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  • 1.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Shared Stack Analysis in Transaction-Based Systems2007In: Work in Progress Proceedings RTSS'07, Tucson, Arizona, USA, 2007, p. 37-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present our ongoing work on shared stack analysis for hybrid (static and dynamic) scheduled fixed priority systems. We present two methods that extend our previous work to support stack analysis for the general tasks model with offsets where several transactions can share a common run-time stack. The aim of this work is to support stack analysis of a wider range of systems. 

  • 2.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Safe Shared Stack Bounds in Systems with Offsets and Precedences2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents two novel methods to bound the stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. The first method is based on branch-and-bound search for possible preemption patterns, and the second one approximates the first in polynomial time. The work extends previous methods by considering a more general taskmodel, in which all tasks can share the same stack. In addition, the new methods account for precedence and offset relations. Thus, the methods give tight bounds for a large set of realistic systems. The methods have been implemented and a comprehensive evaluation, comparing our new methods against each other and against existing methods, is presented. The evaluation shows that our exact method can significantly reduce the amount of stack memory needed. In our simulations, a decrease in the order of 40% was typical, with a runtime in the order of seconds. Our polynomial approximation consequently yields about 20% higher bound than the exact method. 

  • 3.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bounding Shared-Stack Usage in Systems with Offsets and Precedences2008In: ECRTS 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 20TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE ON REAL-TIME SYSTEMS, 2008, p. 276-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents two novel methods to bound the stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. The first method is based on branch-and-bound search for possible preemption patterns, and the second one approximates the first in polynomial time. The work extends previous methods by considering a more general task-model, in which all tasks can share the same stack. In addition, the new methods account for precedence and offset relations. Thus, the methods give tight bounds for a large set of realistic systems. The methods have been implemented and a comprehensive evaluation, comparing our new methods against each other and against existing methods, is presented. The evaluation shows that our exact method can significantly reduce the amount of stack memory needed.

  • 4.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Demonstrator for modeling and development of component-based distributed real-time systems with Rubus-ICE2013In: Open Demo Session of Real-Time Systems: Open Demo Session of Real-Time Systems located at Real Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a demonstrator for modeling and development of component-based vehicular distributed real-time systems using the industrial model Rubus Component Model (RCM) and its development environment Rubus-ICE (Integrated Component development Environment). It demonstrates various stages during the development process of these systems such as modeling of software architecture, performing timing analysis, automatic synthesis of code from the software architecture, simulation, testing, and deployment.

  • 5.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    From Modeling to Deployment of Component-Based Vehicular Distributed Real-Time Systems2014In: Proceedings, International Conference on Information Technology: ITNG 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 649-654Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present complete model-and component based approach for the development of vehiculardistributed real-time systems. Within this context, we model and timing analyze these systems using one of the state-of-the-practice modeling and timing analysis techniques that is implemented in the existing industrial model the Rubus Component Model and accompanying tool suite. As a proof of concept, we conduct a case study by developing an intelligent parking assist system which is adistributed real-time application from the vehicular domain. The case study shows various stages during the development such as modeling of software architecture, performing timing analysis, simulation, testing, automatic synthesis of code from the software architecture, deployment, and execution.

  • 6.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Feljan, Juraj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Deployment Modelling and Synthesis in a Component Model for Distributed Embedded Systems2010In: Proceedings - 36th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2010, Lille, France, 2010, p. 74-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to combine model-driven and component-based software engineering of distributed embedded systems. Specifically, we describe how deployment modelling is performed in two steps, and present an incremental synthesis of runnable representations of model entities on various abstraction levels. Our approach allows for flexible reuse opportunities, in that entities at different levels of granularity and abstraction can be reused. It also permits detailed analysis, e.g., with respect to timing, of units smaller than a whole physical node. We present a concept, virtual nodes, which preserves real-time properties across reuse and integration in different contexts.

  • 7.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Event-Pattern Triggered Real-Time Tasks2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of pattern-triggered tasks which are released when a particular pattern of events occur. A formal event algebra is used to define complex triggering conditions for these tasks, and the detection of triggering conditions is performed within the system by code generated automatically from these definitions. The implementation of the algebra has many desirable features for resource constrained real-time systems, including bounded and low execution time and memory consumption. Furthermore, we present novel schedulability analysis for our pattern-triggered tasks that leverage on existing analysis for fixed-priority and dynamic-priority scheduling policies.

