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  • 1.
    Angantyr, Malin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hansen, Eric
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    A comparison of empathy for humans and empathy for animals2011In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 369-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is a substantial body of research on inter-human empathy and inter-animal empathy, there is a dearth of research comparing humans’ empathic reactions to humans and animals. To address this issue, three experiments were conducted in which participants read a scenario about a human or animal abuse victim in need of medical attention, and indicated the degree of empathy they felt on an emotional response scale. In Experiment 1, women felt significantly more empathy for animals than humans, whereas men tended to express more empathy for humans than for animals. In Experiment 2, adult women expressed the same degree of empathy for a child as for a puppy. Similarly, in Experiment 3, adult men and women expressed the same degree of empathy for a baby as for a puppy. Overall, results indicated that people feel at least as much empathy for animals as for humans. We suggest that an animal target elicits a great deal of empathy partly because it is perceived as not being responsible for having caused the need situation. Future research will show whether empathy felt for animals translates to prosocial behavior toward them as well.

  • 2.
    Angantyr, Malin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Hansen, Eric M.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Malm, K.
    Skara, Sweden.
    Reducing Sex Differences in Children’s Empathy for Animals Through a Training Intervention2016In: Journal of Research in Childhood Education, ISSN 0256-8543, E-ISSN 2150-2641, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Humane education programs designed to increase children’s empathy for animals are becoming more common. A quasi-experiment tested the effectiveness of one such program by comparing 80 children who had completed the program with a control group of 57 children who had not. The children read a story involving an injured dog and rated the degree of empathic concern they felt for him. The results showed that girls tended to express more empathy for a dog than did boys, but this difference was not significant for children who underwent an animal empathy training program. This suggests that humane education programs can reduce sex differences by increasing boys’ empathy. 

  • 3.
    Batson, C. Daniel
    et al.
    University of Kansas, USA.
    Håkansson Eklund, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Chermok, V. L.
    University of Kansas, USA.
    Hoyt, J. L.
    University of Kansas, USA.
    Ortiz, B. G.
    University of Kansas, USA.
    An additional antecedent of empathic concern: Valuing the welfare of the person in need2007In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments examined the role of valuing the welfare of a person in need as an antecedent of empathic concern. Specifically, these experiments explored the relation of such valuing to a well-known antecedent--perspective taking. In Experiment 1, both perspective taking and valuing were manipulated, and each independently increased empathic concern, which, in turn, increased helping behavior. In Experiment 2, only valuing was manipulated. Manipulated valuing increased measured perspective taking and, in part as a result, increased empathic concern, which, in turn, increased helping. Valuing appears to be an important, largely overlooked, situational antecedent of feeling empathy for a person in need.

  • 4.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Empati som känsla, förståelse och omsorg2013In: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vanligt förekommande komponenter i empatidefinitioner är bland annat känsla, förståelse och omsorg. Syftet med den här artikeln är att granska närvaron och frånvaron av dessa tre komponenter i nio inflytelserika empatiforskares empatidefinitioner. De nio är Rogers, Kohut, Hoffman, Eisenberg, Batson, Ickes, Davis, Decety och Singer. Granskningen visar att känsla finns med i åtta av definitionerna, förståelse i sju och omsorg i två. Det föreslås att framtida forskning bör försöka närma sig konsensus om en empatidefinition.

  • 5.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Samtida forskning om empati i psykologi2013In: Empati: Teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv / [ed] Henrik Bohlin & Jakob Eklund, Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 133-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    The nature of empathy2013In: Philosophy in the contemporary world, ISSN 1077-1999, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the question of the nature of empathy, and attempts to develop a unified understanding of empathy, and thereby overcome the split perspective that is present in current literature. Based on previous definitions, I present my own account of empathy as feeling the other’s feeling. In an analysis of this new definition, empathy is characterized as feeling with the two constituents of understanding and care. Empathic understanding ensures that empathic care will lead to appropriate actions. A consequence of describing empathy as a feeling with the two constituents of understanding and care is that we are not forced to choose between the two main tracks in the empathy literature, empathy as understanding and empathy as care, but are instead at ease with both sides.

