategic decisions to be made, which should be based on as good foundation as possible, while these decisions must be made rapidly. Also, one must employ feasible processes and practices in order to get the two previously separate organizations to work towards a common goal. In order to study this topic, we previously performed an explorative and qualitative multiple case study, where we identified a number of suggested practices as well as other concerns to take into account. This paper presents a follow-up study, which aims at validating and quantifying these previous findings. This study includes a questionnaire distributed to in-house integration projects, aiming at validation of earlier findings. We compare the data to our previous conclusions, present observations on retirement of the existing systems and on the technical similarities of the existing systems. We also present some practices considered important but often neglected.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Expected influence of ethics on product development process2006In: tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique, ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development efficiency and effectiveness is depending on a process being well executed. The actions of individuals included in the processes are influenced by the ethical and moral orientations that have been selected by each individual, whether this selection is conscious or not. This paper describes different ethical choices and the expected effects they may have on the development process exemplified by the product integration process for software products. The different frameworks analyzed are utilitarianism, rights ethics, duty ethics, virtue ethics and ethical egoism. The expected effects on the goals for product integration may be debated. This is a result in it self as it triggers discussions about ethical considerations and increase the awareness of the influence of moral decisions. Our conclusion is that the adherence to specific moral frameworks simplifies the alignment of actions to the practices described in product development models and standards and through this supports a more successful execution of product development projects. This conclusion is also confirmed through a comparison between the different directions and several codes of ethics for engineers issued by organizations such as IEEE as these combine features from several of the discussed ethical directions.

  • 32.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Improving software product integration2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea with product integration is that separate components are combined into a working system. However, this process of assembling parts into bigger units, products and systems is not well performed in industry, especially not when a substantial part of the product functionality is implemented in software. Many faults that are introduced in early phases are found as late as in the product integration phase, or even worse, in the verification or validation of the final delivery, or after delivery of the product or system. This leads to high costs for error correction and additional efforts for re-testing. There is consequently a need to further investigate the area of product integration to understand how the performance can be improved. Different practices have been described in standards and models, but the area is still under development. No widely agreed upon body-of-knowledge has so far been defined for product integration. A large part of the development of products containing software for industrial use is conducted in small or medium sized teams. This requires that any data collection methods used to acquire reliable information regarding performance in a project or organization minimize the intrusion. A facilitating approach was needed to understand how units with distinct characteristics should be approached. Based on several years of interaction with different types of organization, the presented research includes an analysis of various methods for data collection. The result is a proposed method for selecting different sizes of investigations based on the openness and maturity of the organization. The main purpose of this research is to understand which factors influence the integration process and what can be done to improve the execution of it. It includes investigations to understand if the described best practices are appropriate, and if there are other means to achieve successful product integration. The research combines investigations of existing compilations of best practices with case studies in industry. Our conclusion is that the type of organization that we have investigated can reduce problems in the product integration process by following the basic practices described in standards and reference models. Problems found in product integration can in most cases be related to the fact that the organization does not follow the proposed practices. The investigations have revealed that the practices are not used in a sufficient way, that additional efforts must be put into fulfilling the requirements in standards and models, and that it is difficult to implement the practices. We have also found indications that specific technology, component based software, may assist in executing the practices. Finally, we conclude that not all standards and models include support to avoid all types of problems in product integration. This is an indication that the on-going development of the area is necessary and that an increased agreement on what can be considered to be best practices is needed.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Key Elements of Software Product Integration Processes2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The product integration is a particularly critical phase of the software product development process as many problems originating from earlier phases become visible in this phase. Problems in product integration result in delays and rework. One of the measures to decrease the late discovery of problems is the use of development standards and guidelines that define practices to ensure correctness of the product integration. However, even if such standards and reference models exist, they are in not used consistently. One of the reasons is a lack of a proof that they indeed improve the integration process, and even more important, that they are sufficient for performing efficient and correct product integration.

    The conclusion of the presented research is that the available descriptions in standards and reference models taken one by one are insufficient and must be consolidated to help development organizations improve the product integration process. The research has resulted in a proposed combination of the activities included in the different reference models. This combination has been based on a number of case studies. Through the case studies performed in seven different product development organizations, a relationship between problems that are observed and the failure to follow the recommendations in reference models is identified. The analysis has indicated which practices are necessary, and how other practices support these. The goal with the research is to provide product development organizations with guidelines for how to perform software product integration.

    One additional finding of the research is the existence of relation between software architecture and the development process. A method for identifying dependencies between evolvement of software architectures and adaptation of integration practices has been demonstrated.

