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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    The Role of Internal Embeddedness for Subsidiary Influence in the Multinational Enterprise2014In: / [ed] Rian Drogendijk, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoverall aim is to address the role of internal embeddedness in subsidiary’sinfluence on strategic decisions in the multinational enterprise andspecifically discuss how the internal production network and the subsidiary management’sinterpersonal relationships facilitate and impede its potential influence.  The two dimensions of internal embeddednessare scrutinized individually and then put together in a conceptualframework.  The internal productionnetwork is made up of where and what the subsidiary do, i.e. their activitiesand how these activities are related to the sister subsidiaries’ activities (astructural dimension), and the interpersonal network is based upon thesubsidiary management’s “voice” and standing in the larger MNC. The papers tentativeconclusion – presented as a conceptual model – is that the internal productionnetwork is the baseline for the degree of strategic influence a subsidiary haswhilst the subsidiary management’s interpersonal network can extend thisinfluence.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Internal MNC structures’ bearing on externally embedded subsidiaries’ organizational performance2015In: Handbook on International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Larimo, J & Nummela, N, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 155-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical research stream that depicts multinational companies (MNCs) as networked organizations has offered new insights on contemporary enterprises’ way of functioning. However, the majority of the research has focused on external embeddedness, that is, MNC subsidiaries’ local business relationships, and its impact on subsidiary organizational performance. This conceptual chapter addresses the lack of research focusing on internal embeddedness, that is, subsidiary relationships with headquarters and sister subsidiaries. Internal embeddedness is discussed from two dimensions: the internal production network and the MNC manager’s social network. The characteristics of each dimension and how they relate to earlier research, leads to a number of theoretical propositions. The chapter concludes with a discussion on how external and internal embeddedness relate, as well as how they may impact the subsidiary’s (organizational) performance.

  • 3.
    Dahlin, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Ekman, Peter
    Introduction2011In: Management and Information Technology: Challenges for the modern organization / [ed] Dahlin, P & Ekman, P., Routledge, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Dahlin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Ekman, PeterMälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Management and information technology: challenges for the modern organization2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Dahlin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Röndell, Jimmie
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    CSR as a value proposition: Exploring the effects and drivers of Swedish real estate firms’ green building certificates2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been widely diffused and it getsmanifested through the stakeholder relationships a firm. We do in this pa-per investigate CSR certificates and their impact on the adopting firm. Weexplore real estate firms – a conservative industry that traditionally havehad a very strong financial focus where their market strategy has followeda strict goods-dominant (G-D) logic but where some firms changes theirmindshift towards service-dominant (S-D) logic thinking. Thus, we build onmultiple sources of data to explore Swedish real estate firms and studytheir approaches to CSR. Our results offer some insights in the character-istics of firms with green environmental certification systems and it has im-plications for how theories on value cocreation needs to be developed.

  • 6.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Affärssystem och affärsrelationer: En fallstudie av en leverantörs användning av affärssystem i interaktion med sina kunder2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 7.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Enterprise Systems & Business Relationships: The Utilization of IT in the Business with Customers and Suppliers2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with how companies utilize their enterprise systems in their business relationships. The study’s starting point is enterprise systems that basically are standardised information systems that the company can acquire from software vendors like SAP, Oracle and Microsoft. Enterprise systems aim to integrate and manage all the company’s data and it can also be linked to its business partners.

    The thesis contains two case studies of how a focal company utilizes its enterprise system in their business relationships. To accomplish this, an analytical framework based upon the combination of an information systems (IS) and a business relationship perspective is developed and applied. The IS perspective follows an ‘ensemble view of technology’ approach which describes the use of information systems as embedded in a both technical and social context. The business relationship perspective is founded in empirical studies of industrial companies. Basically, business relationships are unique and based on the companies’ exchanges. It also involves behavioural elements as trust, commitment, adaptations and interdependencies between the partners.

