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  • 1.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Real-Time Control and Scheduling Co-Design for Efficient Jitter Handling2007In: Proceedings - 13th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, 2007, p. 516-521Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time control algorithms are designed based on the

    characteristics of the controlled plants and they require good

    performance without delays. However, digital control implementation

    typically introduces delays and jitters due to insufficient CPU

    processing power and the limitations of the real-time scheduling

    method used. This can degrade the system performance or even make it

    unstable.

    In this paper we propose an integrated approach for control design

    and real-time scheduling, suitable for both discrete-time and

    continuous-time controllers. It guarantees system performance by

    accepting a certain minimum value of jitter for control tasks and

    feasibly schedules them together with other tasks in the system.

    Results from comparison with other approaches from real-time and

    control theory domains underline the effectiveness of our method.

  • 2.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Real-Time Control Design for Flexible Scheduling using Jitter Margin2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time control algorithms are designed based on the characteristics of the controlled plants and they require good performance without delays. However, digital control implementation typically introduces delays and jitters due to insufficient CPU processing power and the limitations of the real-time scheduling method used. This can degrade the system performance or even make it unstable. In this paper we propose an integrated approach for control design and real-time scheduling, suitable for both discrete-time and continuous-time controllers. It guarantees system performance by accepting a certain minimum value of jitter for control tasks and feasibly schedules them together with other tasks in the system. Results from comparison with other approaches from real-time and control theory domains underline the effectiveness of our method.

  • 3.
    Damir, Isovic
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gustafsson, Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    THE COPRODUCTIVE UNIVERSITY: Education and research in coproduction with the wider community2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mälardalen University has a long history of a successful cooperation and coproduction with the industry and public sector in Sweden. This has eventually led it to become one of the leading higher education institutes in Sweden for excellent coproduction with different societal actors, both internationally and nationally. The university has through its coproduction activities become convinced of its value and of the wide range of opportunities it can bring to all parties involved. In this paper, we share our experience through some good examples both from research and education and discuss what is needed for successful and sustainable coproduction with industry and public sector.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ouimet, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Real-Time Systems2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a textbook developed for use in the Master Programme Module E-M.6 "Real-Time Systems" as part of the Postgraduate Distance studies organized by Fraunhofer IESE and the Distance and International Studies Center at the Technical University of Kaiserslauten, Germany.

  • 5.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Web-based Platform for Distance Education2006In: Proceedings of the 4th IEEE CeTUSS Workshop, Uppsala, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a web-based platform for distance education. The platform supports efficient creation and maintenance of online distance courses, only requiring an Internet connection and a web browser from teachers and students. All tools that are necessary to run a distance course are integrated in the platform and accessible via a regular web browser, such as such as Internet Explorer, or Mozilla Firefox. This means that students and teachers can access the course from any computer with Internet connection, just as any other regular web page.

    <p>

    After logging in to the course home page, teachers can easily create student accounts, upload their learning material, add course assignments, correct turned assignments, add news and FAQs, and much more, just by using a regular web browser, no other tools are needed. The similar applies for the students; they log in to their personal course account via the course home page, and once logged in, they can turn in their solutions to the course assignments and find corrected reports with grades and corrections done by the teacher.

    </p>

    The platform has been successfully used in several courses at the Malardalen University. Its functions are continuously extended to cover diverse user's requirements.

  • 6.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Flexible Media Processing in Resource Constrained Real-Time Systems2006In: Proceedings of the Eighth IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM 2006), San Diego, California, USA, 2006, p. 363-370Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose real-time methods for flexible processing of MPEG-2 video in resource constrained systems. The video stream is adapted to resource fluctuations by using a quality-aware frame skipping approach which keeps the video frames that have the most impact on the overall video quality. Real-time admission control and resource reservation mechanisms ensure that video processing applications adapt Quality-of-Service at run-time according to current state of the system, while fully utilizing the available resources.

  • 7.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Flexible Scheduling for Media Processing in Resource Constrained Real-Time Systems2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The MPEG-2 standard for video coding is predominant in consumer electronics for DVD players, digital satellite receivers, and TVs today. MPEG-2 processing puts high demands on audio/video quality, which is achieved by continuous and synchronized playout without interrupts. At the same time, there are restrictions on the storage media, e.g.., limited size of a DVD disc, communication media, e.g., limited bandwidth of the Internet, display devices, e.g., the processing power, memory and battery life of pocket PCs or video mobile phones, and finally the users, i.e., humans ability of perceiving motion. If the available resources are not sufficient to process a full-size MPEG-2 video, then video stream adaptation must take place. However, this should be done carefully, since in high quality devices, drops in perceived video quality are not tolerated by consumers.