  • 8.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus-Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient Event-Triggered Tasks in an RTOS2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, 2005, p. 31-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we add predictable and resource efficient event-triggered tasks in an RTOS. This is done by introducing an execution model suitable for example control software and component-based software. The execution model, denoted single-shot execution (SSX), can be realized with very simple and resource efficient run-time mechanisms and is highly predictable, hence suitable for use in resource constrained real-time systems. In an evaluation, we show that significant memory reductions can be obtained by using the SSX model.

  • 9.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Analysing Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem formulation applicable for any preemptive system model based on dynamic (run-time) properties. We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack usage by using static (compile time) information about the system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant and commercially available system model: A hybrid, statically and dynamically, scheduled system. Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 10.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. CC Systems, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Determining Maximum Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2007In: Proceedings of the 9th Real-Time in Sweden (RTiS'07), Västerås, Sweden, 2007, p. 118-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the

    maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack,

    real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem

    formulation applicable for any preemptive system model

    based on dynamic (run-time) properties.

    We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack

    usage by using static (compile time) information about the

    system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant

    and commercially available system model: A hybrid,

    statically and dynamically, scheduled system.

    Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly

    reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared

    to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets

    a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 11.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Determining Maximum Stack Usage in Preemptive Shared Stack Systems2006In: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2006, p. 445-453Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the maximum stack memory used in preemptive, shared stack, real-time systems. We provide a general and exact problem formulation applicable for any preemptive system model based on dynamic (run-time) properties. We also show how to safely approximate the exact stack usage by using static (compile time) information about the system model and the underlying run-time system on a relevant and commercially available system model: A hybrid, statically and dynamically, scheduled system.

    Comprehensive evaluations show that our technique significantly reduces the amount of stack memory needed compared to existing analysis techniques. For typical task sets a decrease in the order of 70% is typical.

  • 12.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Staffan
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Introducing a Plug-In Framework for Real-Time Analysis in Rubus-ICE2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the development of a plug-in framework for integration of real-time analysis methods in the Rubus Integrated Component Environment (Rubus-ICE). We also present the implementation, and evaluate the integration, of two state of the art analysis techniques (i) response-time analysis for tasks with offsets and (ii) shared stack analysis, as plug-ins, in the Rubus-ICE framework.

    The paper shows that the proposed framework is well suited for integration of complex analysis methods. However, experience also show that analysis methods are not easily transferred from an academic environment to industry. The main reason for this, we believe, originates from differences in requirements and assumptions between industry and academia.

  • 13.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Staffan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, John
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Framework for Real-Time Analysis in Rubus-ICE2008In: 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION, PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 782-788Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In this paper we present the development of a plug-in framework for integration of real-time analysis methods in the Rubus Integrated Component Environment (Rubus-ICE). We also present the implementation, and evaluate the integration, of two state of the art analysis techniques (i) response-time analysis for tasks with offsets and (ii) shared stack analysis, as plug-ins, in the Rubus-ICE framework. The paper shows that the proposed framework is well suited for integration of complex analysis methods. However experience also show that analysis methods are not easily transferred from an academic environment to industry. The main reason for this, we believe, originates from differences in requirements and assumptions between industry and academia. 

  • 14.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Present and Future Requirements in Developing Industrial Embedded Real-Time Systems - Interviews with Designers in the Vehicle Domain2006In: 13th Annual IEEE International Conference and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems (ECBS), Potsdam, Germany, 2006, p. 139-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we aim at capturing the industrial viewpoint of todays and future requirements in development of embedded real-time systems. We do this by interviewing ten senior designers at four Swedish companies, developing embedded applications in the vehicle domain.

    This study shows that reliability and safety are the main properties in focus during development. It also shows that the amount of functionality has been increasing in the examined systems. Still the present requirements are fulfilled using considerably homogenous development methods.

    The study also shows that, in the future, there will be even stronger requirements on dependability and control performance at the same time as requirements on more softer and resource demanding functionality will continue to increase. Consequently, the complexity will increase, and with diverging requirements, more heterogeneous development methods are called for to fulfil all application specific requirements.

  • 15.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Supporting Engineering Requirements in the Rubus Component Model2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a component model for development of distributed real-time systems.

