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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Janeslatt, G.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Disabil & Habilitat, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A MODEL FOR INTERVENTION USING THE METHOD MY TIME AND TIME ASSITIVE DEVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH COGNITIVE DISABILITIES2019In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, E-ISSN 1365-2788, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 776-776Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Making oneself heard: Children's experiences of empowerment in Swedish preschools2015In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 185, no 4, p. 580-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child–adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four-to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools’ activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments, followed by a photo-elicitation interview. Data were analysed by content analysis. Results showed that authority was expressed in relation to teachers and parents. Children negotiated about handling situations and described relations with teachers as uncomplicated; the contrary was the case with peers. Structure meant that children could choose between courses of action within set frames, describing empowerment as decision-making within limitations. Results indicated the importance of preschool teachers stimulating children to reflect on their own ability by discussing issues concerning children’s sense of empowerment, using methods similar to the ones in this study.

  • 3.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    To make oneself heard - children's perceptions of empowerment in the Swedish preschool context2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been a developing interest concerning children’s voices in for example decision-making and planning within different educational contexts, such as the preschool. Although children’s rights are emphasized, it is not clear how these rights are expressed in children’s everyday life. Further, children from a minority ethnic group risk marginalization in relation to other children as well as to significant adults and the society as a whole. The aim of this study was to analyze children’s perceptions of empowerment in a preschool context in a gender and ethnicity perspective. Data, collected in 2010, comprised of 25 children at 4 different preschools (aged 4-6, 13 girls, 7 children with other ethnicity than Swedish). Two different methods were used: (1) a group interview with 5-8 children at a time, using a puppet interview technique, playing different scenarios involving the children as co-actors, and (2) a photo walk where children took photos of their indoor and outdoor environment. The photos were used as stimulated recall in individual interviews with the children to let them express their empowerment in the everyday life at preschool. Children’s perceptions were in part related to environmental prerequisites such as the social and physical context of the preschool as well as more distal factors such as resources and values on the macro level. Therefore, to highlight the preschool as an influential micro environment in children’s exercising of empowerment, the interview analysis was based on an ecological systems perspective.The intersectional perspective was used to emphasize possible differences in the children’s perceptions of empowerment due to gender and ethnicity. The results indicate that children perceive the preschool teacher as an uncontested authority. In the preschool environment with least resources and most ethnic diversity among the children, there seem to be a tendency that children perceive the teachers as even stronger authorities, than in the more affluent preschool environments. The peer relations are, however, more complex and questioned by the children. If children have internalized parts of the social context, like rules, seem to vary due to their own experience of consequences of such rules. A salient prerequisite for empowerment is to increase children’s opportunities to understand and be understood. Therefore, preschool teachers need to elaborate on children’s experiences.

  • 4.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Barns hälsa och delaktighet2010In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift, ISSN 2000-429X, no 2, p. 9-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Children's Health and Developmental Delay: Positive Functioning in Everyday Life2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 6.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Engagemang: en väg till lärande och hälsa2009In: Med sikte på förskolan: barn i behov av stöd / [ed] Sandberg, Anette, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 221-237Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Longitudinal paths of health related engagement of children with and without developmental delay2008In: Longitudinal paths of health related engagement of children with and without developmental delay: A person approach, 2008, Vol. 52, p. 684-684Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay2006In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Små barns delaktighet: Stabil eller miljöberoende?2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Små barns hälsa2005In: Förskoletidningen, ISSN 1402-7135, no 1, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Stability and change in children's engagement: A 3-year longitudinal study involving pre-school children with typical and atypical processes of engagement2011In: Stability and change in children's engagement: A 3-year longitudinal study involving pre-school children with typical and atypical processes of engagement / [ed] Guralnick, M., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Stability and change in engagement of young children with and without developmental delay2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Young children’s self-reported perceptions of health2004In: Advanced Health Care Sciences of Tomorrow: Göteborg, 10-11 November, 2004, p. 58-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Delaktighet i skolaktiviteter: Ett systemteoretiskt perspektiv2004In: Delaktighetens språk, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 2004, p. 137-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: A person-oriented approach2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors related to participation in school activities of pupils with different kinds of disabilities. Questionnaires concerning participation were collected from 472 pupils with disabilities and their teachers, parents and special education consultants. A person-oriented approach with the aim to identify patterns of variables related to a high degree of participation of pupils with disabilities was used. Cluster-groups were formed based on scores for individual subjects on factors identified as important for participation. Groups with a high degree of participation were characterized by high scores in autonomy and perceived interaction with peers and teachers and an internal locus of control. Type and degree of disability did not predict cluster group membership. A conclusion is that the outcome participation is better predicted by patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors than by type of disability or any other single factor. 

