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  • 1.
    Baumgart, S.
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Zhang, X.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Variability management in product lines of safety critical embedded systems2014In: International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014, 2014, p. 98-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The product line engineering approach is a promising concept to identify and manage reuse in a structured and efficient way and is even applied for the development of safety critical embedded systems. Managing the complexity of variability and addressing functional safety at the same time is challenging and is not yet solved. Variability management is an enabler to both establish traceability and making necessary information visible for safety engineers. We identify a set of requirements for such a method and evaluate existing variability management methods. We apply the most promising method to an industrial case and study its suitability for developing safety critical product family members. This study provides positive feedback on the potential of the model-based method PLUS in supporting the development of functional safety critical embedded systems in product lines. As a result of our analysis we suggest potential improvements for it.

  • 2.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    E&E System Architecture Department, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Functional Safety in Product Lines - A Systematic Mapping Study2016In: 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016, 2016, p. 313-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product line engineering is a widely used approach to plan and manage reuse of software. When safety critical products are developed, achieving functional safety standard compliance must be shown. The requirements stated in the functional safety standards also apply when safety critical products are developed in product lines. Managing functional safety in industrial product lines is challenging and work around solutions are applied in practice. The objective of this research is to collect and review reported research publications focusing on achieving safety in product lines and to identify gaps in todays research. We conduct a systematic mapping study of research publications reported until January 2016.We identify 39 research articles to be included in a list of primary studies and analyze how product lines are documented, which safety-related topics are covered and which evaluation method the studies apply. Generally, we find that the area of how to achieve functional safety in product lines needs more attention. Our study provides an overview on which topics have been discussed until now and which safety-related topics need more attention.

  • 3.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE ICT/SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems? Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site2018In: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings, 2018, no 4, article id 8544433Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation is becoming prevalent in more and more industrial domains due to the potential benefits in cost reduction as well as the new approaches/solutions they enable. When machines are automated and utilized in system-of-systems, a thorough analysis of potential critical scenarios is necessary to derive appropriate design solutions that are safe as well. Hazard analysis methods like PHA, FTA or FMEA help to identify and follow up potential risks for the machine operators or bystanders and are well-established in the development process for safety critical machinery. However, safety certified individual machines can no way guarantee safety in the context of system-of-systems since their integration and interactions could bring forth newer hazards. Hence it is paramount to understand the application sce- narios of the system-of-systems and to apply a structured method to identify all potential hazards. In this paper, we 1) provide an overview of proposed hazard analysis methods for system-of- systems, 2) describe a case from construction equipment domain, and 3) apply the well-known System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA)f to our case. Our experiences during the case study and the analysis of results clearly point out certain inadequacies of STPA in the context of system-of-systems and underlines the need for the development of improved techniques for safety analysis of system-of-systems.

  • 4.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Defining a Method to Perform Effective Hazard Analysis for a Directed SoS Based on STPA2018In: Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —Automating a quarry site as developed within the electric site research project at Volvo Construction Equipment is an example of a directed system-of-systems (SoS). In our case automated machines and connected smart systems are utilized to improve the work-flow at the site. We currently work on conducting hazard and safety analyses on the SoS level. Performing a hazard analysis on a SoS has been a challenge in terms of complexity and work effort. We elaborate on the suitability of methods, discuss requirements on a feasible method, and propose a tailoring of the STPA method to leverage complexity.

  • 5.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. BIT-Pilani KK Birla Goa Campus, India.
    Enhancing Model-Based Engineering of Product Lines by Adding Functional Safety2015In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1487, 2015, p. 53-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's industrial product lines in the automotive and construction equipment domain face the challenge to show functional safety standard compliance and argue for the absence of failures for all derived product variants. The product line approaches are not su cient to support practitioners to trace safety-related characteristics through development. We aim to provide aid in creating a safety case for a certain con guration in a product line such that overall less e ort is necessary for each con guration. In this paper we 1) discuss the impact of functional safety on product line development, 2) propose a model-based approach to capture safety-related characteristics during concept phase for product lines and 3) analyze the usefulness of our proposal.