    We propose real-time methods for resource reservation of MPEG-2video stream processing and introduce flexible scheduling mechanisms for video decoding. Our method is a mixed offline and online approach for scheduling of periodic, aperiodic and sporadic tasks, based on slot shifting. We use the offline part of slot shifting to eliminate all types of complex task constraints before the runtime of the system. Then, we propose an online guarantee algorithm for dealing with dynamically arriving tasks. Aperiodic and sporadic tasks are incorporated into the offline schedule by making use of the unused resources and leeways in the schedule. Sporadic tasks are guaranteed offline for the worst-case arrival patterns and scheduled online, where an online algorithm keeps track of arrivals of instances of sporadic tasks to reduce pessimism about future sporadic arrivals and improve response times and acceptance of firm aperiodic tasks. At runtime, our mechanism ensures feasible execution of tasks with complex constraints in the presence of additional tasks or overloads.

    We use the scheduling and resource reservation mechanism above to flexibly process MPEG-2 video streams. First, we present results from a study of realistic MPEG-2 video streams to analyze the validity of common assumptions for software decoding and identify a number of misconceptions. Then, we identify constraints imposed by frame buffer handling and discuss their implications on the decoding architecture and timing. Furthermore, we propose realistic timing constraints demanded by high quality MPEG-2 software video decoding. Based on these, we present a MPEG-2 video frame selection algorithm with focus on high video quality perceived by the users, which fully utilize limited resources. Given that not all frames in a stream can be processed, it selects those which will provide the best picture quality while matching the available resources, starting only such decoding, which is guaranteed to be completed. As a final result, we provide a real-time method for flexible scheduling of media processing in resource constrained system. Results from study based on realistic MPEG-2 video underline the effectiveness of our approach.

  • 8.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Handling sporadic tasks in real-time systems: Combined offline and online approach2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Joint Structural and Inter-frame Skipping for MPEG-2 Video2010In: In proceedings of SIGRAD 2010, Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a combined structural and inter-frame skipping method for quality aware processing of MPEG-2 video upon overload situations. The method selects video frames both based on the structural properties, such as frame types, sizes and position in the video stream, as well as on the internal, sub-frame characteristics, i.e., the number of relevant macroblocks within a frame.

  • 10.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Real-Time Media Processing in Embedded Consumer Electronic Devices2009In: 2009 XXII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES, 2009, p. 4-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose real-time methods for flexible processing of multimedia streaming in resource constrained systems. Video streams are dynamically adapted to match available system resources in small, embedded devices, such as as mobile phones and PDAs. Real-time admission control and resource reservation mechanisms ensure that media processing fully utilize the available system resources, while keeping the best possible video quality. First, we apply our methods on a single device, and then we extend it to handle distributed, heterogeneous systems where several devices share same resources. Results of simulation study show the effectiveness of our methods.

  • 11.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Temporal impact of high-level resources on end-to-end timing of video streaming2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing of high-quality streams is quite computationally expensive at the same time as video processing applications are more and more deployed in small embedded systems that traditionally exhibit limited processing and network resources, e.g. set top boxes, mobile phones or PDAs. Hence, for some combinations of streams and devices, the timing constraints on stream processing within a functional component will not automatically be met.

    This paper analyses the functional components of a video stream processing and transmission with respect to their impact on the timing of end-to-end delivery chain processing. In particular it identifies parameters at a high level of abstraction, i.e., hiding the full internal details. The results can be used to make trade-offs between timeliness, resource usage and energy consumption at system design time.

  • 12.
    Isovic, Damir
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Invited paper: Master Education in Collaboration with Industry2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we will present the collaboration between Malardalen University and the local industry in the context of our two master programs in computer science, Master in Software Engineering and Master in Intelligent Embedded Systems. Within both programs, there is an extensive cooperation with national giants such as ABB, Bombardier, Ericsson, SAAB and Volvo, as well as strategically important, high competence, SMEs. We will describe how we use our industrial partners to assure the quality and industrial relevance of our educational master programs. For example, they provide us sharp industrial equipment, give guest lectures at our courses, organize industrial visits, provide internships and theses for our students, and, whenever possible, give employment to our students. The education method that we use is Problem-Based Learning (PBL), which implies that large parts of the programs are performed in project form. The projects are supplied by our industrial partners, and are solved in collaboration with them. The aim with sharp industrial projects is to prepare students for work in industry directly after the completion of their education, and to make our students are highly competitive on the national and international job market, both in the industry as high-skilled expert and in the academia as researchers or PhD students.