  • 16.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pathways of engagement of young children with and without developmental delay2007In: Pathways of engagement of young children with and without developmental delay / [ed] Guralnick, M., 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping university.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping university.
    Longitudinal typical patterns of behaviour and engagement of children with Swedish or other ethnicity and the impact of special support in Swedish preschools2019In: / [ed] M Guralnick, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jakobsson, Einar
    Barnens hälsa kräver mer än frånvaro av sjukdom2005In: Psykologtidningen, ISSN 0280-9702, no 8, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellnäs, Petra
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Stefansson, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health2006In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 275-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health is today viewed as a multi-dimensional concept partly conceptualized independent from not being ill. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. Interviews were conducted with 68 children (4-5 years), within their pre-school setting, with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. A multi-dimensional perspective represented by the health dimensions of the International Classificationof Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used in a manifest deductive content analysis. The children's statements were categorized and placed under one of the four health dimensions, body, activity, participation and environment. A latent content analysis was applied to identify underlying themes in the manifest categories. The results revealed that young children perceive health as a multi-dimensional construct, largely related to being engaged, i.e. to be able to perform wanted activities and participate in a supportive every-day context. This implies that improvements of child engagement should be emphasized in health promotion and to a greater extent be the central focus of health interventions for young children.

  • 20.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Lillvist, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Granlund, Mats
    Små barns psykiska hälsa2011In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, no 3, p. 10-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping university.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping university.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping university.
    Children’s Behavior Difficulties and Staff-Implemented Special Support in Swedish Preschools2018In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish preschool curriculum stipulates that all children independent of support needs should attend mainstream preschool groups, with equal opportunities for learning and engagement. Preschool teachers are responsible for paying attention to children in need of special support to achieve this. How support is provided for children in need of special support due to behavior difficulties in Swedish preschools varies, however. Some children, often formally identified as in need of special support, are supported by preschool staff supervised by external services. Other children receive support initiated and implemented by preschool staff, without supervision from external services. A further number of children receive no support for behavior difficulties, on top of what is provided to all children. This study investigated associations between support format (i.e. supervised support, staff-initiated support or no additional support), support content (i.e. implementation of support), behavior difficulties, socio-demographics and engagement. A mixed methods approach was used with a sample of 232 preschool children 15 to 71 months with assessed behavior difficulties. Preschool staff reported on the children's engagement, behavior difficulties, socio-demographics and support provision. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the probability of children receiving either support format. Content analysis was used to categorize the support content, reported by preschool staff through open-ended questions. Point-biserial correlations were used to test associations between support content, behavior, socio-demographics and engagement. All children receiving supervised support for behavior difficulties were formally identified by external services as in need of special support. Supervised support was also more common if children disturbed the free play in the preschool group, with the most frequent support being collaboration with external teams. Staff-initiated support was most commonly given to children with high engagement, and for children who are not early second language learners. These children were most frequently supported by staff paying attention to negative behavior. Children who were not perceived as a burden to the group were less likely to receive any form of additional support. Ways of managing the preschool group seem to guide support strategies for children with behavior difficulties, rather than child-focused strategies emphasizing engagement in everyday activities.