  • 34.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    ABB.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Case study: Software product integration practices2005In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3457, Springer, 2005, p. 272-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations often encounter problems in the Product Integration process. The difficulties include finding errors at integration related to mismatch between the different components and problems in other parts of the system than the one that was changed. The question is if these problems can be decreased if the awareness of the integration process is increased in other activities. To get better understanding of this problem we have analyzed the integration process in two product development organizations. One of the organizations has two different groups with slightly different integration routines while the other is basing the development on well defined components. The obstacles found in product integration are highlighted and related to best practices as described in the interim standard EIA-731.1. Our conclusion from this study is that the current descriptions for best practices in product integration are available in standards and models, but are insufficiently used and can be supported by technology to be accepted and utilized by the product developers

  • 35.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    On the Expected Synergies between Component-Based Software Engineering and Best Practices in Product Integration2004In: Proceedings of the 30th EUROMICRO Conference, 2004, p. 430-436Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The expectations for a well working integration process are described in the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Often during theintegration process, weaknesses of the entire development process become visible. This is usually too late and too costly. Particular development processes and use of particular technologies may help to improve the performance of the integration process by providing proper input to it. For example, by the use of a component-based approach, the development process changes. Some of these changes may help in performing according to the process expectations. In this paper, examples of problems that have been observed in the integration process are described. Through a case study we describe a number of practical problems in current development projects. Based on this case study, we analyze how acomponent-based approach could help and lead to a more effective integration process.

  • 36. Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    On the expected synergies between component-based software engineering and best practices in production integration2004In: Proceeding EUROMICRO '04 Proceedings of the 30th EUROMICRO Conference, 2004, p. 430-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expectations for a well working integration process are described in the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Often during the integration process, weaknesses of the entire development process become visible. This is usually too late and too costly. Particular development processes and use of particular technologies may help to improve the performance of the integration process by providing proper input to it. For example, by the use of a component-based approach, the development process changes. Some of these changes may help in performing according to the process expectations. In this paper, examples of problems that have been observed in the integration process are described. Through a case study we describe a number of practical problems in current development projects. Based on this case study, we analyze how a component-based approach could help and lead to a more effective integration process.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    Are limited non-intrusive CMMI-based appraisals enough?2003In: Proceedings of the ESEIW 2003 Workshop on Empirical Studies in Software Engineering WSESE 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An integral part of the strategy for performance improvement within the product development at ABB is the use of CMMI-based appraisals. Each appraisal represents an investment by the organization to lay the best possible foundation for improvements. The challenge is to balance the investment, the intrusiveness and the benefits. Depending on different organizational characteristics, different kinds of appraisals should be used. All appraisals are driven by data collection and consequently the quality of an appraisal depends on the data collection methods used. In this paper we outline strategies used in ABB for selection of appropriate CMMI appraisals and data collection methods. Early results indicate that the use of a series of appraisals can be a way to overcome the resistance in an organization. We also claim that a discussion is needed on the reliability and validity of the appraisal methodologies and on the feasibility to base decisions regarding process improvement strategies on appraisal results.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    ABB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Selecting CMMI appraisal classes based on maturity and openness2004In: Product Focused Software Process Improvement: Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume, 3009, Springer, 2004, p. 457-470Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last eight years, different approaches have been used to diagnose the performance in ABB organizations developing software. The efforts build to a large degree on methods from the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). In this paper we examine the experiences from five organizations through a description of the pathways that we have observed in the maturity development. We also propose a way to classify organizations based on two organizational characteristics, maturity and openness. Based on this classification, a simple method for the selection of how to collect performance data from the organizations is described.

  • 39.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Myllyperkiö, Petri
    ABB Distribution Automation, Vaasa, Finland.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    ABB Robotics, Västerås, Sweden .
    Product integration improvement based on analysis of build statistics2007In: 6th Joint Meeting of the European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, ESEC/FSE 2007, 2007, p. 505-508Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Process improvement efforts based on best practices and standards such as the CMMI use appraisal results as input and focus on implementing processes as described in reference models. Since these models are of a general character the conclusions from the assessments could easily overlook problems experienced in the daily work. In addition, process improvement programs often fail to engage practitioners. To improve this, data that can be related to the daily work can help. This paper reports on the results from a study performed to understand how process data can complement project appraisals in finding improvement possibilities. A method for mapping process data to different practices and combining this with project appraisals to form a basis for focused performance improvement is proposed and a study including four projects from three organizations is presented. 