    The model is developed to support development of embedded control systems for ground vehicles. The model aims at supporting three important activities in real-time development, (i) design, (ii) analysis and (iii) synthesis. These activities emphasise different and sometimes conflicting requirements that need to be balanced. For example, developers desire freedom in designing to solve complex tasks, analysis tools require the design to be formal enough for analysis and synthesis need to be efficient for low run-time footprint. We have considered industrial requirements for these activities and developed the RubusCMv3 component model. The model has been developed in close cooperation with industrial partners and it is currently being evaluated on real systems.

  • 16.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, John
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Rubus Component Model for Resource Constrained Real-Time Systems2008In: 2008 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INDUSTRIAL EMBEDDED SYSTEMS, 2008, p. 177-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a component model for development of distributed real-time systems.

    The model is developed to support development of embedded control systems for ground vehicles. The model aims at supporting three important activities in real-time development, (i) design, (ii) analysis and (iii) synthesis. These activities emphasise different and sometimes conflicting requirements that need to be balanced. For example, developers desire freedom in designing to solve complex tasks, analysis tools require the design to be formal enough for analysis and synthesis need to be efficient for low run-time footprint. We have considered industrial requirements for these activities and developed the RubusCMv3 component model. The model has been developed in close cooperation with industrial partners and it is currently being evaluated on real systems.

  • 17.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Using Temporal Isolation to Achieve Predictable Integration of Real-Time Components2010In: 22nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS' 10) WiP Session / [ed] Robert I. Davis, 2010, p. 17-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of a virtual node as means to achieve predictable integration of software components with real-time requirements. The virtual node is based on the technology using the hierarchical scheduling framework to achieve temporal isolation between components (or sets of components). The temporal isolation means that all components deployed to a virtual node will retain their temporal properties when integrated with other components on a physical node. We present how the concept of virtual nodes is applicable to three different component technologies: ProCom, Autosar and AADL. Keywords-real-time systems; component integration

  • 18.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Virtual Node - To Achieve Temporal Isolation and Predictable Integration of Real-Time Components2012In: International Journal on Computing (JoC), ISSN 2010-2283, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach of two-level deployment process for component models used in distributed real-time embedded systems to achieve predictable integration of real-time components. Our main emphasis is on the new concept of virtual node with the use of a hierarchical scheduling technique. Virtual nodes are used as means to achieve predictable integration of software components with real-time requirements. The hierarchical scheduling framework is used to achieve temporal isolation between components (or sets of components). Our approach permits detailed analysis, e.g., with respect to timing, of virtual nodes and this analysis is also reusable with the reuse of virtual nodes. Hence virtual node preserves real-time properties across reuse and integration in different contexts.

  • 19.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hierarchical Scheduling Framework Implementation in FreeRTOS2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the implementation of hierarchical scheduling framework HSF on an open source real-time operating system FreeRTOS to support the temporal isolation of a number of real-time components (or applications) onto a single processor. The goal is to achieve predictable integration and reusability of independently developed components or tasks. It presents the initial results of the HSF implementation by running it on an AVR 32-bit board EVK1100. It addresses the fixed-priority preemptive scheduling at both global and local scheduling levels. It describes the detailed design of HSF with the emphasis of doing minimal changes to the underlying FreeRTOS kernel and keeping its API intact. Finally it provides (and compares) the results for the performance measures of periodic and deferrable servers with respect to the overhead of the implementation. Index Terms: real-time systems; hierarchical scheduling framework; fixed-priority scheduling

  • 20.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS2011In: 2011 IEEE 16TH CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA) / [ed] IEEE Industrial Electronic Society, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the implementation of a HierarchicalScheduling Framework (HSF) on an open sourcereal-time operating system (FreeRTOS) to support the temporalisolation between a number of applications, on a single processor.The goal is to achieve predictable integration and reusability ofindependently developed components or applications. We presentthe initial results of the HSF implementation by running it onan AVR 32-bit board EVK1100.

    The paper addresses the fixed-priority preemptive schedulingat both global and local scheduling levels. It describes the detaileddesign of HSF with the emphasis of doing minimal changes tothe underlying FreeRTOS kernel and keeping its API intact.Finally it provides (and compares) the results for the performancemeasures of idling and deferrable servers with respect to theoverhead of the implementation.