  • 22.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Children's behavior problems as a predictor of staff implemented intervention in preschool and engagement outcomes.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Uys, CJE
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    The concepts of participation, engagement and flow: A matter of creating optimal play experiences2007In: South African Journal of Occuptional Therapy, ISSN 0038-2337, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 8-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive  functioning  relates  to  the  ability  to  live  a  good  and  healthy  life,  but  for  children  with  special  needs,  this  might  be  compromised  and therefore factors related to positive functioning should be explored. As their restrictions concern a variety of general life situations including issues such as peer group interaction, participation, autonomy and self-determination, the focus should be on the children’s capabilities when they act in their natural environments. Functional abilities and the creation of opportunities in a challenging environment are optimal for new learning to take place, leading the child towards a positive end point. This article analyses constructs of engagement, participation and flow, indicating their interrelatedness and association to positive functioning. Outcomes change and unfold over time, indicating that functioning should be considered dynamic, context-dependent, culturally and historically conditioned. The article concludes with a suggested model for intervention to enhance positive functioning of children with special needs.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Strand Brodd, Katarina
    Martin, Lene
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Born too soon: a project about everyday functioning, health and welfare2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Andersson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Martin, Lene
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Strand Brodd, K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Patterns of everyday functioning in preschool children born preterm and at term2017In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 67, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim Children born preterm are at risk of neonatal complications but the long-term consequences for everyday functioning is not well known. The study aimed to identify patterns of everyday functioning in preschool children born preterm and at term in relation to perinatal data, neonatal risk factors, behaviour, and socioeconomic status. Registry data and data from parent rated questionnaires were collected for 331 children. Method A person-oriented approach with a cluster analysis was used. Results A seven cluster solution explained 65.91% of the variance. Most children (n = 232) showed patterns of strong everyday functioning. A minority of the children (n = 99), showed diverse patterns of weak everyday functioning. Perinatal characteristics, neonatal risk factors and socio-economics did not predict cluster group membership. Children born preterm were represented in all clusters. Conclusion, implications Most preschool children are perceived by their parents with strong everyday functioning despite being born preterm. However small groups of children are, for various reasons, perceived with weak functioning, but preterm birth is not the sole contributor to patterns of weak everyday functioning. More critical for all children's everyday functioning is probably the interaction between individual factors, behavioural factors and contextual factors. To gain a broader understanding of children's everyday functioning. Child Health Services need to systematically consider aspects of body function, activity and in addition participation and environmental aspects.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Martin, Lene
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Strand Brodd, K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Predictors for everyday functioning in preschool children born preterm and at term2016In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, E-ISSN 1872-6232, Vol. 103, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Andersson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Martin, Lene
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Strand Brodd, Katarina
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Childrens and parents percpetions of everyday functioning in preschool children born preterm2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wilder, Jenny
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Granlund, Mats
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Pless, Mia
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Simeonsson, Rune
    School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalens högskola.
    Klang, Nina
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Lillvist, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the version for children and youth as a tool in child habilitation/early childhood intervention: Feasibility and usefulness as a common language and frame of reference for practice2010In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 32, no SUPPL. 1, p. 125-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Early childhood intervention and habilitation services for children with disabilities operate on an interdisciplinary basis. It requires a common language between professionals, and a shared framework for intervention goals and intervention implementation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the version for children and youth (ICF-CY) may serve as this common framework and language. This overview of studies implemented by our research group is based on three research questions: Do the ICF-CY conceptual model have a valid content and is it logically coherent when investigated empirically? Is the ICF-CY classification useful for documenting child characteristics in services? What difficulties and benefits are related to using ICF-CY model as a basis for intervention when it is implemented in services? A series of studies, undertaken by the CHILD researchers are analysed. The analysis is based on data sets from published studies or master theses. Results and conclusion show that the ICF-CY has a useful content and is logically coherent on model level. Professionals find it useful for documenting children's body functions and activities. Guidelines for separating activity and participation are needed. ICF-CY is a complex classification, implementing it in services is a long-term project