  • 40.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Myllyperkiö, Petri
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    How to Improve Software IntegrationIn: Information & Software Technology journalArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    ABB.
    Myllyperkiö, Petri
    ABB.
    Ekdahl, Fredrik
    ABB.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Software product integration: A case study-based synthesis of reference models2009In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1066-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software intensive systems the integration becomes complex since both software and hardware components are integrated and run in the execution environment for the first time. Support for this stage is thus essential. Practices for Product Integration are described in different reference models. We have investigated these and compared them with activities performed in seven product development projects. Our conclusion is that descriptions of best practices in product integration are available in different reference models, but need to be merged into one set of practices. Through case studies we see that the described practices are insufficiently used in industry, and that organizations would benefit from adhering to them. Our investigations indicate that a set of practices are necessary to be successful in software product integration: define and check criteria for integration, review interface descriptions and ensure coordination of interface changes, and deliver components as agreed. In addition to these, a set of practices are supporting the integration activities, including the definition of an integration strategy, and the establishment of a suitable integration environment.

  • 42.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    ABB.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Assessing the Influence on Processes when Evolving the Software Architecture2007In: 9th International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution, IWPSE 2007, Held in Conjunction with the 6th ESEC/FSE Joint Meeting, 2007, p. 59-66Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software intensive products and systems evolve over the life-cycle. Changing business objectives may drive architectural or process changes. Altering either architecture or process mightinfluence the other. Also the organization may influence and be influenced. This paper describes these relationships and proposes a method for assessing the influence on process that a proposed architectural change can have. The method includes the use of scenarios and process reference models. A case study where the method has been used is described, identifying the need for changes in the processes to be able to utilize the advantages made possible due to the architectural evolution. The case study supports our proposal that a structured method to assess the impacts on process when changing the architecture of a system helps to reduce risks and to facilitate the envisioned business benefits. This also identifies the need to devise methods for other types of changes, e.g. how a process change may influence architecture or organization.

  • 43.
    Pei Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Using Dependency Model to Support Software Architecture Evolution2008In: Automated Software Engineering - Workshops, 2008. ASE Workshops 2008. 23rd IEEE/ACM International Conference on, 2008, p. 82-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of software systems is characterized by inevitable changes of software and increasing software complexity, which in turn may lead to huge maintenance and development costs.  For long-lived systems, there is a need to address and maintain evolvability (i.e. a system’s ability to easily accommodate changes) during the entire lifecycle. As designing software for ease of extension and contraction depends on how well the software structure is organized, this paper explores the relationships between evolvability, modularity and inter-module dependency. Through a case study of an industrial power control and protection system, we describe our work in managing its software architecture evolution, guided by the dependency analysis at the architectural level.  The paper includes also the main analysis results, our experiences and reflections during the dependency analysis process in the case study.

  • 44.
    Pei Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. ABB Corporate Research.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. ABB Corporate Research.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Migrating Industrial Systems towards Software Product Lines: Experiences and Observations through Case Studies2008In: EUROMICRO 2008 - Proceedings of the 34th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2008, 2008, p. 232-239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product line engineering has emerged as one of the dominant paradigms for developing variety of software products based on a shared platform and shared software artifacts. An important and challenging type of software maintenance and evolution is how to cost-effectively manage the migration of legacy systems towards product lines. This paper presents a structured migration method and describes our experiences in migrating industrial legacy systems into product lines. In addition, we present a number of specific recommendations for the transition process which will be of value to organizations that are considering a product line approach to their business. The recommendations cover four perspectives: business, organization, product development processes and technology.

  • 45.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    What Does Research Say About Agile and Architecture?2010In: Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, ICSEA 2010, 2010, p. 32-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile has been used to refer to a software development paradigm that emphasizes rapid and flexible development. In the meanwhile, we have through our practical experiences in scaling up agile methods, noticed that architecture plays an important role. Due to the inter-relationship between agile methods and architecture, as well as divergent perceptions on their correlation stated in numerous sources, we are motivated to find out how these perceptions are supported by findings in the research community in general and in empirical studies in particular. To fully benefit from agile practices and architectural disciplines, we need empirical data on the perceived and experienced impacts of introducing agile methods to existing software development process, as well as correlations between agile and architecture. In this paper, we survey the research literature for statements made regarding the relationship between agile development and software architecture. The main findings are that there is a lack of scientific support for many of the claims that are concerned with agile and architecture, and more empirical studies are needed to fully reveal the benefits and drawbacks implied by an agile software development method.