  • 21.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hard Real-time Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS2011In: Proceedings of 7th annual workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications July 5th, 2011 in Porto, Portugal: in conjunction with the23rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time SystemsPortugal, July 6-8, 201 / [ed] Thomas Gleixner, Gabriel Permer, 2011, p. 51-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents extensions to the previous implementationof two-level Hierarchical Scheduling Framework(HSF) for FreeRTOS. The results presented here allow the useof HSF for FreeRTOS in hard-real time applications, with thepossibility to include legacy applications and components notexplicitly developed for hard real-time or the HSF.

    Specifically, we present the implementations of (i) global andlocal resource sharing using the Hierarchical Stack ResourcePolicy and Stack Resource Policy respectively, (ii) kernel supportfor the periodic task model, and (iii) mapping of original FreeRTOSAPI to the extended FreeRTOS HSF API. We also presentevaluations of overheads and behavior for different alternativeimplementations of HSRP with overrun from experiments on theAVR 32-bit board EVK1100. In addition, real-time schedulinganalysis with models of the overheads of our implementation ispresented.

  • 22.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kunčar, Jiří
    Real-Time Component Integration using Runnable Virtual Nodes2012In: Proceedings - 38th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2012, 2012, p. 80-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of runnable virtual nodes (RVNs) as means to achieve predictable integration and temporal error-containment of real-time software components. An RVN exploits the latest techniques for hierarchical scheduling and is intended as a coarse-grained component for single-node deployment, that provides functional and temporal isolations with respect to its environment. It uses a two-level deployment process; i.e. deploying functional entities to RVNs and then deploying RVNs to physical nodes. The two-level deployment process not only gives development benefits with respect to composability, system integration, testing, validation and certification but also leverages the hierarchical scheduling to preserve the validity of an RVN's internal temporal behaviour when integrated with other components. We have applied our approach to a simple case study, implemented in the ProCom component-technology executing on top of FreeRTOS-based hierarchical scheduling and present our initial results as a proof-of-concept.

  • 23.
    Inam, Rafia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kunčar, Jiří
    Run-Time Component Integration and Reuse in Cyber-Physical Systems2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the concept of runnable virtual nodes as a means to achieve predictable integration and reuse of software components in cyber-physical systems. A runnable virtual nodeis a coarse-grained real-time component that provides functional and temporal isolation with respect to its environment.Its interaction with the environment is bounded both by a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of itsinternal temporal behavior is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment.Our realization of runnable virtual nodes exploits the latest techniques for hierarchical scheduling to achieve temporalisolation, and the principles from component-based software-engineering to achieve functional isolation. In the paperwe present a proof-of-concept case study, implemented in the ProCom component-technology executing on top of FreeRTOSbased hierarchical scheduling framework.

  • 24.
    Lawson, Harold
    et al.
    Lawson Konsult AB, Lidingö, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provisioning of Deterministic and Non-Deterministic Services for Vehicles: The Rubus Approach2016In: 4th International Workshop on Critical Automotive Applications: Robustness & Safety CARS-2016, Göteborg, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing computer-based services for vehicle functions has evolved to the point where a large majority of functions are realized by software. However, the need to provide safety and security in critical functions such as braking, steering, motor control, etc. requires an approach that can guarantee the continuous reliable operation of the functions. At the same time, there are a variety of functions that are less critical from the vehicle operation perspective that can be provided where safety and security are less critical. From a vehicle manufacturers point of view, providing both types of services in an economic and reliable manner is a real challenge. To meet this challenge, we consider the Rubus Tool Suit for the software development and a well-proven (in industrial use for over twenty years) and certified (according to ISO 26262) operating system Kernel for its execution. In addition, a user-friendly approach to model- and component-based development concept called the “software circuits” has provided an approach to meet the demands of both safety-critical deterministic and as well as non-safety critical non-deterministic services. In this paper, a brief history of the evolution of Rubus approach as well as an overview of the driving concepts used in providing the Rubus products are described.