  • 29.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Skövde University, Sweden.
    Children's experience of going through an acute radiographic examination2012In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's experience of radiographic examinations remains largely unexplored, although most radiographers examine children on a daily basis. In order to provide the high quality care that meets the needs of patients it was considered important to undertake research focused upon the patients' experience of radiographic practice.The aim of the study was to investigate children's experiences undergoing a radiographic examination for a suspected fracture.Inclusion criteria were Swedish-speaking children between 3 and 15 years of age who were submitted for a radiographic examination with an acute condition of the upper or lower extremity. Patients were informed of the study and together with the escorting parent or relative asked for consent to participate.During the examination the child was videotaped and immediately after, the child was interviewed in a nearby facility. The interview contained open-ended questions and was conducted while watching the videotape together with the child and their parent or relative and the researcher.Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the collected data. The analysis resulted in two categories - " feeling uncomfortable" and " feeling confident" The subcategories contained in these categories were " pain in relation to injury and examination" , " the waiting time is strenuous" , " worries for the future and consequences of the injury" , " confidence in parental presence" , " confidence in radiographic staff and examination procedure" , and finally " recognition entails familiarity" .The results revealed that for the younger children, the experience of undergoing an acute radiographic examination was associated with pain and anxiety, but for the older children, the anxiety was more connected to whether the injury had caused a fracture and any anticipated future consequences or complications. © 2011 The College of Radiographers.

  • 30.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping university.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping university.
    Patterns of support to adolescents related to disability, family situation, harassment and economy2019In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 45, p. 644-653Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Bornman, Juan
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Positive functioning: Exploring its relevance for disability and intervention2007In: South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0038-2337, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Castro, Susana
    et al.
    Univ Roehampton, Sch Educ, London, England..
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Educ & Commun, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    The relationship between classroom quality-related variables and engagement levels in Swedish preschool classrooms: a longitudinal study2017In: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 122-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child engagement has been defined as active participation in classroom routines, appropriate interactions with the environment and it also predicts academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify predictors of engagement over time. Moreover, cross-cultural data is needed to provide a global picture of the quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) across countries. This study aims to describe the quality of Swedish preschool classrooms and its relationship with students' engagement over time. Data was collected from 165 preschool teachers in 55 preschool units in Sweden. Results show that all classroom-related variables (Emotional Support, Instructional Support and Classroom Organisation) have increased levels over time, while engagement remained stable. Three groups of preschool classroom units were identified with similar patterns of classroom quality over time (higher emotional support and lower instructional practice) and similar differences in level. Emotional Support was found to be the best predictor of student engagement over time.

  • 33.
    Fritz, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Wallin, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Implementation of a behavioural medicine approach in physiotherapy – a process evaluation.2017In: World Confederation of Physical Therapy (WCPT) Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, 2-4 July, 2017., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A behavioural medicine approach in physiotherapy for patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain is recommended based on evidence. The approach aims at an individually tailored treatment targeting motor behaviour, cognition, disability and active patient involvement. The behavioural medicine approach is complex and it is challenging in implementation to achieve clinically relevant behaviours in physiotherapy. Process evaluation is an essential part of designing and testing implementation interventions to improve the quality of the implementation. However, studies evaluating the implementation process of a behavioural medicine approach in physiotherapy are sparse.

    Purpose: To explore the implementation process of a behavioural medicine approach in physiotherapy.

    Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. 15 physiotherapists working in six primary health care units were consecutively included. A theory based implementation intervention was tailored to the participating individual physiotherapists. Active and multifaceted implementation strategies were used during a total of seven days spread over a six months implementation period. The main implementation strategies were external facilitation and peer-learning. Ten two-hours outreach sessions were offered to each unit. The physiotherapists were encouraged to use individual goal setting and video recordings of treatment sessions to facilitate feedback and reflection during the sessions with the external facilitator. Process data were collected using semi-structured interviews, self-reports of time allocation for different implementation strategies and documented individual goals. Qualitative content analysis and quantitative frequency scorings were used for data analyses.

