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  • 1.
    Buhr, Katarina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst; Linkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Roth, Susanna
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Sweden.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Sweden.
    Climate Change Politics through a Global Pledge-and-Review Regime: Positions among Negotiators and Stakeholders2014In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 794-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pledge-and-review is an essential pillar for climate change mitigation up until 2020 under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this paper, we build on a survey handed out to participants at the Seventeenth Conference of Parties in 2011 to examine to what extent climate negotiators and stakeholders agree with existing critiques towards pledge-and-review. Among the critique examined, we find that the one most agreed with is that the pledges fall short of meeting the 2 degree target, while the one least agreed with is that pledges are voluntary. We also find that respondents from Annex 1 parties are more critical than respondents from Non-Annex 1 parties. Negotiators display strikingly similar responses regardless of where they are from, while there is a remarkable difference between Annex 1 and Non-Annex 1 environmental non-governmental organizations. We build on these results to discuss the legitimacy of pledge-and-review.

  • 2.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Active buildings in smart grids - Exploring the views of the Swedish energy and buildings sectors2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 117, p. 185-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart grids is expected to shift the role of buildings in power networks from passive consumers to active players that trade on power markets in real-time and participate in the operation of networks. Although there are several studies that report on consumer views on buildings with smart grid features, there is a gap in the literature about the views of the energy and buildings sectors, two important sectors for the development. This study fills this gap by presenting the views of key stakeholders from the Swedish energy and buildings sectors on the active building concept with the help of interviews and a web survey. The findings indicate that the active building concept is associated more with energy use flexibility than self-generation of electricity. The barriers to development were identified to be primarily financial due to the combination of the current low electricity prices and the high costs of technologies. Business models that reduce the financial burdens and risks related to investments can contribute to the development of smart grid technologies in buildings, which, according to the majority of respondents from the energy and buildings sectors, are to be financed by housing companies and building owners. 

  • 3.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Buildings in the future energy system: Perspectives of the Swedish energy and buildings sectors on current energy challenges2015In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 107, p. 254-263, article id Article number 6090Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings are expected to play a key role in the development and operation of future smart energy systems through real-time energy trade, energy demand flexibility, self-generation of electricity, and energy storage capabilities. Shifting the role of buildings from passive consumers to active players in the energy networks, however, may require closer cooperation between the energy and buildings sectors than there is today. Based on 23 semi-structured interviews and a web survey answered by key stakeholders, this study presents the views of the energy and buildings sectors on the current energy challenges in a comparative approach. Despite conflicting viewpoints on some of the issues, the energy and buildings sectors have similar perspectives on many of the current energy challenges. Reducing CO2 emissions is a shared concern between the energy and buildings sectors that can serve as a departure point for inter-sectoral cooperation for carbon-reducing developments, including the deployment of smart energy systems. The prominent energy challenges were identified to be related to low flexibilities in energy supply and use, which limit mutually beneficial cases, and hence cooperation, between the energy and buildings sectors today.

  • 4.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Cooperation for climate-friendly developments: An analysis of the relationship between the energy and buildings sectors in Sweden2016In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 353-370Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings account for more than 40 % of the total energy demand in the European Union (EU). The energy sector is responsible for 80 % of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the EU, of which more than a third are emitted as a result of energy use in buildings. Given these numbers and the large potential for energy savings in buildings, the energy and buildings sectors emerged as key contributors to fulfilling the European climate targets. Effective cooperation between these two key sectors can contribute significantly to the efficacy of the European climate strategy. However, there may be factors that negatively impact the relationship between the energy and buildings sectors and put cooperation in climate-friendly developments at risk. Based on 23 semi-structured interviews and a web survey answered by key stakeholders, this paper provides a snapshot of the current level of cooperation between the energy and buildings sectors in Sweden and identifies factors that impact the interdependencies between the two sectors.

    The findings show that the current business models in energy supply and the regulations in place limit the development of mutually beneficial cases between the energy and buildings sectors. This paper contributes to improved knowledge for policymaking that affects both sectors and highlights issues for further study.