  • 7.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Var är vi och vart ska vi ta vägen?2013In: Empati: Teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv / [ed] Henrik Bohlin & Jakob Eklund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 281-295Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Eklund, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    Stockholm University.
    Hansen, Eric M.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    "Ive also experienced loss and fear": Effects of previous similar experience on empathy2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 65-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is frequently argued that empathy is increased by similar experiences, this idea has rarely been tested. This study investigated the relationship between empathy and prior similar experience. Participants read four different stories and rated the degree of empathy they felt. They also reported the extent to which they had prior similar experience of the events in the stories. We found that these self-reports of prior similar experience increased empathy for the persons in the stories. Similar experience may be an important situational antecedent for feeling empathy for another person. Pointing out similarities among experiences may be a fruitful means of training empathy.

  • 9.
    Eklund, Jakob
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Loeb, Carina
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hansen, Eric M.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Andersson-Wallin, Ann-Charlotte
    Who cares about others?: Empathic self-efficacy as an antecedent to prosocial behavior2012In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies tested associations among self-efficacy and prosocial behavior. In Study 1 wemeasured academic self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and self-reported prosocial behavior.The study showed that academic but not emotional self-efficacy was positively correlated withprosocial behavior. Study 1 included only self-oriented emotions, and the absence of empathicemotions may explain the lack of association between emotional self-efficacy and prosocialbehavior. In Study 2 we included empathic as well as self-oriented emotions, because previousresearch (C. D. Batson, 1991) has shown that empathic emotions generate altruistic helping. Asexpected, empathic self-efficacy had a positive association with prosocial behavior. Empathicself-efficacy appears to be an important, largely overlooked antecedent to prosocial behavior.

  • 10.
    Håkansson Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Empathy and viewing the other as a subject2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 399-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy and viewing another person as a subject rather than an object are often associated in theoretical contexts, but empirical research of the relation is scarce. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship between subject/object view and empathy. In Study 1, participants watched film clips and indicated their empathy for specific characters in the clips, as well as the extent to which they saw these persons as subjects and objects. The subject/object view explained some, but not all, of the differences in empathy, which raised the question of what else accounts for differences in empathy. A second study was conducted to investigate whether the difficulty of the other's situation also contributes. In Study 2, another group watched the film clips and rated the difficulty of the film character's situations in addition to empathy and subject/object view. The results of Study 2 revealed that subject view/object and perceived difficulty together explain a substantial part of differences in empathy. It was concluded that empathy is evoked primarily when a person in difficulty is viewed as a subject.

  • 11.
    Håkansson Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Empati: Att uppleva främmande upplevelser2006In: Filosofisk tidskrift, Vol. 4, p. 8-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filosofen Edith Stein (1891-1942) definierade empati som ”upplevelsen av främmande medvetande överhuvudtaget”. Vad kännetecknar en sådan empatisk upplevelse? I den här artikeln analyseras empati med utgångspunkt i Edith Steins definition. Efter att ha granskat Edith Steins definition av empati försöker jag att komplettera och precisera denna: Först modifieras Steins definition ”upplevelsen av främmande medvetande överhuvudtaget” till ”upplevelsen av främmande upplevelse”. Genom att sedan analysera begreppet upplevelse vidare, bortom vad Stein själv gjorde, föreslås att empati innebär att förstå och bry sig om vad någon annan förstår och bryr sig om. Vidare argumenteras för att minne (inlevelse med sitt eget förflutna) och förväntning (inlevelse med sin egen framtid) är processer som också innebär att uppleva främmande upplevelser och därmed också kan beskrivas som empati.

    Avslutningsvis föreslås att empati spelar en central roll inom etiken.