  • 6.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construct Equipment, E&E Syst Architecture Dept, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Industrial Challenges to Achieve Functional Safety Compliance in Product Lines2014In: 2014 40TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE SERIES ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS (SEAA 2014), 2014, p. 356-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing safety critical products demands a clear safety argumentation for each product in spite of whether it has been derived from a product line or not. The functional safety standards do not explain how to develop safety critical products in product lines, and the product line concept is lacking specific approaches to develop safety critical products. Nonetheless, product lines are well-established concepts even in companies developing safety critical products. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study interviewing 15 practitioners from 6 different companies. We identify typical challenges and approaches from industry and discuss their suitability. The challenges and approaches brought out by this study help us to identify and enhance applicable methods from the product line engineering domain that can meet the challenges in the safety critical domain as well.

  • 7.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Efficient Functional Safety Certification of Construction Machinery using a Component-based Approach2012In: 2012 3rd International Workshop on Product LinE Approaches in Software Engineering, PLEASE 2012 - Proceedings, 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic systems in the automotive domain implement safety critical functionality in vehicles and the safety certification process according to a functional safety standard is time consuming and a big part of the expenses of a development project. We describe the functional safety certification of electronic automotive systems by presenting a use case from the construction equipment industry. In this context, we highlight some of the major challenges we foresee, while using a product-line approach to achieve efficient functional safety certification of vehicle variants. We further elaborate on the impact of functional safety certification when applying the component-based approach on developing safety critical product variants and discuss the implications by cost modeling and analysis.

  • 8.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Susikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analyzing Hazards in System-of-Systems: Described in a Quarry Site Automation Context2017In: 11th Annual IEEE International Systems conference SysCon, 2017, p. 544-551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for analyzing hazards related to individual systems are well studied and established in industry today. When system-of-systems are set up to achieve new emergent behavior, hazards specifically caused by malfunctioning behavior of the complex interactions between the involved systems may not be revealed by just analyzing single system hazards. A structured process is required to reduce the complexity to enable identification of hazards when designing system-of-systems. In this paper we first present how hazards are identified and analyzed using hazard and risk assessment (HARA) methodology by the industry in the context of single systems. We describe systems-of-systems and provide a quarry site automation example from the construction equipment domain. We propose a new structured process for identifying potential hazards in systems-of-systems (HISoS), exemplified in the context of the provided example. Our approach helps to streamline the hazard analysis process in an efficient manner thus helping faster certification of system-of-systems.

  • 9.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles2015In: 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, p. 582-588Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested in the literature to organize software in autonomous vehicles as hierarchical layers where each layer makes its own decisions based on its own world model. This paper presents two alternative designs for autonomous construction vehicles based on the layered framework 4D/RCS. As a first step, the typical use cases for these vehicles were defined. Then one use case for a hauler was traversed through the two alternatives to see how they supported safety, flexibility and the use of a product platform. We found that the coordination between bucket control and motion control must be done at a low level in the hierarchy and that the relationship between the vehicle actuators and the built-in autonomous system is important for how the software is organized. 

  • 10.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    An empirical study of refactoring decisions in embedded software and systems2012In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 8, p. 279-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an empirical study of decision-making when changing the architecture in embedded systems. A refactoring of the system architecture often gives effects on both system properties and functions in the company organization, and there is a lack of efficient analysis methods for decision support in the system architecture process. This study investigates the information needed to make a decision about a system refactoring. Scenario-based interviews have been conducted with managers and system architects from companies developing embedded systems. The results show that the companies investigate similar issues regardless of their industry sector. The most wanted information prior to a decision is also presented.