  • 13.
    Isovic, Damir
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mapping Complex Timing Constraints to Simple Real-Time Scheduling Parameters2010In: 15th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, WiP, Bilbao, Spain, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for flexible representation of complex timing constraints for scheduling real-time tasks under different scheduling paradigms. It allows different instantiations of the task attributes, depending on which underlying scheduling policy is used. Scheduling parameters are flexibly derived from original timing constrains, rather than using the same set of task attributes for all schedulers. For each real-time task in the system, temporal feasibility windows are identified, such that if the task executes and completes within its feasibility window, the original timing constraints will be met. Then, scheduler dependent parameters are derived to guarantee the tasks' execution and completion within their feasibility windows.

  • 14.
    Isovic, Damir
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fohler, Gerhard
    Handling Mixed Task Sets in Combined Offline and Online Scheduled Real-Time Systems2009In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 296-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial applications with real-time demands are composed of mixed sets of tasks with a variety of requirements. These can be in the form of standard timing constraints, such as period and deadline, or complex, e.g., to express application specific or non temporal constraints, reliability, performance, etc. Arrival patterns determine whether tasks will be treated as periodic, sporadic, or aperiodic. As many algorithms focus on specific sets of task types and constraints only, system design has to focus on those supported by a particular algorithm, at the expense of the rest. In this paper, we present a method to deal with a combination of mixed sets of tasks and constraints: periodic tasks with complex and simple constraints, soft and firm aperiodic, and in particular sporadic tasks. We propose the use of an offline scheduler to manage complex timing and resource constraints of periodic tasks and transform these into a simple EDF model with start-times and deadlines. On top of the offline schedule, sporadic tasks are guaranteed based on their worst-case activation frequencies. Then at run-time, an extension to EDF ensures feasible execution of tasks with complex constraints in the presence of additional tasks or overloads. It allows changes in the offline generated schedule to insert soft and firm aperiodic tasks by shifting the execution of offline scheduled tasks within their feasibility windows. Furthermore, the online algorithm uses the exact knowledge about sporadic arrivals to reduce the pessimism introduced by worst-case assumption, i.e., the resources unused by sporadic tasks are reclaimed to improve response times and acceptance of firm aperiodic tasks. A simulation study underlines the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • 15.
    Ni, Pengpeng
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Support for Digital VCR functionality over Network for H.264/AVC2008In: EEE International Conference on Communications 2008, 2008, p. 520-525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a scalable video coding scheme for H.264/AVC video that fully utilizes the benefits of Switching frames (SP/SI) to facilitate user-friendly remote multimedia stream browsing and editing. A content aware rate-control algorithm is developed to adaptively determine the optimal encoding configuration for balancing the trade-off between video coding efficiency and temporal scalability. Our temporal scalable coding scheme is useful for implementing DVCR-like interactive functionality such as fast-forwarding and reversing in multimedia streaming applications such as Video-On-Demand, video broadcasting and remote video editing.

  • 16.
    Ni, Pengpeng
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fohler, Gerhard
    University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    User-friendly H.264/AVC for Remote Browsing2006In: Proceedings of the International ACM Multimedia conferance (ACM 06), Santa Barbara, California, USA, 2006, p. 643-646Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing popularity of variable network technologies, it is highly desirable to enable effective and quick browsing of remote multimedia content. In this paper we present a method for quick access of remote video content as an initial step towards a full digital Video Cassette Recording functionality in multimedia streaming applications such as Video-On-Demand, video broadcasting and remote video editing.We propose a transcoding scheme for H.264/AVC video that fully utilizes the benefits of recently proposed SP- and SI-frames to facilitate user-friendly remote stream browsing and editing. The transcoding parameters can be adaptively changed and optimized to support different characteristics of H.264 video streams.

  • 17.
    Rizvanovic, Larisa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fohler, Gerhard
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Integrated Global and Local Quality-of-Service Adaptation in Distributed, Heterogeneous Systems2007In: Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing: International Conference, EUC 2007, Taipei, Taiwan, December 17-20, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, 2007, p. 219-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we have developed a method for an efficient Quality-of-Service provision and adaptation in dynamic, heterogeneous systems, based on our Matrix framework for resource management. It integrates local QoS mechanisms of the involved devices that deal mostly with short-term resource fluctuations, with a global adaptation mechanism that handles structural and long-term load variations on the system level. We have implemented the proposed approach and demonstrated its effectiveness in the context of video streaming.