    The two case studies cover the business relationships between ten companies and the character of the studied business relationships varies. The results show that enterprise systems are mainly focused on the companies’ internal activities. The exchanges in the business relationships are either carried out without the enterprise system or are supported by some complementary information system. Enterprise systems are thus mainly seen as production systems. This can be explained by the heritage from former material and resource planning (MRP) systems. An alternative explanation can be that business relationships are unique and require continuous adaptations and a mutual orientation. Enterprise systems require structural data rendering them difficult to use for the activities of a business relationship. The users then develop other, individual, applications that handle what is needed in their ongoing business. The threat is that information can be lost on a company level. The challenge is therefore to investigate the complementary information systems functions to see if it is possible to extend the enterprise system to include them. To be worth its epithet, the enterprise system must facilitate all the business activities found in the companies business relationships.

  • 8.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    The enterprise system revisited: How well does it capture the company's business network?2015In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 208-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Enterprise systems have been presented as a “dream come true” with a seamless integration of business data through a common database and software modules that can be customized to the companies’ different functions. However, research shows that companies’ utilization of enterprise systems is limited, and that internal processes are prioritized. This paper analyses how well enterprise systems capture the business network in which an industrial company is involved.   Design/methodology/approach – European multinational companies and some of their partners have been followed through case studies between 2003 and 2010. The pattern-matching analysis has been supported by a theoretical framework that depicts industrial companies as engaged in business relationships in a network setting.   Findings – The results show that the company’s relationship-oriented activities are badly captured by the enterprise system. The study highlight limitations that future enterprise systems need to address if they are to be able to offer the company a better insight into its business network.   Originality/value – The traditionally internal focus on enterprise systems means that important business information transcending inter-organizational activities will be missed. To be worthy of the name enterprise system, more customer- and supplier-oriented activities need to be supported and captured.

  • 9.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    'Supra-system' - a bigger picture on information system use*2007In: Examining Langefors' Ideas from information systems, technology, business, and learning perspectives, Mälardalen University, Västerås , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Interconnectedness of "Best practices": How small and midsize companies can gain from selecting the large companies' IT2009In: Handling Plurity of Relationship Forms in Networks: From Clas to Clubs, from Cliques to Communities. Theoretical and managerial Perspectives., www.impgroup.org: IMP Group , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s companies can take advantage of state-of-the art information technology (IT) as enter­prise resource plan­ning (ERP) systems, business intelligence software and web-based services to facilitate their business. Many of these technologies are general in their design – i.e. they are of-the-shelf solutions available to a wider customer group. With­in the information sys­tems (IS) discip­line this has lead to the managerial advice that companies should evalu­ate the IT-vendors prevail­ing market position and the prospect of their future (taking in consideration e.g. the vendors solven­cy). This paper is empirically focusing ERP systems – company wide information systems that comes with a standard set of pre-defined procedures called ‘best practices’ – and it presents two cases that illustrates how these ERP systems inherent the best practices that the IT-provider has developed in cooperation with its prevailing customers. Following the Euro­pean theory on markets as network, i.e. an approach developed within the IMP Group, a alternative managerial advice would be to assess the vendor’s business network. Thus, this paper puts forth the later approach and discusses how a company contri­butes respectively benefits from selecting an IT-provider that develops enter­prise systems for their respectively industrial sector. The paper puts forth two cases where one illustrates how a company is involved in the deve­lop­ment of a IT-vendors best practices and the other case illustrates how a company gets best practices by looking at the IT-vendors customers. The two illustrating case studies are carried out at Kanthal AB, a company within the Sandvik Group, and at CH Industry AB, a small supplier to Volvo Construction Equipment. Whilst the larger company Kanthal had to go through a process of software custo­mization to get the adequate functions in their ERP system CH Industry has instead gone with the standard package. The customization that Kanthal required has later become one of the IT provider’s features, i.e. a new best practice, some­thing that other customers can benefit from. CH Industry has also selected the same complex and compre­hen­sive ERP system as Kanthal even if their need, as a rather small company, should be of another nature. CH Industry has though selected a competitive standard package and they motivate their choice of ERP system by relating to the IT-pro­vider’s customer base. Implicit CH Industry understands that the IT-provider’s customer network will mean that their ERP system will be offered continuous improvements and upgrades, and they will thereby getting state-of-the-art best practices even in the future. The paper concludes with discussing the interconnectedness of best practices – whilst Kanthal are an active partner in the deve­lop­ment of a set of best practices, CH Industry is a company that benefits from prevailing best practices. The implica­tion of the cases is that a company benefits from an awareness of its IT-vendor’s wider business network. Comp­anies needs to – as well as considering the IT provider’s solvency, market position, and evaluations of the technology as advised by managerial infor­ma­tion system theories – evaluate the IT-provider’s prevailing customers and their business proce­dures and preferences.