  • 11.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Characteristics of a System Refactoring Process in Embedded Systems Development2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Effect Analysis of the Introduction of AUTOSAR - a Systematic Literature Review2011In: Proceedings - Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), 2011 37th EUROMICRO, 2011, p. 239-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many complex software-intensive systems have a long life time, and undergo substantial evolution. These evolutions are either additions of functionality or system refactoring, i.e., updating the architecture to improve quality attributes without changing functionality. However, the return of investment for such a system refactoring is not easily measured due to a lack of understanding of its effects. In order to improve our understanding of these effects, we have conducted a systematic literature review of the reported effects of one such refactoring: the introduction of AUTOSAR, an open automotive software architecture standard. The effects include both benefits, like lower complexity and more efficient system development, and costs, like performance risks. We have investigated how the effects depend on different elements in AUTOSAR, and how the reports correspond to the stated objectives of the standard. It is also discussed to what extent these effects can be generalized to other types of refactoring.

  • 13.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. SICS Swedish ICT.
    Dealing with uncertainty in early architectural decisions: Applications for autonomous construction vehicles2016In: 4th International Commercial Vehicle Technology Symposium CVT2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo CE, Eskilstuna.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analysis of the Business Effects of Software Architecture Refactoring in an Automotive Development Organization2010In: Proceedings - 36th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2010, 2010, p. 269-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an exploratory study of an automotive manufacturer, which develops embedded software for over 150 products and has adopted a company-wide software product-line approach. The company is facing the introduction of a new software architecture in all products in near time. This architecture introduces new paradigms more explicitly, such as explicit software components and signal-based communication, newer technologies, and adheres to new standards. Concretely, the architecture consists of common infrastructure and other generic components. Such a fundamental and drastic technology change can be expected to have far-reaching consequences, both of technical and non-technical nature. In this study we systematically investigate the introduction of the new software architecture, by mapping individual elements of the architectural change to system properties and company functions. The study implies that the whole organization is affected, and the new architecture also influences the cooperation with suppliers.

  • 15.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site2016In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 2016, article id 7542936Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

  • 16.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Engineering an Electric Drive System Platform for use in Multiple Automotive Applications2011In: Proceedings from the International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industries developing software intensive systems can gain benefits in development effort by using platforms of reusable assets, but challenges exist in effectively reusing engineering efforts. Problems can arise in requirements elicitation, establishing systematic methods around reuse, and estimations of uncertain factors in business and system usage. We present an on-going pre study to define a method to accommodate reuse of hybrid electric drive systems in multiple but similar heavy vehicle applications. We present an explorative interview study on the challenges involved, analyze the needs on a systematic approach, and provide a discussion on solutions. This on-going work shows that establishing a method to systematically reuse assets in development of complex software intensive systems may require solutions from a variety of fields, such as requirements engineering, management, and systems engineering.

  • 17.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Engineering Automotive Electronic Systems: Decision Support for Successful Integration2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic system of a modern vehicle is essential to achieve a successful automotive product. Vehicle development is performed by integrating components that include embedded electronics from several suppliers.

    This thesis present results on the subject of integration of automotive electronic systems. Our studies aim at providing knowledge on how to integrate automotive electronic systems successfully in a setting where vehicles are developed based on existing platforms. We focus on early phases of automotive electronic system development and in particular on the decisions taken in integration of electronic sub-systems. The contribution is the presented support for making decisions to successfully integrate electronic systems for modern vehicles. The contribution includes an overview of driving factors of automotive electronics system design, a validated set of success practices for the integration of electronic components, and the proposal and demonstration of a decision model. The influential factors and the validated set of practices stems from case studies of products and projects while the proposed decision model is a result of combining two general models for architecture analysis and decision making, ATAM and AHP.

    We demonstrate that choices in strategy and design preceding integration are central to achieve a successful integration. Our studies show that problems arise from omitted strategy decisions and we provide a checklist for decision making in the areas; functionality, platform, integration design, and assigning responsibilities. We provide a recommendation that we validate in a multiple cases study where fulfillment of recommendations is demonstrated to affect project success in integration projects.