  • 18.
    Suksompong, Apicha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Proportional Cache-fair Scheduling for Multi-core Systems2008In: Proceedings Work-In-Progress Session of the 20th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, 2008, p. 48-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a cache-aware real-time scheduling algorithm for multi-core platforms. It uses the standard timing constrains of the tasks together with the hardware counter statistics to yield unique task priorities. Scheduling according to timing constraints criterion enforces timely completion of the tasks while the cache-fair thread scheduling ensures that tasks to which shared caches are unequally allocated are compensated by assigning more or less processor time.

  • 19.
    van den Heuvel, Martijn
    et al.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Bril, Reinder
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Lukkien, J.J.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ramachandran, Gowri Sankar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards RTOS support for mixed time-triggered and event-triggered task sets2012In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2012, 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a table-driven dispatcher complemented with a preemptive scheduler to allocate free time slots to event-driven tasks. Rather than allocating dedicated time-slots to time-triggered tasks, we propose to dynamically re-allocate time-slots of time-triggered tasks within a pre-computed time range to maximize the available processing capacity for event-triggered tasks. Although the concept - called slotshifting - is not new, we are unaware of a commercial RTOS with such support. After identifying the mechanisms for an RTOS implementation of slotshifting, we discuss the run-time overheads for admitting aperiodic requests into the system1.

  • 20.
    van den Heuvel, Martijn
    et al.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bril, Reinder
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Lukkien, Johan
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Ramachandran, Gowri Sankar
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    RTOS support for mixed time-triggered and event-triggered task sets2012In: Proceedings - 15th IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, CSE 2012 and 10th IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2012, 2012, p. 578-585Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy an RTOS with a table-driven dispatcher complemented with a preemptive scheduler to allocate the free time slots to event-driven tasks. Rather than allocating dedicated time-slots to time-triggered tasks, in this work we provide RTOS support to dynamically re-allocate time-slots of time triggered tasks within a pre-computed time range to maximize the available processing capacity for event-triggered tasks. Although the concept - called slotshifting - is not new, we are the first to extend a commercial RTOS with such support. In addition, we extend slot shifting with a run-time mechanism to reclaim resources of time-triggered tasks when their reserved capacities are unused. This mechanism eliminates over-provisioning of capacities to (event-triggered) tasks that have been converted to periodic tasks to resolve interdependencies during off-line synthesis, e.g. allowing for a resource-efficient implementation of a polling task. After implementing our unique RTOS extensions, we investigate the run-time overheads for the corresponding scheduling mechanisms. Measurements show that the increase in terms of absolute run-time overhead is minor compared to an off-the-shelf micro-kernel with a fixed-priority scheduler

  • 21.
    van den Heuvel, Martijn
    et al.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e).
    J Bril, Reinder
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e).
    Zhang, Xiaodi
    Abdullah, Syed Md Jakaria
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Limited preemptive scheduling of mixed time-triggered and event-triggered tasks2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a table-driven dispatcher for time-triggered tasks complemented with a preemptive scheduler to allocate the free time slots to event-driven tasks. Contrary to fully preemptive scheduling, limiting the preemptions of tasks to fixed preemptions points may reduce memory requirements and it alleviates the preemption costs in the system. We revisit slotshifting, which at run time mixes time-triggered and event-triggered tasks in a preemptive EDF schedule. In this paper, we extend slotshifting with limited-preemptive execution of event-triggered tasks. We present a synchronization protocol to arbitrate the executions of non-preemptive regions, so that time-triggered tasks keep meeting their timing constraints implicitly. Furthermore, we investigate how to disable preemptions of event-triggered tasks during the execution of the offline-scheduled time-triggered tasks, while keeping the feature of slotshifting to reallocate their slots of execution dynamically at run time.

  • 22. Zhang, Xiaodi
    et al.
    Erdem, Ahmet
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Isovic, Damir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bobesic, Mislav
    A Novel Memetic Algorithm Incorporating Nelder-Mead Method in Fuzzy Controller Design2012In: IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering (CiSE 2012), 2012, p. 55-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nelder-Mead method is a powerful mathematical technique for multidimensional unconstrained optimization. The other merit of the Nelder-Mead method is that it does not require any derivative information, which makes it suitable for exploitation in non-smooth regions. This paper proposes a new memetic algorithm incorporating Nelder-Mead method for local search. Nelder-Mead method coupling with GA will lead to utilization of more information derived from mathematical principle in the search process, thereby increasing the efficiency of search. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been demonstrated in a case study of optimization of a fuzzy control system.

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