    Results: In median the physiotherapists participated in 9 (3-10) out of 10 sessions with the external facilitator. Discussing clinical experiences of the behavioural medicine approach together with the external facilitator was perceived as valuable. These discussions stimulated reflection and problem solving, and was also experienced as a reminder for practicing skills in behavioural medicine. Video recordings of treatment sessions were used by ten of the physiotherapists at 17 out of 57 possible sessions. Video recordings were experienced as too complicated to use in relation to the gains. Lack of time was also considered as a barrier for using video recordings. Individual goal-setting from one session to the next with the external facilitator was frequently used by all the participants. Relevant skills for the goals were practiced in between the sessions. However, goal setting was not considered important by the physiotherapists. In median the physiotherapists spent 3.25 (0-9.5) hours for peer discussions. Peer discussions were a strategy that the physiotherapists wanted to continue with, even after the implementation intervention period. Even though the physiotherapists had permission from the manager to spend time on the implementation intervention, it was challenging for the physiotherapists to prioritize the implementation intervention before patient care.

    Conclusion(s): External facilitation and peer discussions were perceived as important strategies for stimulating practice of behavioural medicine skills in physiotherapy. Further, peer discussions could stimulate sustainability of the implementation. The physiotherapists needed support to use the designated time for the implementation.

    Implications: Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the implementation process is useful for understanding the mechanisms of impact for the implementation intervention, how outcomes were achieved and for future replications.

  • 34.
    Fritz, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Wallin, Lars
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    EXPERIENCES OF USING THE MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL GUIDANCE FOR PROCESS EVALUATION2019In: Advances in Health Care Sciences Conferences, Karolinska Insitutet, Stockholm, 13-14 November, 2019., 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Fritz, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Wallin, Lars
    Univ Dalarna, Falun, Sweden..
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    THE EFFECT OF FACILITATION WHEN IMPLEMENTING A BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE APPROACH IN PHYSICAL THERAPY PRIMARY HEALTH CARE2018In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 25, p. S38-S38Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Fritz, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Wallin, Lars
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    The effect of facilitation when implementing a behavioral medicine approach in physical therapy primary health care2018In: International Congress of Behavioral Medicine, Santiago, Chile. 14-17 november 2018., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Fritz, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Wallin, L.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Implementation of a behavioral medicine approach in physiotherapy: A process evaluation of facilitation methods2019In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In a quasi-experimental study, facilitation was used to support implementation of the behavioral medicine approach in physiotherapy. The facilitation consisted of an individually tailored multifaceted intervention including outreach visits, peer coaching, educational materials, individual goal-setting, video feedback, self-monitoring in a diary, manager support, and information leaflets to patients. A behavioral medicine approach implies a focus on health related behavior change. Clinical behavioral change was initiated but not maintained among the participating physiotherapists. To explain these findings, a deeper understanding of the implementation process is necessary. The aim was therefore to explore the impact mechanisms in the implementation of a behavioral medicine approach in physiotherapy by examining dose, reach, and participant experiences. Methods: An explorative mixed-methods design was used as a part of a quasi-experimental trial. Twenty four physiotherapists working in primary health care were included in the quasi-experimental trial, and all physiotherapists in the experimental group (n = 15) were included in the current study. A facilitation intervention based mainly on social cognitive theory was tested during a 6-month period. Data were collected during and after the implementation period by self-reports of time allocation regarding participation in different implementation methods, documentation of individual goals, ranking of the most important implementation methods, and semi-structured interviews. Descriptive statistical methods and inductive content analysis were used. Results: The physiotherapists participated most frequently in the following implementation methods: outreach visits, peer coaching, educational materials, and individual goal-setting. They also considered these methods to be the most important for implementation, contributing to support for learning, practice, memory, emotions, self-management, and time management. However, time management support from the manager was lacking. Conclusions: The findings indicate that different mechanisms govern the initiation and maintenance of clinical behavior change. The impact mechanisms for initiation of clinical behavior change refers to the use of externally initiated multiple methods, such as feedback on practice, time management, and extrinsic motivation. The lack of self-regulation capability, intrinsic motivation, and continued support after the implementation intervention period were interpreted as possible mechanisms for the failure of maintaining the behavioral change over time. 