    The potential gain for OEMs using our results lies in achieving more solid foundations for design decisions. Designers and managers could potentially find central decisions on integration strategy early that, if omitted, could cause delays. Thus, applying the result could avoid pitfalls and enable successful integration projects.

  • 18.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Engineering of vehicle electronic systems: Requirements reflected in architecture2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 19.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eliciting Critical Information in a Pre-Study Phase of Developing a Drive System Platform for Automotive Applications2011In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Systems Engineering and Engineering Management for Sustainable Global Development, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not straightforward to execute a pre-study and elicit all relevant requirements when faced with developing a mechatronic platform, such as a hybrid electric drive system, aimed for reuse in many advanced vehicles. We present analysis of probing critical information areas and how to identify shortcomings by studying an industrial case and compiling textbook recommendations. We present a method, synthesized from literature, for probing critical subjects for a mechatronic platform development initiative and outline related methods to address shortcomings. Recognizing the critical information in an early phase is one key to leverage complexity in an advanced product line effort.

  • 20.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    What Information on Business Parameters is Required by Embedded Software Developers to do an Effective Job?2012In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol. 114, Springer, 2012, p. 273-278Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software design is tightly connected to the functionality and goals of the system it is used to control. For mechatronic systems such as an in-vehicle automotive system, software developers require information on the system goals including business parameters to effectively decide on architecture and functionality. This paper presents results from an case of developing a hybrid electric drive system platform, and presents the information areas that software and system engineers do perceive as important to effectively perform design. We note that business parameters are sought for and elaborate on what information is required. We analyze what these needs are and elaborate on how to address them by using methods from the literature. We conclude that the effort of developing embedded software cannot rely on statically specified business parameters; rather these would be estimated and refined by interaction throughout the development cycle.

  • 21.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    What Information on Business Parameters Is Required by Embedded Software Developers to Do an Effective Job?2012In: SOFTWARE BUSINESS, ICSOB 2012 / [ed] Cusumano, MA Iyer, B Venkatraman, N, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2012, p. 273-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software design is tightly connected to the functionality and goals of the system it is used to control. For mechatronic systems such as an in-vehicle automotive system, software developers require information on the system goals including business parameters to effectively decide on architecture and functionality. This paper presents results from an case of developing a hybrid electric drive system platform, and presents the information areas that software and system engineers do perceive as important to effectively perform design. We note that business parameters are sought for and elaborate on what information is required. We analyze what these needs are and elaborate on how to address them by using methods from the literature. We conclude that the effort of developing embedded software cannot rely on statically specified business parameters; rather these would be estimated and refined by interaction throughout the development cycle.

  • 22.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dersten, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nordlander, P. -A
    BAE Systems AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Defining a method for identifying architectural candidates as part of engineering a system architecture2014In: 8th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2014 - Proceedings, 2014, p. 266-271Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering system architectures for complex systems involves the tasks of analyzing architectural drivers, identifying architectural concerns, identifying valid architecture candidates, and evaluation of alternatives. One problem to overcome when architecting a system is the identification of valid of architectural candidates. We have developed a step-wise method for performing system architecture analysis and tested it on a sub-system in a project developing a drive system for heavy automotive applications. In this paper we present the complete method of nine steps for engineering an architecture and we elaborate in detail on the procedure to identify architectural candidates based on previously identified architectural drivers. We present a diagram depicting the proposed information model, its concepts and their relationships. In addition, the expectations on such a method as expressed by practitioners have been elicited, and we elaborate on the validity by examining how well the method indicate fulfillment. Our conclusion is that the proposed method does not fail to deliver on any of the needs and this gives an indication of usefulness. When identifying architectural candidates it is important to use proper criteria in the process. Our conclusion is that the practitioners should focus on candidates that affect the system at hand (within system boundaries), and on the candidates that address the architecturally significant system use. This is reflected in our method where we prescribe evaluation of the design candidates by validating that they solve only the right problem and by ensuring that they address the system at hand.