  • 12.
    Håkansson Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Exploring the phenomenon of empathy2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Although empathy is the phenomenon that connects otherwise isolated individuals, knowledge concerning the nature of this phenomenon is still scarce. This thesis presents three studies on empathy based on qualitative and quantitative data. In Study 1, narrative accounts of empathy situations were collected to identify constituents that exist in both empathizers’ and targets’ experiences of empathy. From both perspectives, the constituents of empathy included the empathizer understanding the target, the target experiencing one or more emotions, the empathizer perceiving a similarity between what the target is experiencing and something the empathizer has experienced earlier, and the empathizer being concerned for the target’s well-being. Similarity of experience occurs at different levels of abstraction. Study 2 consisted of three experiments exploring the role of a person’s actions in how empathetic the person is perceived as being. In the experiments participants read different versions of an empathy story. The results suggested that action is crucial in the experience of empathy from both empathizer’s and target’s perspectives, as well as from the perspective of an unspecified observer. Study 3 explored in two experiments how empathy is related to viewing another individual as a subject/object. The results revealed that subject view and perceived difficulty of the person’s situation together explain a considerable part of differences in empathy. The empirical findings are discussed in a broader context of altruism, morality, similarity of experience, and foreign experience.

  • 13.
    Håkansson Eklund, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Empathy as an interpersonal phenomenon2003In: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, ISSN 0265-4075, E-ISSN 1460-3608, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 267-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find the constituents of empathizers' and targets' experiences of empathy. We analyzed 28 empathizers' and 28 targets' narrative accounts of situations when they had experienced empathy. From both perspectives, the constituents of empathy included that (1) the empathizer understands the target's situation and emotions, (2) the target experiences one or more emotions, (3) the empathizer perceives a similarity between what the target is experiencing and something the empathizer has experienced previously, and (4) the empathizer is concerned for the target's well-being. The data suggested that actions associated with the fourth constituent - concern - make empathy an interpersonal phenomenon.

  • 14.
    Håkansson Eklund, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of action in empathy from the perspective of the empathizer and the target2002In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 50-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three experiments explored the role of a person's actions on how empathetic the person is perceived to be from the perspective of an unspecified observer (Study 1) and from the empathizer's and the target's perspectives (Studies 2 and 3). In each experiment, undergraduates read different versions of a story about a boss who fires an employee and afterwards rated the boss' empathy. The results of the three experiments suggested that action is crucial in the experience of empathy from both empathizer's and target's perspectives (Studies 2 and 3), as well as from the perspective of an unspecified observer (Study 1). It is concluded that the convergence between the empathizer and the target on the importance of action in empathy can be understood in terms of empathy being an interpersonal phenomenon.

  • 15.
    Höglander, Jessica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Håkansson Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eide, Hilde
    Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Drammen, Norway..
    Holmström, Inger K.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sundler, Annelie J.
    Univ Borås, Borås, Sweden..
    Registered Nurses' and nurse assistants' responses to older persons' expressions of emotional needs in home care2017In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, no 12, p. 2923-2932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to explore nurse assistants' and Registered Nurses' responses to older persons' expressions of emotional needs during home care visits. Background: Communication is a central aspect of care. Older persons might express different emotions and needs during home care visits and such expressions can be challenging to respond to. Little is known about communication in home care or nursing staff responses to older persons' expressed emotional needs. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional design on nursing staff responses to older persons' negative emotions in home care. Methods: Collected data consisted of audio recordings of home care visits between older persons and nursing staff. Data were collected between August 2014-November 2015. The nursing staff responses to older persons' negative emotions in the communication were analysed with the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES). Results: The nursing staff most often give non-explicit responses, providing space for further disclosure of older persons' expressed negative emotions. Such responses were more frequent if the nursing staff had elicited the older persons' expressions of a negative emotion than if such expressions were elicited by the older persons themselves. Most frequent types of responses were backchannel, active invitation or information advice. Conclusion: The nursing staff responses were mainly non-explicit responses providing space for older persons to tell more about their experiences. Such responses can be discussed in terms of person-centred communication and is important for the comfort of emotional concerns.

