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  • 1.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Many-Core based Execution Framework for IEC 61131-32015In: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2015, p. 4525-4530, article id 7392805Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmable logic controllers are widely used for the control of automationsystems. The standard IEC 61131-3 defines the execution model as well as theprogramming languages for such systems. Nowadays, actuators and sensorsconnect to the programmable logic controller via automation buses. While suchbuses, as well as the sensors and actuators, become more and more powerful, ashift away from the current distributed operation of automation systems, closeto the field level, becomes possible. Instead, execution of complex controlfunctions can be relocated to more powerful hardware, and technologies. Thispaper presents an execution framework for IEC 61131-3, based on a many-coreprocessors. The presented execution model exploits the characteristics of theIEC 61131-3 applications as well as the characteristics of the many-core processor,yielding a predictable execution. We present the platform architectureand an algorithm to allocate a number of IEC 61131-3 conform applications.Experimental as well as simulation based evaluation is provided.

  • 2.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dynamic Power Management for Thermal Control of Many-Core Real-Time Systems2014In: Sigbed Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 26-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many-Core systems, processors incorporating numerous cores interconnected by a Network on Chip (NoC), provide the computing power needed by future applications. High power density caused by the steadily shrinking transistor size, which is still following Moore's law, leads to a number of problems such as overheating cores, affecting processor reliability and lifetime. Embedded real-time systems are exposed to a changing ambient temperature and thus need to adapt their configuration in order to keep the individual core temperature below critical values. %Targeting embedded real-time systems, systems need to adapt to changing environments. In our approach a hysteresis controller is implemented on each core, triggering a redistribution of the cores and the transition into idle state allowing the core to cool down. We propose two approaches, one global and one local approach, to redistribute the tasks and relive overheating cores during runtime. We evaluate the two proposed approaches by comparing them against each other based on simulations.

  • 3.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Increased Reliability of Many-Core Platforms through Thermal Feedback Control2014In: Performance, Power and Predictability of Many-Core Embedded Systems 3PMCES'14, Dresden, Germany, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a low overhead thermal management approach to increase reliability of many-core embedded real-time systems. Each core is controlled by a feedback controller. We adapt the utilization of the core in order to decrease the dynamic power consumption and thus the corresponding heat development. Sophisticated control mechanisms allow us to migrate the load in advance, before reaching critical temperature values and thus we can migrate in a safe way with a guarantee to meet all deadlines.

  • 4.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mapping Real-Time Tasks onto Many-Core Systems considering Message Flows2014In: Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Session of the 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Berlin, Germany, 2014, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we focus on the task mapping problem for many-core real-time systems. The growing number of cores connected by a Network-on-Chip (NoC) calls for sophisticated mapping techniques to meet the growing demands of real-time applications. Hardware should be used in an efficient way such that unnecessary resource usage is avoided. Because of the NP-hardness of the problem, heuristic and meta-heuristic techniques are used to find good solutions. We further consider periodic communication between tasks and we focus on a static mapping solution.

  • 5.
    Begum, Shahina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Thomas B
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards a Compositional Service Architecture for Real-Time Cloud Robotics2016In: ACM SIGBED Review, E-ISSN 1551-3688, p. 63-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present our ongoing work towards a compositional service architecture that integrates cloud technology for computational capacity targeting real-time robotics applications. In particular we take a look at the challenges inherent within the data center where the services are executing. We outline characteristics of the services used in the real-time cloud robotics application, along with the service management and corresponding task model used to execute services. We identify several key central challenges that must be addressed towards integrating cloud technology in real-time robotics.