  • 25.
    Lu, Yue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bygde, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Response-Time Analysis of Complex Real-Time Systems by using ParametricWorst-Case Execution-Time Estimate on Tasks – A Case Study for Robotic Control System2009In: 21st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 09) Work-In-Progress (WIP) session, Dublin, Ireland, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lawson, Harold
    Lawson Konsult AB, Lidingö, Sweden.
    Academic-industrial Collaboration in the Vehicle Software Domain: Experiences and End-user Perspective2016In: 4th International Workshop on Critical Automotive Applications: Robustness & Safety CARS-2016, Göteborg, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a success story of academic-industrial collaboration in the vehicular domain. The collaboration has resulted in the development and evolution of a model- and component-based software development tool chain that is used to develop safety-critical, robust, and certified, control software for vehicles. The tool chain has been successfully used in the vehicle industry for about 20 years. The sustained development of the tool chain is based one a unique collaboration, described in this paper, where the collaborators form a clear value chain from academia, through tool-developer, to the end-users of the technology. We describe experiences of each collaborator with a focus on the end-user's perspective. Moreover, we highlight some ongoing and future works within this collaboration.

  • 27.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Communications-oriented development of component-based vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems2014In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 207-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel model- and component-based technique to support communications-oriented development of software for vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems. The proposed technique supports modeling of legacy nodes and communication protocols by encapsulating and abstracting the internal implementation details and protocols. It also allows modeling and performing timing analysis of the applications that contain network traffic originating from outside of the system such as vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, and cloud-based applications. Furthermore, we present a method to extract end-to-end timing models to support end-to-end timing analysis. We also discuss and solve the issues involved during the extraction of these models. As a proof of concept, we implement our technique in the Rubus Component Model which is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We also conduct an application-case study to validate our approach.

  • 28.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Component-Based Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems: End-to-end Timing Models Extraction at Various Abstraction Levels2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to perform the end-to-end response-time and delay analyses of a system, its end-to-end timing model should be available. The majority of existing model- and component-based development approaches for vehicular distributed embedded systems extract the end-to-end timing model at an abstraction level and development phase that is close to the system implementation. We present a method to extract the end-to-end timing models from the systems at a higher abstraction level. At the higher level, the method extracts timing information from system models that are developed with EAST-ADL and Timing Augmented Description Language (TADL2) using the TIMMO methodology. At the lower level, the method exploits the Rubus component model to extract the timing information that cannot be clearly specified at the higher level such as trigger paths in distributed chains. We also discuss challenges and issues faced during extraction of the timing models. Further, we present guidelines and solutions to address these challenges.

  • 29.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    End-to-end Timing Challenges in Seamless Tool Chain Development for Vehicular Embedded Real-Time Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often, there exists mismatch among tools that are used for structural, functional, and execution modeling of vehicular embedded real-time systems in the industry. Building a seamless tool chain to support model- and component-based development of these systems with different, and sometimes independent, tools is challenging. Within this context, we investigate the challenges related to modeling, analyzing, and exchanging end-to-end timing information. We target domain specific models like EAST-ADL supplemented by the Timing Augmented Description Language; and component and execution models that are already used in the industry such as the Rubus Component Model.

  • 30.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Exploring options for modeling of real-time network communication in an industrial component model for distributed embedded systems2011In: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 102, Springer, 2011, p. 441-458Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate various options for modeling real-time network communication in an existing industrial component model, the rubus component model (RCM). RCM is used to develop resource-constrained real-time and embedded systems in many domains, especially automotive. Our goal is to extend RCM for the development of distributed embedded and real-time systems that employ real-time networks for communication among nodes (processors). The aim of exploring modeling options is to develop generic component types for RCM capable of modeling real-time networks used in the industry today. The selection of new component types is based on many factors including compliance with the industrial modeling standards, compatibility with the existing modeling objects in RCM, capability of modeling legacy systems and legacy communications, ability to model and specify timing related information (properties, requirements and constraints), ease of implementation and automatic generation of new components, and ability of the modeled application to render itself to early timing analysis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 31.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending Offset-Based Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network2013In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. Article number 6648056-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing offset-based response-time analysis for mixed messages in Controller Area Network (CAN) assumes the jitter and deadline of a message to be smaller or equal to the transmission period. However, practical systems may contain messages whose release jitter and deadlines can be greater than their periods, e.g., in the gateway nodes. We extend the existing response-time analysis for mixed messages in CAN that are scheduled with offsets and have arbitrary jitter and deadlines. Mixed messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes.

  • 32.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages with Offsets in Controller Area Network2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing offset-aware response-time analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) for mixed messages has certain practical limitations. It is based on the assumption that the jitter and deadline of a message are smaller or equal to the transmission period. However, practical systems may contain messages with release jitter greater than the period. Consequently, the deadlines specified for such messages are also greater than their periods. In this paper, we extend the existing response-time analysis for mixed messages in CAN that are scheduled with offsets and have arbitrary jitter and deadlines. Mixed messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes.