  • 16.
    Ihrmark, Camilla
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hansen, Eric M.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Stödberg, Rosa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    "You are weeping for that which has been your delight": To experience and recover from grief2011In: Omega, ISSN 0030-2228, E-ISSN 1541-3764, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore how people experience grief and what factors are perceived as facilitating successful grief work, a survey was distributed to people who had completed a grief recovery course. The results showed that emotions, cognitions, physical expressions, and behaviors all characterize grief, but that emotions are the most central component. The course brought relief and was regarded most favorably by those having at least 1 year between the grief trigger event and participation in the course. Writing a letter in whichcourse participants express their feelings to the loss object was perceived as the most successful aspect of the course. The letter might help with grief recovery by bringing aspects that have not been dealt with into conscious awareness.

  • 17.
    Rasoal, Chato
    et al.
    Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden,.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hansen, Eric M.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Toward a conceptualization of ethnocultural empathy2011In: The Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, ISSN 1933-5377, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of theoretical frameworks have been developed in previous empathy research, the extent to which these frameworks consider cultural and ethnic aspects is limited. This literature study reviews the most influential frameworks of general and ethnocultural empathy. The core components of ethnocultural empathy are identified as well as factors facilitating empathy for persons from other cultures. Most notably, the realization that people in other cultures have similar worries and goals should facilitate ethnocultural empathy, in both informal and professional contexts. This analysis can provide useful insights and tools for practitioners working with patients and clients from cultures other than their own. © 2011 Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology.

  • 18.
    Strandberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Manthorpe, Jill
    King's College London, UK.
    Promoting empathy in social care for older people2012In: Working with Older People, ISSN 1366-3666, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 101-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify connections between empathy and social care and to describe aspects of empathy in social care work, by bringing together research from different fields.

    Design/methodology/approach – Five doctoral theses which discussed empathy among care workers of older people in Sweden were analysed as a group. The theses had been published over the period 1996 to 2007. Methodologically, the examination underpinned an interpretive content analysis.

    Findings – The meta-analysis revealed conflicting feelings among care workers. Most experienced frustration when they were not able to express empathy in their working practices. Empathy was typically hindered by lack of time, care workers' own needs, and inflexible home care systems. However, a key element of the job-satisfaction reported by care workers appeared to be its empathic nature. Most care workers perceive encounters with older people as opportunities to respond empathically rather than indifferently. The implications of these findings are discussed.

    Originality/value – The study is an overview that attempts to build a bridge across the two concepts, social care and empathy. The main strength of this analysis is its originality of approach undertaking a specific literature review and reflecting on a subject that has not previously been explored in the Swedish context.

  • 19.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    et al.
    Univ Boras, Fac Caring Sci Work Life & Social Welf, SE-50190 Boras, Sweden..
    Höglander, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Håkansson Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eide, Hilde
    Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Fac Hlth Sci, Postbox 7053, N-3007 Drammen, Norway..
    Holmström, Inger K.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Older persons' expressions of emotional cues and concerns during home care visits. Application of the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) in home care2017In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 276-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aims to a) explore to what extent older persons express emotional cues and concerns during home care visits; b) describe what cues and concerns these older persons expressed, and c) explore who initiated these cues and concerns. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. Data consisted of 188 audio recorded home care visits with older persons and registered nurses or nurse assistants, coded with the Verona coding definitions on emotional sequences (VR-CoDES). Results: Emotional expressions of cues and concerns occurred in 95 (51%) of the 188 recorded home care visits. Most frequent were implicit expressions of cues (n = 292) rather than explicit concerns (n = 24). Utterances with hints to hidden concerns (63,9%, n = 202) were most prevalent, followed by vague or unspecific expressions of emotional worries (15,8%, n = 50). Most of these were elicited by the nursing staff (63%, n = 200). Conclusion: Emotional needs expressed by the older persons receiving home care were mainly communicated implicitly. To be attentive to such vaguely expressed emotions may demand nursing staff to be sensitive and open. Practice implications: The VR-CoDES can be applied on audio recorded home care visits to analyse verbal and emotional communication, and may allow comparative research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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