  • 11.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    A case study of IT-based and human interaction in industrial business relationships2014In: Coping with recurring issues in BtoB research: The Sisyphus effect? or a Rolling stone syndrome?, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer-oriented firms (B2C) have grasped the benefits of modern integrated information technology (IT) systems as CRM and web-shops that allow them to capture, store, and manage consumer data to fulfill their expectations and needs on an individual and customized basis. This means that firms acting on consumer markets can use ‘high tech’ for ‘high touch’, i.e. using IT to met the consumer on a personal level. Based on the findings in a large case study spanning multiple business relationships (dyads) between buying and selling industrial firms we propose that the high tech/high touch logic is different at industrial markets (B2B). Here, industrial firms strive towards an increased use of interorganizational integrated IT systems (high tech) to lower interaction costs and at the same time increase the reliance in their business relationships. This is at the same time challenged by the employees’ preference for human interaction (high touch) as a mean to uphold trust and solve what they perceive as equivocalities. While consumer market’s high tech is based on the collection of consumer behavior high tech in industrial markets is much more a two-way street were partner firms work for integrated IT systems at the same time as the interacting employees appreciate the social dimension of business. This explorative study indicate that high tech and high touch in industrial markets is more a case of ‘either or’ rather that ‘and’ as in consumer markets. The study is explorative and presents a number of propositions that can be used for further studies.

  • 12.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Lind, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Révay, Péter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Information Systems Use as a Result of External Influences2006In: microCAD 2006 International Scientific Conference: Applied Information Engineering, 2006, p. 73-78Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of an information system (IS) can be studied as a result of all the efforts that an organization has put on the introduction of IS, as for example change management, user training, support training and proper technical infrastructure. The description takes its starting point in the organization per se, whilst the one in this paper is external. In this paper, a complementary perspective is offered that can explain the final use of an IS, illustrated by three empirical papers. The use of an IS can be a result of the interorganizational influences as customers, suppliers or other stakeholders. The paper shows that the external environment has a direct effect on how the user experiences an IS and uses it.

  • 13.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Révay, Péter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    'Supra-System': A Bigger Picture on Information Systems Use2007In: microCAD 2007 International Scientific Conference: Applied Information Engineering, 2007, p. 51-56Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Business Studies, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Information technology utilization for industrial marketing activities: The IT–marketing gap2015In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 926-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to investigates the possible gap between the logic of these information technology (IT) systems and industrial firms’ marketing practices. Industrial firms rely extensively on IT systems for their business. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the contemporary marketing practice (CMP) model, which depicts firms’ marketing practice as ranging from transactional to more relational and networked-based, the logic of IT systems and how users in industrial firms adopt them are amended to create an extended model. The extended model is used to analyze an in-depth case based on 63 interviews regarding one industrial firm’s business with customers and suppliers and how IT is utilized in this setting. Findings – Results show that industrial firms’ relationship-oriented business is poorly supported by currently used IT systems. This gap between the IT systems, which are transaction-focused, and industrial firms’ marketing practice, which is relationship-based, has severe effects on adoption and efficiency of IT systems. The marketers prefer local, non-integrated, IT with limited usefulness on an overall firm level while resisting the firms’ comprehensive IT systems. This forms an IT–marketing gap given that current IT does not match the marketing practice of relationship-oriented industrial firms. Originality/value – This study applies an extended CMP model in a novel way focusing one industrial firm, its customers and suppliers and the IT used in this setting. The study shows that all marketing practices of the CMP model can be found in one firm’s business, albeit one category, i.e. interaction marketing (a relationship approach), is dominating. The use of the CMP framework offers new and valuable insights into the fundamental cause to the industrial marketers’ limited use of integrated IT.