  • 33.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending Response-Time Analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) with FIFO Queues for Mixed Messages2011In: the 16th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2011, WIP / [ed] Mammeri, Z., New York: IEEE , 2011, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) messages in networks where some nodes implement FIFO queues while others implement priority queues, assumes that at every node, CAN messages are queued for transmission periodically or sporadically. However, there are a few high level protocols for CAN such as CANopen and Hagglunds Controller Area Network (HCAN) that support the transmission of mixed messages as well. A mixed message can be queued for transmission both periodically and sporadically. The existing analysis of CAN with FIFO queues does not support the analysis of mixed messages. We extend the existing response-time analysis of mixed-type CAN messages. The extended analysis can compute the response-times of mixed (periodic/ sporadic) messages in the CAN network where some nodes use FIFO queues while others use priority queues.

  • 34.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending Response-Time Analysis of Mixed Messages in CAN with Controllers Implementing Non-Abortable Transmit Buffers2012In: 2012 IEEE 17th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing response-time analysis for messages in Controller Area Network (CAN) with controllers implementing non-abortable transmit buffers does not support mixed messages that are implemented by several high-level protocols used in the automotive industry. We present the work in progress on the extension of the existing analysis for mixed messages. The extended analysis will be applicable to any high-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes and implements non-abortable transmit buffers in CAN controllers.

  • 35.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending schedulability analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) for mixed (periodic/sporadic) messages2011In: Proceedings of  2011 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA)  2011, Toulouse, France: I-Tech Education and Publishing KG, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The schedulability analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) developed by the research community is able to compute the response times of CAN messages that are queued for transmission periodically or sporadically. However, there are a few high level protocols for CAN such as CANopen and HCAN (Hagglunds Controller Area Network) that support the transmission of mixed messages as well. A mixed message can be queued for transmission both periodically and sporadically. Thus, it does not exhibit a periodic activation pattern. The existing analysis of CAN does not support the analysis of mixed messages. We extend the existing analysis to compute the response times of mixed messages. The extended analysis is generally applicable to any high level protocol for CAN that uses any combination of periodic, event and mixed (periodic/event) transmission of messages.

  • 36.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Extending Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network with Priority and FIFO Queues2014In: IEEE Access, ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 2, p. 365-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing worst case response-time analysis for controller area network (CAN) with nodesimplementing priority and First In First Out (FIFO) queues does not support mixed messages. It assumesthat a message is queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, a message canalso be queued both periodically and sporadically using mixed transmission mode implemented by severalhigher level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We extend the existing analysisfor CAN to support any higher level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic, and mixed transmissionof messages in the systems where some nodes implement priority queues, whereas others implement FIFOqueues. In order to provide a proof of concept, we implement the extended analysis in a free tool, conductan automotive-application case study, and perform comparative evaluation of the extended analysis with theexisting analysis.

  • 37.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Extracting End-to-End Timing Models from Component-Based Distributed Embedded Systems2014In: Embedded Systems Development: From Functional Models to Implementations / [ed] Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Haibo Zeng, Marco Di Natale, Peter Marwedel, Springer New York , 2014, p. 155-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the end-to-end timing analysis, we present a method to extract end-to-end timing models from component-based distributed embedded systems that are developed using the existing industrial component model, Rubus Component Model (RCM). RCM is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We discuss and solve the issues involved during the model extraction such as extraction of timing information from all nodes and networks in the system and linking of trigger and data chains in distributed transactions. We also discuss the implementation of the method for the extraction of end-to-end timing models in the Rubus Analysis Framework.

  • 38.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extraction of End-to-end Timing Model from Component-Based Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems2011In: Time Analysis and Model-Based Design, from Functional Models to Distributed Deployments (TiMoBD) workshop located at Embedded Systems Week, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the end-to-end timing analysis early during the development of component-based distributed real-time embedded (DRE) systems, we present the extraction of end-to-end timing models using the existing industrial component model, Rubus Component Model (RCM). Moreover, we discuss and solve the issues involved during the model extraction such as, extraction of timing information from all nodes and networks in the system, tracing of event chains in distributed transactions, and modeling of exit and entry points for RCM models to provide timing bounds for extra-model medium. We also describe the implementation of end-to-end timing model extraction in the Rubus Analysis Framework.