  • 5.
    Fischer, Carolyn
    et al.
    Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, USA.
    Torvanger, Asbjörn
    CICERO, Oslo, Norway.
    Shrivastava, Manish Kumar
    TERI, IHC Complex, New Delhi, India.
    Sterner, Thomas
    University of Gothenbur.
    Stigson, Peter
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    How Should Support for Climate-Friendly Technologies Be Designed?2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilizing global greenhouse gas concentrations at levels to avoid significant climate risks will require massive "decarbonization" of all the major economies over the next few decades, in addition to the reduced emissions from other GHGs and carbon sequestration. Achieving the necessary scale of emissions reductions will require a multifaceted policy effort to support a broad array of technological and behavioral changes. Change on this scale will require sound, well-thought-out strategies. In this article, we outline some core principles, drawn from recent social science research, for guiding the design of clean technology policies, with a focus on energy. The market should be encouraged to make good choices: pricing carbon emissions and other environmental damage, removing distorting subsidies and barriers to competition, and supporting RD&D broadly. More specific policies are required to address particular market failures and barriers. For thosetechnologies identified as being particularly desirable, some narrower RD&D policies are available.

  • 6.
    Stigson, B.
    et al.
    Stigson and Partners AB, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A future resource and pollution constrained world-An agenda for a new partnership between business, governments and academia2015In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 98, p. 255-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world will undergo rapid and profound developments during the coming decades. This is due to a number of global mega trends, such as population growth, poverty alleviation and urbanisation. The result is a future that will be both resource and pollution constrained. Following the development of the past decades, this future also includes increased systems complexity and an interconnected world. To deal with these challenges, the global society must move towards a more collaborative approach that builds on a grand coalition of stakeholders. Building on experiences from global business, international policy advisory positions and research, this opinion-piece discusses items on an agenda to deal with the challenges in creating a sustainable future. 

  • 7.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Reducing Swedish Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Basic Industry and Energy Utilities: An Actor and Policy Analysis2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze the design of the present climate and energy policies. The main focus is on how the policy instruments affect the Swedish stakeholders who are included in the European Union’s Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS). In-depth interviews have been carried out with representatives from the basic industry, energy utilities as well as industrial and green organizations. The purpose is to illustrate have how these stakeholders view the current policy framework and what amendments that they view as necessary.

    Suggestions to the Government are given regarding the design of national policies and policy instruments to provide for an improved policy framework. The information and synthesis have furthermore been collected through extensive literature studies as well as participating at conferences and seminars.

    The thesis is written as a monograph in order to address a larger group of readers interested in the transition of energy systems towards sustainability as well as policy makers and Swedish stakeholders. The common understanding that the global energy systems have to undergo a transition to renewables and higher energy efficiency due to the earth’s finite sources of fossil fuels and uranium presents large challenges for policy makers and business sectors as well as the society in general.

    Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have to be drastically reduced and the work to achieve this has started through international negotiations such as the Kyoto Protocol. As the present commitment levels are low, an important issue in a short-term perspective is to develop a more comprehensive and efficient system with a much wider participation and more stringent emission targets.

    In order to achieve current national policy goals and international GHG emission commitments the Swedish Government utilizes a number of policy instruments that are either nationally self-assumed or called for by international agreements or the European Union. The Swedish stakeholders that are included in the EU-ETS face a broad policy framework that has a large impact on their daily operations and future investment strategies. It is imperative for the policymakers, i.e. the Government, to act in accordance with the long-term perspective that the climate change issue and the transition of the energy system require. It is likewise important that any actions are in accordance with the operational and investment climate that the business sector faces. It is argued that these aspects are not fully considered as the success of the next national budget or term of public office seems to overshadow these issues. A long-term perspective is required to provide the business sector with stable and reliable incentives. This is needed to provide the economic conditions under which the businesses can realize investments that will result in emission reductions. Short-term policies reinforce the view of environmental investments as a form of risk investments. This negatively affects the possibility of the policy instruments to effectively achieve established policy goals.

    Paying attention to these requirements is however not a simple task for policy makers as it will require agreements between the political parties. This demonstrates the main political difficulty with climate change – the requirement of a long-term and full commitment by all state authorities. It should be noted that the thesis does not attempt to describe the Swedish policy makers as neglecting the urgency of acting to mitigate climate change. The national agenda is far to advanced from an international perspective for such statements. The thesis however pinpoints some important issues highlighted by stakeholders, within the business sector and other organizations, who are concerned with the present climate and energy policy framework.