  • 23.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nordlander, P. -A
    BAE Systems AB, Sweden.
    A method for analyzing architectural drivers when engineering a system architecture2013In: SysCon 2013 - 7th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, Proceedings, 2013, p. 711-717Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A very important task in systems architecting is to understand the needs of the system and identify which ones have architectural ramifications, i.e., architectural drivers. The understanding of architectural drivers enables the later engineering tasks including evaluation of architectural alternatives. Systems engineering guidelines provide models and advice for what information entities to consider, but only limited proposals of how to proceed. In this paper, we device and present a method to perform analysis of architectural drivers and we apply it to an industrial case of developing a hybrid electric drive system for heavy automotive applications. We present data on what practitioners expect from such a method, we present the method and rationale, and preliminary results from applying the method to the case. We note that the process and information model are fairly general and could be considered useful for any developer of a complex system. We believe the proposed method closes some of the gap between the general models described in the system engineering guidelines and an industrially applicable method.

  • 24.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Effective Change AB.
    Nordlander, Per-Åke
    BAE Systems AB.
    Tailoring a method for system architecture analysis2013In: 9th Annual Software Engineering Institute Architecture Technology User Network Conference, SATURN, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The architecture of a system involves some of the decisions that, more than others, affect the outcome of a development effort in terms of meeting system goals, system qualities, and overall project success. Engineering the system architecture of a complex system involves the tasks of analyzing architectural drivers, identifying crucial design considerations, and performing decision making among alternatives. Systems engineering guidelines provide models and advice for what information entities to consider when engineering the architecture of a system, e.g., architectural concerns, but only limited guidance of how to do it. The guides are limited both in preciseness of definition of the information entities, e.g., what defines an architectural requirement, and also in process description, e.g., how do the information entities relate and what order to proceed through the work tasks. These questions need to be addressed by any development team that faces an architectural driver analysis in an actual case. We are currently performing system architecture analysis in a project developing a hybrid electric drive system for heavy automotive applications. Our analysis method is instantiated using The Method Framework for Engineering System Architectures, MFESA . We also used elements of other theories, including CAFCR, QAW and ATAM. Execution of the project is on going and roughly half of the method activities have been carried out so far. The steps we have performed in order to instantiate and tailor the method are summarized; 1, Define the criteria for what practitioners perceive as a practical method for analyzing system architecture, 2, Instantiate a method by tailoring the MFESA tasks that are applicable to the case, 3, Interpret meaning and make add-ons and changes necessary. We have instantiated a method from the MFESA framework. Based on the practitionersÂ’ criteria, we alter the method to suit the case. We point out three additions that are not directly derived from the MFESA framework and could be useful in other cases. The most significant changes were: 1. We employ use-cases as a means to model and identify architecturally significant requirements. We choose to start with use-cases and progress by elaborating the architecturally significant ones by defining detailed scenarios. 2. We interpret and define the concepts proposed by MFESA and define their relationships. 3. We propose a stepwise procedure for carrying out the work. To summarize, we have participated in a development project and were given the task to provide a system architecture definition. We defined our method by using the MFESA framework and added some method components from other theories. Still, the resulting method is not directly applicable. In order to perform the method, we had to clarify the interpretation of some of the work products and define the relationship between information entities. In addition, we had to specify a stepwise working procedure. Some of the additions could be considered as case-specific tailoring and some may be useful in general. We present lessons learned from this case and discuss a possible validation effort for an architectural analysis method.

  • 25.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Norström, Christer
    Business Situation Reflected in Automotive Electronic Architectures: Analysis of Four Commercial CasesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Towards Quality Assessment in Integration of Automotive Software and Electronics: An ATAM approach2006In: Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Software Engineering and Practice in Sweden, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we perform a pilot study of evaluation of integration strategies in an automotive electronics system context. We describe the problem of choosing integration strategy and we outline the use of the Architecture Tradeoff and Analysis Method, ATAM, for evaluating integration strategies.