  • 15.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Information technology utilization for practical marketing activities: The IT-marketing gap2013In: BUILDING AND MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS IN A GLOBAL NETWORK: CHALLENGES AND NECESSARY CAPABILITIES, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how industrial companies’ IT infrastructure match their applied marketing approach. The supporting theoretical framework is based upon the contemporary marketing practice (CMP) model that depicts companies as spanning from transactional to more relational and networked. This is supported by theories on the logic of IT systems and how users in industrial companies adopt them. The study is based upon two longitudinal subsequent case studies of a multinational company’s business with influential customers. The analysis shows that the utilized IT systems mainly follow efficiency logic that is useful for individual business transactions. However, the form of complex industrial business that industrial companies carries out are often relationship based and sometimes even incorporating the adjacent business network. Thus, there is a IT-marketing gap given that contemporary IT does not match the need the marketing practice of a modern industrial company.

  • 16.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch Isa
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Pajuvirta, Andreas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Tit for tat and big steps: The case of Swedish banks' internationalization 1961-20102014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1049-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines four major Swedish banks' internationalization process patterns during the period 1961-2010. The study complements earlier studies by also considering the banks' levels of market commitment. One objective is to determine if 'Tit for tat'-behaviour seen in earlier studies of Swedish banks still prevails after the deregulation. Adding to earlier studies, this study also considers the level of market activities and commitments. A secondary purpose is to examine how the financial crisis has affected the banks with reference to the banks' internationalization patterns. The empirical study is based on archival data on the studied banks' foreign operations. The results show that the banks' behaviour follows 'Tit for tat'-behaviour but that the internationalization has accelerated after the deregulation, hence being carried out with 'big steps' rather than small steps. The analysis also shows that the mimetic behaviour is complemented by other types of internationalization behaviours. The differences in bank internationalization also mean that the effect of a financial crisis varies depending on how the banks have internationalized.

  • 17.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Melander, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    The practical use of information technology in multinational enterprises2012In: Management Dilemmas int the Information Technology Era / [ed] Celina Solek, Warsawa: WAT , 2012, 1, p. 55-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Raggio, R. D.
    Robins School of Business, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA, United States.
    Thompson, S.
    Robins School of Business, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA, United States.
    Developing smart commercial real estate: Technology-based self-service (TBSS) in commercial real estate facilities2016In: IEEE 2nd International Smart Cities Conference: Improving the Citizens Quality of Life, ISC2 2016 - Proceedings, 2016, article id 07580744Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real estate companies are central actors in the development of a smart city. However, most industry participants are conservative and prefer to utilize established, often unintegrated, technologies rather than deploy newer technologies that would help achieve the goals of the smart city. To evaluate the potential of smart commercial real-estate (CRE) we studied a Swedish commercial real estate firm that has developed and deployed a technology-based self-service (TBSS) to help tenants reduce energy consumption. The study was grounded in the theoretical service-dominant (S-D) logic lexicon and our results suggest that for commercial real estate firms to successfully implement TBSS they need to enhance their competence in three areas: management of information technology, withinorganization and business-to-business networking skills. Further, these areas are inter-related and successful deployment of TBSS requires improvement in all three areas.

  • 19.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Raggio, Randle D.
    Univ Richmond, Richmond, USA..
    Thompson, Steven M.
    Univ Richmond, Richmond, USA..
    Service network value co-creation: Defining the roles of the generic actor2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 56, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional goods dominant logic lexicon assumes pre-specified and static roles of market participants. Fixed roles such as 'supplier' and 'customer' imply that value creation occurs between two parties (the dyad) and occurs in a specified direction (i.e., from a supplier to a customer). In contrast, service dominant logic suggests that markets are comprised of generic actors engaged-in bilateral actor-to-actor exchanges. However, the generic actor concept is not well developed in existing literature. We contribute to the literature by providing a typology of generic actor roles and identifying multiple types of value that may be co-created in a network. To empirically ground the concepts and generate propositions, we follow the development and deployment of a self-service technology, the Green Fingerprint, in the Swedish commercial real estate industry. Within a service network we find that generic actors assume several roles simultaneously, and may perceive multiple forms of co-created value. Theoretically, this paper offers a basis for further study of the generic actor and types of value, as well as an understanding of how network value co-creation emerges and evolves. Managerially, it offers insights into the existing value and co-creation potential of all actors, even those who are currently passive or reject a value proposition. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Raggio, Randle
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Thompson, Steven
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Developing sustainability service technology abilities: An exploratory case study2016In: Change and Transformations of Markets, Relationships and Networks / [ed] Krzysztof Fonfara, Zygmunt Waśkowski and Milena Ratajczak-Mrozek, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although markets are flooded with digital services to help consumers, B2B marketers have to a lesser degree developed technology-based services that support their customers. B2B firms that engage in new technology-based self-service (TBSS) do not only have to develop and exploit resources within their firm; they must also secure resources through relationships with partner firms such as IT vendors, software developers, and so forth. In doing this, they will confront both their own and other industrial networks’ different institutional logics. This study utilizes IMP and service-dominant logic (SDL) thinking as a mean to assess the challenges firms face when they aim to redefine their offering to include TBSS. Through an explorative and grounded case study research design focusing a sustainable TBSS, we develop an emerging conceptual framework that presentations the abilities required for developing and managing TBSSs. Besides developing this framework that comes with managerial implications, the paper access the usefulness of bridging IMP and SDL thinking by acknowledging the institutional logics that are at play in different networks.