    Some of the findings are as follows:

    • Reducing GHG emissions in order to combat climate change must include a long-term perspective

    • The design of policy instruments should consequently be long-term to increase the support for investments in GHG emission reducing technologies

    • The design of policies that promote low GHG production alternatives within the energy utilities should be improved

    • The large potential for reduced GHG emission available through fuel switching and energy efficiency improvements in the Swedish basic industry should be promoted by amended policies

    • Reformulate or abandon the national GHG emissions target goal with the current formulation

    • Strive for an emission rights allocation system that is as transparent, fair and predictable as possible

    • The policy framework should aim for a high level of stability through interaction with the affected stakeholders

    • These factors are inherently important for the overall efficiency of the policy framework

  • 8.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The industry role in policymaking: Policy learning in climate politics2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic change has sparked a broad range of responses on all societal levels. New initiatives and negotiations, scientific findings, and technological developments, have established a novel framework for policymaking and industrial abatement investments. Lessons on the evolving framework should be analysed and utilised to handle the dynamic reality of climate policymaking processes.

    Governments in the majority of economies only have an indirect and long-term influence on reducing industrial emissions, as they do not own the emitting operations. As representing one-third of the global carbon dioxide emissions, industry is therefore a key stakeholder group in whether or not the political agenda will be fulfilled. How industry perceives that obstacles and opportunities affect investment calculi are thus important. Hence, policymakers should facilitate policy learning (PL) to aid the creation of effective and efficient political agendas. This is important to acknowledge the policy and investment experiences of industrial actors and to deal with a number of plausible investment obstacles identified under the novel framework.

    Taking stock of PL and other policy theories, this thesis is aimed to develop recommendations for facilitating PL and thus contributing to more effective and efficient climate policy frameworks. The results highlight the role of industry in abatement and political strategies where policymakers need to gain knowledge on how industries perceive abatement investment obstacles and how these may be bridged. The intrinsic learning values of government-industry negotiated agreements (NAs) are emphasised and a framework for operationalising PL through NA designs is developed. PL is furthermore identified as important, and NAs are recommended as a policy instrument, to fill knowledge gaps identified in two case-studies of promoting complex and novel industrial operations. This thesis also recommends a participatory policy evaluation tool that is sensitive to industrial competitiveness and establishes a forum for discussions on perceived investment obstacles and opportunities under different conditions. The results are not aimed to provide a blueprint for a comprehensive climate policy framework but as a contribution to literature and the incremental learning that this thesis strongly promotes.

  • 9.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The Resource Nexus: Linkages Between Resource Systems2013In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Elsevier, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resources are basic elements in building and operating our societies. Some are more fundamental than others, such as energy, water and food. These resources cannot however be viewed in isolation, as linkages between them mean that scarcity in one resource system can affect other systems. Moreover, competition and prices of resources are expected to increase. Planning and research on resources should thus consider such linkages and the status of ecosystems when analyzing how resources can be supplied both sustainably and resiliently.

  • 10.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Buhr, Katarina
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Roth, Susanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    The ambitions in Copenhagen Pledges: Country case studies of drivers andbarriers2013In: Greenhouse gas measurement and management, ISSN 2043-0779, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate pledges under the Copenhagen Accord have been evaluated by researchers in quantitative terms, but less attention has been provided on insights into what drove countries and what political barriers impeded countries to submit a pledge and the ambitiousness of the pledges. This article therefore highlights what the drivers and barriers are under the Copenhagen Accord and assesses whether the political considerations can be expected to differ from the positions under a binding climate regime under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. By means of case studies the research finds that the political origin differs and in general views that the Accord is viewed as adding to transparency and legitimacy of the negotiations. Moreover, while the pledges can be viewed as a separate regime, it should be complemented by emissions trading to spur increased ambition. The research also identifies that the pledges are commonly viewed as binding and that barriers are increasingly viewed as drivers seeing that costs of climate action is viewed as lower than inaction.