    We exemplify the use of the ATAM by evaluating the integration decisions concerning the physical connection of a theoretic example system; a computer controlled automatic gearbox. A utility tree describing the most important qualities of the product is elicited by interviews with system architects and product specialists at Volvo Construction Equipment. We show how an evaluation score card can be used to aid in integration decisions.

    Also, perform preliminary analysis and provide some discussion points from the result. This early analysis shows that ATAM has weaknesses in that it is sensitive to errors in the elicitation process and that the weighting of the resulting scenarios can be coarse grained. One strength of the ATAM is that design decisions and quality goals become visible to many stakeholders. Our proposed use of ATAM does not include any cost or effort estimates, but only relative quality estimates.

    In our pilot study example we find that the integration of a software component as opposed to integration of a whole ECU, ranks higher with respect to the desired qualities.

  • 27.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Integration of Electronic Components in Heavy Vehicles: A Study of Integration in Three Cases2006In: Proceedings from Systems Engineering/Test and Evaluation Conference, Melbourne, 25-27 September 2006, Melbourne, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity of in-vehicle computer systems and the availability of computerized mechatronics yield a situation where automotive electronic systems are designed by integration. Since the qualities of a modern vehicle are much dependent on the in-vehicle computer system, integration is a major issue which has proved difficult with respect to assessing quality and cost. OEMs of automotive products want leverage over targeted qualities and the cost of scale when purchasing supplier components.

    In this paper, we present three cases of integration of mechatronic components into vehicle platforms of Volvo Construction Equipment and focus on the integration of embedded computer systems. The study shows problems areas of communicating architecture constraints, evaluation of components in early phases of development, and lacking definitions of responsibilities.

    Based on the study, we list four recommended practices to avoid the problems found in the cases. The analysis shows that integration of embedded computers should be considered early in development and in order to reduce project risks, the early assessment of computers need be fairly detailed. From the study we also present driving requirements in design of in-vehicle computer systems.

  • 28.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Key Factors for Achieving Project Success in Integration of Automotive Mechatronics2007In: Journal of Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, ISSN 1614-5046, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 141-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a multiple case study on integration of automotive mechatronic components. Based on the findings, we identify that the root causes of problems in integration are largely related to decisions omitted in electronic strategy.

    We present and recommend use of checklists defining key factors to address in order to achieve successful integration projects in terms of cost and quality. Our recommendations are defined by checklists for critical decisions in areas; functionality, platform, integration, and stakeholder involvement.

    The recommendations are established based on practitioner experience and then validated in a multiple case study. Five cases of integration are studied for different heavy vehicles in one company, and the fulfillment of our recommendations is measured. Finally we define project success criteria and we compare the level of fulfillment with the project success in terms of time plan and resource consumption.

    The main contribution of this study is the validated recommendations, each including a set of checkpoints that defines recommendation fulfillment. We also present defining characteristics to identify a high risk project. We provide a set of observable project properties and show how they affect project risk.

  • 29.
    Möller, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Industrial Requirements on Component Technologies for Vehicular Control Systems2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software component technologies for automotive applications are desired due to the envisioned benefits in reuse, variant handling, and porting; thus, facilitating both efficient development and increased quality of software products. Component based software development has had success in the PC application domain, but requirements are different in the embedded domain and existing technologies does not match. Hence, software component technologies have not yet been generally accepted by embedded-systems industries.

    In order to better understand why this is the case, we present two separate case-studies together with an evaluation of the existing component technologies suitable for embedded control systems.

    The first case-study presents a set of requirements based on industrial needs, which are deemed decisive for introducing a component technology. Furthermore, in the second study, we asked the companies involved to grade these requirements.

    Then, we use these requirements to compare existing component technologies suitable for embedded systems. One of our conclusions is that none of the studied technologies is a perfect match for the industrial requirements. Furthermore, no single technology stands out as being a significantly better choice than the others; each technology has its own pros and cons.