  • 21.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Raggio, Randle
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Thompson, Steven
    University of Richmond, USA.
    VALUE PROPOSITION ALIGNMENT: ESTIMATING SUSTAINABLE SELF-SERVICE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES: AN EXTENDED ABSTRACT2016In: Creating Marketing Magic and Innovative Future Marketing Trends, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Révay, Péter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Expanding the Perspective2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERPs) allow firms to integrate their information and control their departments. The ERPs are originally developed to handle a single firms production process, which means that their effects can be interpreted as affecting a firm intraorganizational. With the later growth of interorganizational usage of ERPs, something that is described as ERP2, firms can expand the ERP to include interorganizational usage (i.e. with different business partners). When doing so, the ERP design can’t only support internal routines, but it also have to adapt to the activities that are carried out with business partners. This article discusses the need to widening the perspective when examining ERPs in a business context; to not only involve intraorganizational or interorganizational issues, but to use both perspectives simultaneously. It also shows how the internal (intraorganizational) usage of the ERP can be interpreted as more rigid and governing than the use in the business interaction with others (interorganizational), which is more ad hoc. A case study indicates that the ERP use in the business interaction is less frequent or even dismissed and that other information systems (IS), suitable for the activities that are carried out with the business partners, are preferred. This highlights the need of considering the users needs, their activities, and their business interaction when designing ERPs that are support the business interaction with other firms.

  • 23.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Röndell, Jimmie
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    An updated conceptualization of transvections: Providers, beneficiaries and institutions2016In: FMM2016: Extending Service-Dominant Logic / [ed] Steven Largo, Robert Lusch and Irene Ng, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Wroe Alderson’s market ‘transvections’ (Alderson, 1965) was an early conceptualization of how an offering resulted in value creation after a series of transformations and transactions. The efficiency and effectiveness of how a good, from raw material to the product used by an end-consumer, should be able to be assessed. We will in this paper further develop the idea of transvections based on empirically grounded concepts from the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) research tradition in parallel with the currently developing Service-Dominant (S-D) logic lexicon. The objective with this paper is to pinpoint theoretical and methodological challenges that may contribute to a grand theory of markets that infuses the idea of markets as networks and the S-D logic lexicon. A second objective is to offer an updated version of the transvection that are released from Goods-Dominant (G-D) logic thinking and that are based upon the interaction between generic actors rather than Alderson’s conceptualization of business actors as firms and households. 

    Design/Approach –The paper is conceptual in nature and based on an extent literature review of research contributions on Alderson’s transvection, IMP’s business networks, and S-D logic’s value co-creation.  Both IMP and S-D logic has made attempts to leave the G-D logic depiction of market actors as firms, customers, and distributors etcetera in favor for a more generic actor role but to different degrees.

    Findings – We propose that the generic actor, which may assume a provider and beneficiary role, is a suitable starting-point for developing an updated transvection. However, whilst Alderson’s transvection followed a focal product the updated transvection will need to follow a focal beneficiary. Furthermore, the updated transvection addresses the market actors’ roles differently (provider or beneficiary) and the roles are not static but in constant flux (a beneficiary will e.g., also be a provider through its engagement in value co-creation).  The focal beneficiary will through multiple interactions that take place throughout the transvection result in a perceived value.  The transvection cut through several service ecosystems of actors (holding both people, artifacts and technologies) that are affected by what have been described as institutional arrangements (Vargo and Lusch, 2016) or institutional logics (Edvardsson et al., 2012) that may harmonize as well as dissonance.  