  • 39.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    High Precision Response Time Analysis of Tasks with Precedence Chains2010In: 22nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2010), WIP Session, Brussels, Belgium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Response-Time Analysis (RTA) is a powerful, mature and well established schedulability analysis technique for real-time systems. In order to get better utilization of system resources, RTA should not overestimate the response time of tasks in the system. This paper addresses the problem of losing system wide information about precedence chains and overestimation found in response time of tasks when current RTA is applied to a system where precedence chain dependencies among tasks exist. We show that when there are precedence chains with one activating event in a real-time system, a task under analysis cannot experience Worst Case Execution Time of all interfering tasks at the same time when they all experience their maximum release jitter.

  • 40.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementation of End-to-End Latency Analysis for Component-Based Multi-Rate Real-Time Systems in Rubus-ICE2012In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2012, p. 165-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important activities during the development of multi-rate real-time systems is to analyze the end-to-end timing. In this paper, we discuss the implementation plan and preliminary work regarding the integration of end-to-end latency analysis for component-based multi-rate real-time systems (both in single-node and distributed systems) within the analysis framework of Rubus-ICE. The Rubus-ICE is an existing industrial tool suite for component-based development of distributed real-time embedded systems. Further, we present the implementation methodology to integrate two end-to-end latency semantics, i.e., data age and data reaction within the existing holistic response-time analysis plug-in of Rubus-ICE.

  • 41.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementation of Holistic Response-time Analysis in Rubus-ICE2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of implementing and integrating state-of-the-art real-time analysis techniques with an existing industrial tool suite for the development of Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems offers many challenges. The implementer has to not only code and implement the analysis in the tool suite, but also deal with several issues such as extraction of unambiguous timing and tracing information from the design model. A major reason behind these issues is that the models of various tools, in the tool suite, are built with different meta-models. In this paper we present an implementation of the Holistic Response-Time Analysis (HRTA) as a plug-in for an industrial tool suite Rubus-ICE that is used for the component based development of DRE systems. We discuss and solve the issues encountered and highlight the experiences gained during the process of implementation, integration and evaluation of HRTA plug-in. We provide a proof of concept by modeling an automotive application (autonomous cruise control system) using component-based development and analyzing it with HRTA plug-in.

  • 42.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementation of Holistic Response-Time Analysis in Rubus-ICE: Preliminary Findings, Issues and Experiences2011In: The 32nd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), WIP Session, Vienna, Austria, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several issues faced by a developer when holistic response-time analysis (HRTA) is implemented and integrated with a tool chain. The developer has to not only implement the analysis, but also extract unambiguous timing and tracing information from design model. We present an implementation of HRTA as a plug-in for an industrial tool suite Rubus-ICE that is used for component-based development of distributed real-time embedded systems. We present our preliminary findings about implementation issues and highlight our experiences. Moreover, we discuss our plan for testing and evaluating the integration of HRTA as a plug-in in Rubus-ICE.

  • 43.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Implementing and Evaluating Various Response-Time Analyses for Mixed Messages in CAN using MPS-CAN Analyzer2014In: 5th International Workshop on Analysis Tools and Methodologies for Embedded and Real-time Systems WATERS 2014, Madrid, Spain, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate the Response Time Analysis (RTA) with offsets for mixed messages in Controller Area Network (CAN), where the CAN controllers implement abortable transmit buffers, with the MPS-CAN analyzer. Mixed messages are partly periodic and partly sporadic. They are implemented by several higher-level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. MPS-CAN analyzer is a free tool that supports several other existing RTA for periodic, sporadic and mixed messages in CAN. We perform extensive evaluation of the newly integrated analysis profile. Using the analyzer, we also perform a detailed comparative evaluation of various RTA for CAN.

  • 44.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Integrating Mixed Transmission and Practical Limitations with the Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Controller Area Network2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 99, p. 66-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing worst-case response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) calculates upper bounds on the response times of messages that are queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, it does not support the analysis of mixed messages. These messages do not exhibit a periodic activation pattern and can be queued for transmission both periodically and sporadically. They are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We extend the existing analysis to support worst-case response-time calculations for periodic and sporadic as well as mixed messages. Moreover, we integrate the effect of hardware and software limitations in the CAN controllers and device drivers such as abortable and non-abortable transmit buffers with the extended analysis. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes.