  • 38. Granlund, Mats
    et al.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    Delaktighet i skolmiljöer för barn och ungdomar med funktionshinder2002In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 538-545Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Granlund, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lillvist, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lee, A.
    Ståhl, Ylva
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Children in need of special support - a functional approach2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Granlund, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Jönköping university.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lillvist, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping university.
    Patterns of participation and support in preschool settings for children with and without need for additional support.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Granlund, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Luttropp, Agneta
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Delaktighet: Sammanfattning av ett forskningsprojekt2004Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Granlund, Mats
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Wilder, Jenny
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Severe, Multiple Disabilities2013In: The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology and Disability / [ed] Michael Wehmeyer, Oxford University Press, 2013, p. Kap. 28-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Professionalism, governance and inclusive education: A total population study of Swedish special needs educators2019In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research shows that special needs educators (SNEs) have had problems defining their occupational roles and jurisdiction, particularly regarding inclusive education. There are two occupational groups of SNEs in Sweden, namely special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name SNEs to refer to both groups. Here, results from a total population study of Swedish SNEs are presented (N = 3367, response rate 75%). The aim is to explore differences in SNEs’ interpretation of school difficulties and if these differences are influenced by SNEs’ employment in different parts of the school organisation. Statistical cluster-analysis was used to categorise SNEs into five distinct groups based on how they view the problems of pupils in school difficulties. Key concepts employed in the analysis are, primarily organisational vs occupational governance in relation to professional jurisdiction. Findings suggest that SNEs are less unanimous in their views of school problems, than prior research indicates. The variance is partly due to where they work in the school organisation, but we also find indications that different groups of SNEs experience different forms of governance with regard to their professionalism. The results are important due to the scope of the data and method of analysis as well as the illustrated variance of professional values and situations of SNEs and the potential consequences for the development of inclusive education.

  • 44.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Educ Studies, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Educ, Uppsala, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Soc, Falun, Sweden..
    Mollas, Gunvie
    Jönköping Univ, Sch Educ & Commun, Jönköping, Sweden..
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Educ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ideas about occupational roles and inclusive practices among special needs educators and support teachers in Sweden2017In: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 490-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special needs educators (SNEs) and their counterparts are expected to play a significant role in schools' work towards inclusive practices. Studies do, however, indicate a rather diversified picture regarding the occupational groups assigned to work with special support and their workroles, within and between different countries. In Sweden, one can differentiate between two such occupational groups, SNEs with qualifications in special educational needs at advanced level and support teachers (SuTs) with varying teacher education and education in special educational needs. The aims of this article are to investigate the occurrence of SNEs and SuTs within the compulsory school system in 10 municipalities in Sweden and the occupational roles of those SNEs and SuTs in relation to the inclusion agenda. A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all SNEs and SuTs in 10 municipalities (n = 511, response rate 61.6%). Main results indicate that: (a) there is wide variation between municipalities regarding the extent to which SNEs or SuTs are assigned to work with special support; (b) the characteristics of the occupational role of SNEs are more in line with inclusive practices than those of the role of SuTs; (c) there is consensus between the two occupational groups regarding what they think should characterize the occupational role of SNEs; (d) SNEs consider, more than do the SuTs themselves, that the role of SuTs should be more in line with that of a traditional special-education teacher. Results are discussed in relation to Thomas Skrtic's theoretical accounts of inclusive education and Andrew Abbott's notion of jurisdictional control.

  • 45.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Jönköping University.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Patterns of time processing ability in children with and without developmental disabilities2010In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 250-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keywords:

    • child development;
    • cluster analysis;
    • time management;
    • time orientation;
    • time perception

    Background  Children with developmental disabilities, e.g. intellectual disability or autism, are reported to have problems in time perception, time orientation or time management, i.e. in time-processing ability (TPA). The aim was to investigate whether the problems described are diagnosis specific or reflect differences in age or in level of TPA.