    Implications – The updated transvection is infusing the S-D logic lexicon and it highlights the interplay between three layers; the focal beneficiary that experiences a service with a certain temporal span, other engaged market actors (providers), and the affecting institutional logics that are at play.  The outcome of a transvection does thereby affect the institutional arrangements but also become the catalyst for other transvections which thereby offers a ground for perpetual and circular market thinking.

  • 24.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Röndell, Jimmie
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Smart indicators for real estate management: Dealing with institutional logics when developing and implementing indicators for real estate sustainability2016In: IEEE 2nd International Smart Cities Conference: Improving the Citizens Quality of Life, ISC2 2016 - Proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing and implementing ways to measure sustainability (i.e., indicators) need to cope with rivalry and conflicts in institutional logics to become a useful tool when planning and initiating actions for sustainable development. This paper reports on the structure of a current research project and elaborates on early research results. The aim is to initiate a discussion regarding new challenges and explore potential research directions on the matter of institutional logics and sustainable development when developing smart indicators. The paper presents the initial theoretical framework focusing institutional logics and the methodological structure.

  • 25.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    ERP selection through business relationships: adaptations or connections2011In: International Journal of Entrepreneural Venturing, ISSN 1742-5360, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 63-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses how a generic form of information technology (IT), enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, can be selected by companies to enhance their business. ERP systems are a means of becoming more efficient through predefined standard functions called 'best practices'. Following the theory that markets are made up of business relationships in a network context, managerial advice would be to assess the vendor's existing business relationships. A company can harvest the inherent functions that an ERP system has from the vendor's prior interaction with other customers. This paper discusses how a company benefits from engaging in a new business relationship with an ERP vendor to become more competitive. However, this relationship is double-edged. A lesson is that the functions developed by the ERP vendor and the customer only offer a temporal competitive advantage, given that it can be used later in the ERP vendor's other connected business relationships.

  • 26.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business.
    Understanding Enterprise Systems' Impact(s) on Business Relationships2005In: Advances in Information Systems Development: Bridging the Gap between Academia and Industry, Springer , 2005, p. 591-602Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise systems (ESs), i.e. standardized applications supplied from software vendors such as SAP or Oracle, have been extensively employed by companies during the last decade. Today all Fortune 500 companies have, or are in the process of installing, this kind of information system. A wide-spread denotation for these applications is enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. But the broad utilization use of these software packages in business is rendering this labelling too narrow (Davenport 2000).

    A central aspect of ESs is their multi-dimensional characteristics. Based upon a (virtual) common database, ESs allow all business activities to be observed throughout the company (i.e. an operation performed by marketing may be displayed in finance; purchasing; supply functions, and so forth, in real-time). But with this high visibility and extensive information processing capacity comes the drawback that the information system as a whole may be hard to grasp (Markus 2004, Davenport 1998).

    When implementing an ES package, the company can select from different industry-adapted modules providing core functionalities (i.e. that support proc¬es¬ses such as production, supply chain management, and R&D), as well among complementary modules to be used in support processes (such as finance, HR, marketing, etc). In fact, along with Internet, ESs can be seen as the most important technology to have attained wide-spread use during the last decade (Seddon et al. 2003). For a company this means that the integration of an ES into its business operations by neces-sity will, to a greater or lesser extent, affect the business activities that are carried out. For companies, these business activities have been observed by researchers to take place within relatively stable, long-term oriented business relationships with specific well-known counterparts (Håkansson and Snehota 1995). This means that ESs, especially with the high level of usage in companies (Seddon et al. 2003), become an interesting research object not only from a company-focused perspective, but also from a broader perspective, allowing business relationships to unique suppliers and customers to be included.