    The results can be used to guide modifications and/or extensions to existing component technologies in order to make them better suited for industrial deployment in the automotive domain. The results can also serve to guide other software engineering research by showing the most desired areas within component-based software engineering.

  • 30.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Volvo Car Corporation, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Making Decisions in Integration of Automotive Software and Electronics: A Method Based on ATAM and AHP2007In: Proceedings - ICSE 2007 Workshops: Fourth International Workshop on Software Engineering for Automotive Systems, SEAS'07, 2007, p. Article number 4228592--Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new method for makingdecisions on integration strategy for in-vehicle automotive systems.We describe the problem of choosing integration strategy and wedescribe the method, which is a combination of the ArchitectureTradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, and the Analytical HierarchyProcess, AHP. We exemplify the use of the proposed method byevaluating the integration decisions concerning the physicalconnection of a realistic example system; a computer controlledautomatic gearbox. We present analysis on the use of the method andconclude that the method has several benefits compared to ATAM orAHP used individually. The method firstly supports a structured wayof listing system goals, and secondly, it also supports the makingof design decisions.

  • 31.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Practitioners’ views of Key Issues and their Solutions in the Development of System and Software ArchitectureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In many traditional industry applications, including automotive, process automation and manufacturing automation, software plays a crucial role as an enabler in the introduction of new functionality and to stay competitive. System and software architecture plays an important part in ensuring the qualities of the systems. However, the design of the architecture may be neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality.

    Objective: We present the challenges, problems, and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems as judged by practitioners.

    Method: The method used consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. In a second step, a survey based on issues extracted from the structured interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these issues in a wide range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest solutions to the issues that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops.

    Results: A total of 21 issues have been identified, and examples of these issues are (1) there is a lack of process in architecture development, (2) there is a lack of methodology or models for evaluating business value when choosing architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are of less value than the knowledge and competence of individuals.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, we are convinced that the following success factors are crucial components in developing software intensive systems: (1) defining an architectural strategy, (2) implementing a process for architectural work, (3) ensuring authority for architects, (4) clarifying the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimization at the project portfolio level, instead of optimizing each project.

     

  • 32.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Problems and their mitigation in system and software architecting2012In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 686-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Today, software and embedded systems act as enablers for developing new functionality in traditional industries such as the automotive, process automation, and manufacturing automation domains. This differs from 25–30 years ago when these systems where based on electronics and electro-mechanical solutions. The architecture of the embedded system and of the software is important to ensure the qualities of these applications. However, the effort of designing and evolving the architecture is in practice often neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality. Objective: We present problems and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems in the domain of automotive and automation products as judged by practitioners. Method: The method consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. As a second step, a survey based on problems extracted from the interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these problems at a wider range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest how to mitigate the problems that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops, and from these a number of success factors were elicited. Results: A total of 21 problems have been identified based on the interview data, and these are related to the technical, organizational, project, and agreement processes. Based on the survey results, the following four problems were selected for a root cause analysis: (1) there is a lack of process for architecture development, (2) there is a lack of method or model to evaluate the business value when choosing the architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are less valued than knowledge and competence of individuals. Conclusion: In conclusion, the following identified success factors are crucial components to be successful in developing software intensive systems: (1) define an architectural strategy, (2) implement a process for architectural work, (3) ensure authority for architects, (4) clarify the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimize on the project portfolio level instead of optimizing each project.

  • 33.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Model for Reuse and Optimization of Embedded Software Components2007In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 2007, p. 567-572Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering for embedded systems generic reusable software components must often be discarded in favor of using resource optimized solutions. In this paper we outline a modelthat enables the utilization of component-based principles even for embedded systems with high optimization demands. The model supports the creation of component variants optimized for different scenarios, through the introduction of an entrance preparation step and an ending verification step into the component design process. These activities are proposed to be supported by tools working on metadata associated with components, where the metadata is possible to automatically retrieve from many development tools. This paper outlines the theoretical model that is the basis for our current realization work.

1 - 33 of 33
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