    Methods  Using a cross-sectional design, this study investigated if there were different patterns of TPA in 5- to 10-year-old children with (n = 77) and without disabilities (n = 89). The results indicated that the patterns of TPA mainly follow the chronological age of children without disabilities, all clusters differing as regards levels of TPA. Daily time management (as estimated by the parents) and children’s self-rated autonomy differed between clusters and was related to TPA.

    Conclusions  The level of TPA seems to be a more valid overall base than the type of diagnosis for the planning of interventions in daily time management.

  • 46.
    Lidström, Helene
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Computer-based assistive technology device for use by children with physical disabilities: a cross sectional study2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 287-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To investigate the prevalence of children with physical disabilities who used a computer-based ATD, and to examine characteristics differences in children and youths who do or do not use computer-based ATDs, as well as, investigate differences that might influence the satisfaction of those two groups of children and youths when computers are being used for in-school and outside school activities.

    METHOD:

    A cross-sectional survey about computer-based activities in and outside school (n = 287) and group comparisons.Results: The prevalence of using computer-based ATDs was about 44 % (n = 127) of the children in this sample. These children were less satisfied with their computer use in education and outside school activities than the children who did not use an ATD.

    CONCLUSION:

    Improved coordination of the usage of computer-based ATDs in school and in the home, including service and support, could increase the opportunities for children with physical disabilities who use computer-based ATDs to perform the computer activities they want, need and are expected to do in school and outside school.

  • 47.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jönköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Different agendas?: The views of different occupational groups on special needs education2011In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate how different occupational groups explain why children have problems in school, how they believe schools should help these children and the role they believe that special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) should have in such work. A questionnaire was distributed to all teaching and support staff in a Swedish municipality (N=1297). As a result, 938 persons (72.5%) answered the questionnaire. The answers given by (a) preschool teachers (b) teacher assistants (c) SENCOs (d) special teachers (e) class teachers and (f) subject teachers were compared. Several interesting patterns emerged from the data indicating that the occupational groups to a large extent have different ideas concerning how the school should work with children in need of special support. The SENCOs were, for example, the only group that believed that they should be involved in school development. The outcome of the study is discussed in relation to the notion of inclusive education.

  • 48.
    Lygnegård, Frida
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Mälardalens högskola.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Participation profiles in domestic life and peer relations as experienced by adolescents with and without impairments and long-term health conditions2019In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 27-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate how individual and environmental factors relate to self-reported participation profiles in adolescents with and without impairments or long-term health conditions. Methods: A person-oriented approach (hierarchical cluster analysis) was used to identify cluster groups of individuals sharing participation patterns in the outcome variables frequency perceived importance in domestic life and peer relations. Cluster groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: A nine-cluster solution was chosen. All clusters included adolescents with impairment and long-term health conditions. Perceived importance of peer relations was more important than frequent attendance in domestic-life activities. Frequency of participation in dialogues and family interaction patterns seemed to affect the participation profiles more than factors related to body functions. Conclusion: Type of impairment or long-term health condition is a weaker determinant of membership in clusters depicting frequency and perceived importance in domestic life or peer relations than dialogue and family environment.

  • 49.
    Niia, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Granlund, Mats
    Hälsohögskolan Jönköping.
    Student participation and parental involvement in relation to academic achievement2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 297-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study show that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students’ participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students’ participation as more closely related to activity and academic performance. Despite these differences, teachers and students are in closer agreement regarding activities of a social nature. Teachers’ and parents’ ratings of parents’ involvement in school have a higher agreement, but also correlate negatively with the academic achievement of the student. This is likely because communication is more frequent with parents of underachieving students than students with high academic performance. The partly inconsistent results in previous research regarding the relation between participation and academic achievement can here be explained by the choice of raters, as this connection only exists in ratings done by teachers.

  • 50.
    Niia, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Granlund, Mats
    Utvärdering av IDA-projektet: Slutrapport november 20102010Report (Other academic)
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