    But how can ESs be captured and understood in this setting? This question will be discussed and elaborated on in the following sections, leading to some recommendations on relevant issues

  • 27.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Thompson, Steve
    University of Richmond.
    Whitaker, Jonathan
    University of Richmond.
    Drivers and obstacles for global IT in the embedded multinational: A multiple case study2011In: The impact of globalization on networks and relationship dynamics, Glasgow, 2011, p. 1-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multinational companies (MNCs) have been actively pursuing globally integrated information technology (IT) as a mechanism for better coordination and control of business processes. This paper presents a multiple case study of five MNCs’ experiences with global IT initiatives and explores the drivers and obstacles they encountered.  We conceptualize the MNC as being embedded in internal and external business relationships. The analysis shows that the MNCs’ main motives for global IT can be found in the headquarter-subsidiary relationship where global IT enables the firm to obtain economies of scale and increased control which in turn enables the MNC to become international or global oriented. The external embeddedness, i.e. the subsidiary-partner relationships as well as other connected business relationships in the local business networks, is one of the major obstacles for global IT as it requires a level of adaptability not inherent in the context of global IT standards.

  • 28.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Windahl, Torbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Extending the ERP system: considering the business relationship portfolio2014In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 480-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Research has shown that companies focus their internal processes when they adopt enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. However, the ERP systems need to expand their functionality to include customers and suppliers (with e-commerce functionality) to reach their full potential. The purpose of this paper is to consider business relationships as a resource but also a limitation when companies strive to get an extended ERP system.

    Design/Methodology/approach – The paper presents an illustrative case study of an industrial company’s process of developing an extended ERP and how the company’s portfolio of business relationships has affected the solution. The analysis is supported by the markets-as-networks theory.

    Findings – The process of developing an extended ERP system needs to incorporate the company’s business partners (customers and suppliers). It is a simultaneously bottom-up and top-down process given that the operative frontline staff hold the knowledge about the company’s business relationships while the corporate management has the means of extending the ERP system functionality and align it with the focal company’s strategy.

    Research implications – Companies need to consider the fact that the technological and financial status of their customers and suppliers differ. Thus, an effective and flexible extended ERP system needs to include both a high-end and low-end solution as well as understand that a full interorganizational integration might not be realistic.

    Originality/value – The paper puts forth business relationship portfolios as an important factor to consider when extending the ERP system functionality in the supply chain and towards customers. 

  • 29.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Thompson, Steve
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Generation e2012In: Mercury, ISSN 2001-3272, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 22-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    A Business Relationship Perspective on Information System Supplier/Client Relationships Characteristics 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Erixon, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Studying information system provider relationships impact on business relationships2013In: BUILDNING AND MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS IN A GLOBAL NETWORK: CHALLENGES AND NECESSARY CAPABILITIES, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems are used for managing and supporting companies’ business relationships and have become an important part of companies’ exchanges with their customers. Information systems are usually managed by a third party, an information system provider (IS-provider). Companies are dependent on their information systems to maintain their business performances and are therefore also dependent on the IS-provider's competence. This paper studies the impact that a company’s IS-provider relationships have on its customer business relationships. By using the concept of connection and studying its degree of continuity and strength, the study offers insight on the impact of the IS-providers' relationships on a company's customer relationships. The study consists of a case study involving five customer relationships and four IS-provider relationships, creating twenty within-cases. The result shows that the companies' relationships are dependent on the exchanges with the IS-providers. This impact and the characteristic of the connection may vary over time, making the concept of continuity important to consider when evaluating a company's relationship with IS-providers. The study shows that it is important for companies to consider these two business relationships in relation to one another when managing the IS-provider relationship and the information systems that are used in customer relationships. Important management aspects can be missed in the evaluation of an IS-provider, if the connection between the relationships is left out of the analysis.

  • 32.
    Gillmore, Edward
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    How Subsidiaries Sustain Their Charters Despite Loss of Mandate: The Mediating Role of Internal Relational Attributes.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Integration of information technology in business relationships: Implications for the extended network2016In: Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms / [ed] Havila, V., Pahlberg, C. & Thilenius, P, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 177-192Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Maaninen-Olsson, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Sundström, Angelina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Bringing practitioners into the classroom: Student reflections and learning styles.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Raggio, Randle
    et al.
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thompson, Steven
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Reframing Energy Conservation as Energy Productivity2016In: Regaining Relevance: Doing Research that Shapes the Practice of Marketing, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although commercial and industrial energy use accounts for 70% of end-use energy consumption, most marketing studies have focused on consumer response to energy efficiency programs.  We study firms in the commercial real estate sector in Stockholm, Sweden, to demonstrate that existing energy efficiency metrics on which certifications such as LEED and BREEAM are based (such as kWh/m2), while easy to obtain, suffer from significant limitations such as floor effects, thus lose their impact over time.  Interviews reveal that CFOs focus almost exclusively on profitability, while corporate, government and (I)NGO sustainability mangers focus almost exclusively on energy reduction. Unfortunately, energy reduction may be impossible (and counterproductive) when an organization is growing.  In response, we offer energy productivity, conceptualized as output/unit of energy, as an alternative metric.  We demonstrate, with data from firms in Stockholm, that it overcomes the limitations of existing measures and produces positive results for firms and society.  As a result, it has the potential to function as a measure that CFOs and environmentalists can both embrace.  Recommendations for implementation are discussed.  