  • 46.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    An exploratory case study of testing in an automotive electrical system release process2011In: SIES 2011 - 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, Conference Proceedings, 2011, p. 166-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release process is a crucial element in the development of software-intensive systems, as it bridges the gap between the development of a system and its operational use. A short release process enables a fast time to market, but also puts high demands on the efficiency of integration and testing, which typically constitue principal release process steps. This paper reports findings from an exploratory industrial case study focusing on system testing in an automotive electrical system release process. We provide a description of how system testing is performed and integrated in the release process in the automotive domain, and identify a set of challenges observed in the studied setting. The case being studied is Scania, a major Swedish automotive company. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 47.
    Tahvili, Sahar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Earlier Fault Detection by Value-Driven Prioritization of Test Cases Using Fuzzy TOPSIS2016In: Information Technology: New Generations, vol. 440, Las Vegas, United States, 2016, p. 745-759Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial software testing, development projects typically set up and maintain test suites containing large numbers of test cases. Executing a large number of test cases can be expensive in terms of effort and wall-clock time. Moreover, indiscriminate execution of all available test cases typically lead to sub-optimal use of testing resources. On the other hand, selecting too few test cases for execution might leave a large number of faults undiscovered. Limiting factors such as allocated budget and time constraints for testing further emphasizes the importance of test case prioritization in order to identify test cases that enable earlier detection of faults while respecting such constraints. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria decision making approach for prioritizing test cases in order to detect faults earlier. This is achieved by applying the TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) decision making technique combined with fuzzy principles. Our solution is based on important criteria such as fault detection probability, execution time, complexity, and other test case properties. By applying the approach on a train control management subsystem from Bombardier Transportation in Sweden, we demonstrate how it helps, in a systematic way, to identify test cases that can lead to early detection of faults while respecting various criteria.

  • 48.
    Tahvili, Sahar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    SICS, Sweden.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis of Using Dependency Knowledge at Integration Testing2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2016, Vol. 10027, p. 268-284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software system development, testing can take considerable time and resources, and there are numerous examples in the literature of how to improve the testing process. In particular, methods for selection and prioritization of test cases can play a critical role in efficient use of testing resources. This paper focuses on the problem of selection and ordering of integration-level test cases. Integration testing is performed to evaluate the correctness of several units in composition. Further, for reasons of both effectiveness and safety, many embedded systems are still tested manually. To this end, we propose a process, supported by an online decision support system, for ordering and selection of test cases based on the test result of previously executed test cases. To analyze the economic efficiency of such a system, a customized return on investment (ROI) metric tailored for system integration testing is introduced. Using data collected from the development process of a large-scale safety-critical embedded system, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the expected ROI of three variants of the proposed new process. The results show that our proposed decision support system is beneficial in terms of ROI at system integration testing and thus qualifies as an important element in improving the integration testing process.

  • 49.
    Tahvili, Sahar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ww.sics.se.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Dynamic Integration Test Selection Based on Test Case Dependencies2016In: 2016 IEEE NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE TESTING, VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION WORKSHOPS (ICSTW), Chicago, United States, 2016, p. 277-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prioritization, selection and minimization of test cases are well-known problems in software testing. Test case prioritization deals with the problem of ordering an existing set of test cases, typically with respect to the estimated likelihood of detecting faults. Test case selection addresses the problem of selecting a subset of an existing set of test cases, typically by discarding test cases that do not add any value in improving the quality of the software under test. Most existing approaches for test case prioritization and selection suffer from one or several drawbacks. For example, they to a large extent utilize static analysis of code for that purpose, making them unfit for higher levels of testing such as integration testing. Moreover, they do not exploit the possibility of dynamically changing the prioritization or selection of test cases based on the execution results of prior test cases. Such dynamic analysis allows for discarding test cases that do not need to be executed and are thus redundant. This paper proposes a generic method for prioritization and selection of test cases in integration testing that addresses the above issues. We also present the results of an industrial case study where initial evidence suggests the potential usefulness of our approach in testing a safety-critical train control management subsystem.

  • 50.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Limiting Practices in Developing and Managing Software-Intensive Systems: A Comparative Study2010In: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, Phuket, Thailand, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the automotive industry, up to 90 percent of all new features are dependent on electronics and software. Consequently, the amount of software and electronics in vehicles is rapidly increasing. The same trend has been observed in other domains, such as telecom, avionics, trains, and more. An important factor in dealing with this inherent complexity is the use of a system architecture. The architecture is typically an enabler for both efficiency and effectiveness in the development of software-intensive systems but not directly connected to the customer needs. For example, the architecture can increase the agility of upcoming product releases in order to cost effectively satisfy future customer needs. By combining two parallel multiple case studies, one focusing on the architects view, and the other one focusing on the managerial perspective, we have identified six limitations. Our results indicate that the focus is on customer requirements for the current product, on the expense of the internal requirements related to the development of the architecture and long-term profitability. Further, even if the early phases of development are identified as a success criterion, they are still not given enough attention.

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