  • 11.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    COWI AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Policies and incentives - natural resources available today and in the future: How to perform change management for achieving a sustainable world2017In: Natural Resources Available Today and in the Future: How to Perform Change Management for Achieving a Sustainable World, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 269-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jinhyue, Yan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Improving policy making through government-industry policy learning: the case of a novel Swedish policy framework2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 399-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change poses an unprecedented challenge for policy makers. This paper analyzes how industry sector policy expertise can contribute to improved policy making processes. Previous research has identified that policy making benefit by including non-governmental policy analysts in learning processes. Recent climate and energy policy developments, including policy amendments and the introduction of new initiatives, have rendered current policy regimes as novel both to governments and the industry. This increases business investment risk perceptions and may thus reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of the policy framework. In order to explore how government-industry policy learning can improve policy making in this context, this article studied the Swedish case. A literature survey analyzed how policy learning had been previously addressed, indentifying that the current situation regarding novel policies had been overlooked. Interviews provided how industrial actors view Swedish policy implementation processes and participatory aspects thereof. The authors conclude that an increased involvement of the industry sector in policy design and management processes can be an important measure to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of climate and energy policies.

  • 13.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Climate and Energy Policy Evaluation in Terms of Relative Industrial Performance and Competitiveness2009In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 450-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to differences in greenhouse-gas abatement costs within the industrial sectors, there is an ongoing discussion on potential negative competitive effects of climate and energy policies. This article argues that policymakers must acknowledge the relative performance of industrial operations parallel to the competitors, the compulsoriness of policies, and the harmonization of policies accordingly. To this end, the authors suggest a tool aimed for robust participatory policy evaluations at decision-maker levels. The tool promotes policy learning, transparency, and consensus building, hence contributing to more effective and efficient policy design and management process. The tool is exemplified in a Swedish context.

  • 14.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. KTH, Sweden.
    Negotiated Agreements as a vehicle for Policy Learning2010In: International Journal of Global Warming, ISSN 1758-2091, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 97-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper evaluates to which extent that different designs of Voluntary Agreements (VAs) can work as catalysts for Policy Learning (PL) and thus contribute to improved policy design and management processes. Through a literature study, it is found that VAs in the form of Negotiated Agreements (NAs) are more successful in promoting PL than other types of VAs that have less focus on the participatory aspect of the policy processes. The paper contributes to the existing VA policy literature through highlighting the predominately overseen learning values of implementing NA as well as providing policy recommendations on VA learning processes

  • 15.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Yan, Jinyue
    Policy evaluation according to relative industrial performance and competitiveness2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Voluntary agreements as a vehicle for policy learning2009In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Global Warming 2009 (GCGW-09), Istanbul Turkey, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present literature identifies policy learning (PL) as contributing to effective and efficient policy design and management processes. Similarly, the participatory nature of specific voluntary agreements (VAs) has been identified as contributing to increased policy framework effectiveness and efficiency. Against this background, this study aims to prove the hypothesis that an increased attention to the possibilities for PL that exists in the VA policy framework can contribute to a better design of VAs, as well as potentially providing more positive evaluations thereof if acknowledging said learning. Hence, the study analyses to which extent that the literature acknowledges VAs’ learning potentials, and evaluates which policy recommendations that can be provided to increase the potential for PL. The study finds that VAs in the form of negotiated agreements are more successful in promoting PL than other types of VAs that have less focus on the participatory aspect of the policy processes. The study also identifies that the policy cycle of negotiated agreements includes four different stages of learning possibilities. As to facilitate that these stages can be fruitfully explored, the study presents recommended policy design and management elements that can increase learning. To this end, the study does not aim to provide recommendations for the entire VA process, as suggestions focus specifically on the learning aspects. The paper contributes to the existing VA policy literature through highlighting the predominately overseen learning values of implementing negotiated agreements as well as providing policy recommendations on VA learning processes.

  • 17.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Haikola, S.
    Linköping University, Sweden .
    Hansson, A.
    Linköping University, Sweden .
    Buhr, K.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prospects for Swedish acceptance of carbon dioxide storage in the Baltic Sea: Learning from other energy projects2016In: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2152-3878, ISSN 21523878, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 188-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As initiatives are taken in Sweden to evaluate the geological potential for carbon dioxide storage in the adjacent Baltic Sea, experiences from elsewhere may provide lessons about perceptions of and potential opposition toward carbon capture and storage (CCS). A comprehensive analysis of storage feasibility needs to include the issue of social acceptance. The knowledge of CCS is low in Sweden however and there are no Swedish CCS projects to learn from. This paper therefore draws on lessons from other large-scale energy projects that are embedded in similar Baltic Sea contexts to complement lessons on CCS acceptance provided in the literature. The aim of this study is to facilitate an understanding of acceptance of potential future CO2 storage initiatives in the Swedish Baltic Sea region and to analyze what contextual factors are likely to be determinative of the outcome of these and similar projects. The study identifies climate change as one such key contextual factor, which can often be used both to support and oppose a large-scale energy project. Furthermore, the study finds that there are perceptions of uncertainties regarding the regulatory framework that need to be adressed in order to facilitate the planning of CCS projects in the region.