  • 45.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Investigating techniques to model real-time network communication for the industrial component model2013In: Journal of Information, ISSN 1343-4500, E-ISSN 1344-8994, Vol. 16, no 7 B, p. 5183-5196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate several techniques to provide model- and componentbased support for real-time network communication in the industrial component model, the Rubus Component Model (RCM). RCM is used for the development of software for real-time embedded systems in the automotive domain. We select and introduce new components in RCM that will support state-of-the-practice development of Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems. We also show the applicability of our approach by modeling the automotive distributed real-time application, i.e., steerby-wire system. 

  • 46.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Many-in-one Response-Time Analyzer for Controller Area Network2013In: / [ed] Julio Medina and Tommaso Cucinotta, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing tools for the response-time analysis of Controller Area Network (CAN) support only periodic and sporadic messages. They do not analyze mixed messages which are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We present a new response-time analyzer for CAN that supports periodic and sporadic as well as mixed messages. Moreover, it supports the analysis of the system where periodic and mixed messages are scheduled with offsets. It will support the analysis of all types of messages while taking into account several queueing policies and buffer limitations in the CAN controllers.

  • 47.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Modeling of Legacy Communication in Distributed Embedded Systems2011In: 2nd Workshop on Model Based Engineering for Embedded Systems Design (M-BED 2011), located at Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE) Conference, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the addition of special purpose component types to a commercially existing component model, the Rubus Component Model (RCM). The purpose of the new component types is to encapsulate and abstract the communications protocol and configuration in a component based and model based software engineering setting. With the addition of these new component types, RCM will be able to support state-of-the practice development processes of distributed embedded systems where communication rules are defined early in the development process. We also show how an end-to-end timing model can be extracted from a distributed embedded system, modeled with RCM, to perform end-to-end timing analysis.

  • 48.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MPS-CAN Analyzer: Integrated Implementation of Response-Time Analyses for Controller Area Network2014In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 828-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new response-time analyzer for Controller Area Network (CAN) that integrates and implements a number of response-time analyses which address various transmission modes and practical limitations in the CAN controllers. The existing tools for the response-time analysis of CAN support only periodic and sporadic messages. They do not analyze mixed messages which are partly periodic and partly sporadic. These messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. The new analyzer supports periodic, sporadic as well as mixed messages. It can analyze the systems where periodic and mixed messages are scheduled with offsets. It also supports the analysis of all types of messages while taking into account several queueing policies and buffer limitations in the CAN controllers such as abortable or non-abortable transmit buffers. Moreover, the tool supports the analysis of mixed, periodic and sporadic messages in the heterogeneous systems where Electronic Control Units (ECUs) implement different types of queueing policies and have different types of buffer limitations in the CAN controllers. We conduct a case study of a heterogeneous application from the automotive domain to show the usability of the tool. Moreover, we perform a detailed evaluation of the implemented analyses.

  • 49.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Response Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in CAN Supporting Transmission Abort Requests2012In: 7th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2012 - Conference Proceedings, 2012, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing response-time analysis for messages in Controller Area Network (CAN) with CAN controllers facilitating transmission abort requests in transmission buffers does not support mixed messages. The existing analysis assumes that a message is queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, a message can also be queued both periodically and sporadically using a mixed transmission mode implemented by several high-level protocols for CAN used in the industry today. We extend the existing analysis for mixed messages in CAN which is generally applicable to any high-level protocol that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes and supports transmission abort requests in CAN controllers.

  • 50.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Response Time Analysis with Offsets for Mixed Messages in CAN Supporting Transmission Abort Requests2014In: The 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'14, 2014, p. Article number 7005167-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing worst-case response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) does not support mixed messages that are scheduled with offsets in the systems where the CAN controllers implement abortable transmit buffers. Mixed messages are partly periodic and partly sporadic. These messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. Moreover, most of the CAN controllers implement abortable transmit buffers. We extend the existing analysis with offsets for mixed messages in CAN. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic, and mixed transmission of messages where periodic and mixed messages can be scheduled with offsets in the systems that implement abortable transmit buffers in the CAN controllers. The extended analysis also supports gateway nodes in CAN by considering arbitrary jitter and deadlines for the messages. We also perform comparative evaluation of the existing and extended analyses.

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