  • 36.
    Thompson, S.
    et al.
    University of Richmond, Richmond, United States.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Raggio, R.
    University of Richmond, Richmond, United States.
    The green fingerprint: Decreasing energy consumption with decision support systems2015In: 2015 Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable business development is a challenge that requires both organizational change and changes to individual behavior. We report on the design and implementation of an app-based decision support system designed to promote environmentally responsible behavior among individuals in a B2B setting. The app, known as the "Green Fingerprint" was designed in collaboration with a commercial real estate firm and subsequently deployed in several tenant sites in the greater Stockholm area. We measured energy productivity defined as revenue in Swedish Kronor/kilowatt hours of electricity consumption. Over a two year period participating firms were able to significantly increase energy productivity by as much as much as 100% as a result of direct feedback and adopting conservation techniques recommended by the system. Increased energy productivity resulted in annual energy costs that were substantially less than if energy productivity had not increased.

  • 37.
    Thompson, Steve
    et al.
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Selby, Daniel
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Whitaker, Jonathan
    University of Richmond, USA.
    A model to support IT infrastructure planning and the allocation of IT governance authority2014In: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 59, p. 108-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology (IT) requires a significant investment, involving up to 10.5% of revenue for some firms. Managers responsible for aligning IT investments with their firm's strategy seek to minimize technology costs, while ensuring that the IT infrastructure can accommodate increasing utilization, new software applications, and modifications to existing software applications. It becomes more challenging to align IT infrastructure and IT investments with firm strategy when firms operate in multiple geographic markets, because the firm faces different competitive positions and unique challenges in each market.

    We discussed these challenges with IT executives at four Forbes Global 2000 firms headquartered in Northern Europe. We build on interviews with these executives to develop a discrete-time, finite-horizon Markov decision model to identify the most economically-beneficial IT infrastructure configuration from a set of alternatives. While more flexibility is always better (all else equal) and lower cost is always better (all else equal), our model helps firms evaluate the tradeoff between flexibility and cost given their business strategyand corporate structure. Our model supports firms in the decision process by incorporating their data and allowing firms to include their expectations of how future business conditions may impact the need to make IT changes. Because the model is flexible enough to accept parameters across a range of business strategies and corporate structures, the model can help inform decisions and ensure that design choices are consistent with firm strategy.

  • 38.
    Whitaker, J.
    et al.
    University of Richmond.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Thompson, S.
    University of Richmond.
    Americas conference on information systems AMCIS2012 Seattle: How multinational firms use IT to manage their global operations2012In: 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2012, AMCIS 2012, 2012, p. 1119-1126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a generally-acknowledged importance of IT in enabling global strategy and a broad understanding of the manner in which IT enhances coordination and reduces cost, few studies have focused precisely on how multinational firms use IT to facilitate globalization. We conduct a detailed case study across four major multinational firms, and use primary data to develop theoretical propositions on the characteristics of products, processes and customers that impact the ways in which multinational firms use IT to manage their global operations.

  • 39.
    Whitaker, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Richmond, USA.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thompson, Steven
    University of Richmond, USA.
    How Multinational Corporations Use Information Technology to Manage Global Operations2017In: Journal of Computer Information Systems, ISSN 0887-4417, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a generally acknowledged importance of information technology (IT) in enabling global strategy and a broad understanding of the manner in which IT enhances coordination and reduces cost, few studies have focused precisely on how multinational corporations (MNCs) use IT to facilitate globalization. To address this gap in the literature, we conduct a case study across four large MNCs, and use primary data to develop predictive propositions on the characteristics of products, processes, and customers that impact the ways in which MNCs use IT to manage their global operations.

1 - 39 of 39
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