  • 18.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lind, M
    ZeroMission, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Obstacles for CCS deployment: An analysis of discrepancies of perceptions2012In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 601-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for CO2 emission reductions through carbon capture and storage (CCS) is depending on investments that can develop the technology from its current R&D status through to commercial applications. An important intermediate step in this development is demonstration plants that can prove the economic, social, and ecological feasibility of CCS technologies and validate the associated global CO2 emission abatement potentials. Based on a CCS stakeholder questionnaire survey and a literature review, we critically analyse discrepancies regarding how obstacles and barriers to deploy demonstration plants are perceived. We identify a significant gap between CCS policies versus important deployment considerations and CCS stakeholder policy demands. This gap is exemplified and emphasised by an analysis of restructured, postponed, and cancelled CCS projects. The findings question the rationality of current CCS abatement potential estimates and deployment goals as established in scenarios and by policymakers. To bridge the gap towards proving CCS through demonstration activities, the article highlights important policy implications to establish a broad understanding of deployment obstacles. Attention to these are important for policymakers as well as for scenario builders as to evaluate measures to prove the abatement potential and hence support current focus on CCS as a key abatement potential.

  • 19.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roth, Susanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Re-Evaluating the Sustainability of Energy Systems: The Nexus of Energy, Water, and Land-Use2014In: Handbook of Clean Energy Systems / [ed] Jinyue Yan, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, 1, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenarios for global developments typically point to a sharp increase in demand for energy as well as for water and land. These developments have a starting point where global ecosystems are already being exploited unsustainably. This has implications for energy systems, which can be designed as more or less water and land-use intensive. However, evaluating the sustainability of energy systems commonly do not take water and land-use systems into account. This presents a problem as these three systems—energy, water, land—are intrinsically linked, which provides both barriers and opportunities for these systems' individual as well as collective sustainability. More comprehensive evaluations of energy systems that acknowledge the system interlinkages are therefore needed. This has become known as applying a nexus approach. The idea behind the nexus approach is to increase system synergies and resilience through jointly analyzing ecosystem capacities, drivers for resource use, development objectives, capacities to manage linked systems, and the need for new knowledge. This provides a comprehensive perspective on the restrictions and freedom we have in governing, designing, and using the social, technical, and ecological systems. The article thus presents a nexus approach and provides an understanding of challenges for the sustainability of energy systems from a broad system perspective.

  • 20.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Stigson, B.
    PROMOTING ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS IN CHINA: POLICY SUGGESTIONS FOR VOLUNTARY AGREEMENTS2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Stigson, Björn
    Promoting Eco-Industrial Parks in China: Policy suggestions for voluntary agreements2007In: 3rd International Green Energy Conference: Proceedings of IGEC-III, 2007, 2007, p. 1273-1283Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China has in later years experienced a rapid economic development, which has occurred at the expense of the

    environment. This strongly applies to the manufacturing industry as a central element in the developing economy.

    The Chinese government is however now pursuing a development path associated with improved environmental

    characteristics with a focus on Resource and Energy Efficiency (R&EE). Within this development Eco-Industrial

    Parks (EIPs) can make an important contribution for improved R&EE in the manufacturing industry. EIPs facilitate

    low energy and environmental impact production and the concept consequently comply both with economic and

    ecologic development goals, while also having social benefits. While EIPs are promoted in the Chinese general

    policy framework, such as the Circular Economy (CE), they are not targeted by any specific policy instruments.

    Based on a review of international and Chinese policy recommendations and experiences on R&EE policy, the

    paper identify that this can be effectively accomplished by Voluntary Agreements (VAs). A positive aspect of VAs is

    the design flexibility that allows the instrument to be adapted to the varying conditions under which Industrial Parks

    (IPs) operate in China. VAs are also identified to encompass a number of positive features in the China EIP case

    as regards to increasing policy compliance, accomplishing short-term results, avoiding inefficient technological

    lock-in as part of the rapid development, contributing to capacity building, and dealing with EIP management

    barriers.

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