  • 6.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A resource efficient framework to run automotive embedded software on multi-core ECUs2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, p. 64-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing functionality and complexity of automotive applications requires not only the use of more powerful hardware, e.g., multi-core processors, but also efficient methods and tools to support design decisions. Component-based software engineering proved to be a promising solution for managing software complexity and allowing for reuse. However, there are several challenges inherent in the intersection of resource efficiency and predictability of multi-core processors when it comes to running component-based embedded software. In this paper, we present a software design framework addressing these challenges. The framework includes both mapping of software components onto executable tasks, and the partitioning of the generated task set onto the cores of a multi-core processor. This paper aims at enhancing resource efficiency by optimizing the software design with respect to: 1) the inter-software-components communication cost, 2) the cost of synchronization among dependent transactions of software components, and 3) the interaction of software components with the basic software services. An engine management system, one of the most complex automotive sub-systems, is considered as a use case, and the experimental results show a reduction of up to 11.2% total CPU usage on aquad-core processor, in comparison with the common framework in the literature. 

  • 7.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    ABB Corp. Research, Vasterås, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    ABB Corp. Research, Vasterås, Sweden.
    An efficient scheduling of AUTOSAR runnables to minimize communication cost in multi-core systems2014In: 2014 7th International Symposium on Telecommunications, IST 2014, 2014, p. 41-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The AUTOSAR consortium has developed as the worldwide standard for automotive embedded software systems. From a processor perspective, AUTOSAR was originally developed for single-core processor platforms. Recent trends have raised the desire for using multi-core processors to run AUTOSAR software. However, there are several challenges in reaching a highly efficient and predictable design of AUTOSAR-based embedded software on multi-core processors. In this paper a solution framework comprising both the mapping of runnables onto a set of tasks and the scheduling of the generated task set on a multi-core processor is suggested. The goal of the work presented in this paper is to minimize the overall inter-runnable communication cost besides meeting all corresponding timing and precedence constraints. The proposed solution framework is evaluated and compared with an exhaustive method to demonstrate the convergence to an optimal solution. Since the exhaustive method is not applicable for large size instances of the problem, the proposed framework is also compared with a well-known meta-heuristic algorithm to substantiate the capability of the frameworks to scale up. The experimental results clearly demonstrate high efficiency of the solution in terms of both communication cost and average processor utilization.

  • 8.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rajabi, A.
    School of ECE, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Sandstrom, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    EAICA: An energy-aware resource provisioning algorithm for Real-Time Cloud services2016In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is receiving an increasing attention when it comes to providing a wide range of cost-effective services. In this context, energy consumption of communication and computing resources contribute to a major portion of the cost of services. On the other hand, growing energy consumption not only results in a higher operational cost, but it also causes negative environmental impacts. A large number of cloud applications in, e.g., telecommunication, multimedia, and video gaming, have real-time requirements. A cloud computing system hosting such applications, that requires a strict timing guarantee for its provided services, is denoted a Real-Time Cloud (RTC). Minimizing energy consumption in a RTC is a complicated task as common methods that are used for decreasing energy consumption can potentially lead to timing violations. In this paper, we present an online energy-aware resource provisioning framework to reduce the deadline miss ratio for real-time cloud services. The proposed provisioning framework not only considers the energy consumption of servers but it also takes the energy consumption of the communication network into account, to provide a holistic solution. An extensive range of simulation results, based on real data, show a noticeable improvement regarding energy consumption while keeping the number of timing violations less than 1% in average.

  • 9.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Optimizing Resource Usage in Component-Based Real-Time Systems2005In: Component-Based Software Engineering: 8th International Symposium, CBSE 2005, St. Louis, MO, USA, May 14-15, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, 2005, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The embedded systems domain represents a class of systems that have high requirements on cost efficiency as well as run-time properties such as timeliness and dependability. The research on component-based systems has produced component technologies for guaranteeing real-time properties. However, the issue of saving resources by allocating several components to real-time tasks has gained little focus. Trade-offs when allocating components to tasks are, e.g., CPU-overhead, footprint and integrity. In this paper we present a general approach for allocating components to real-time tasks, while utilizing existing real-time analysis to ensure a feasible allocation. We demonstrate that CPU-overhead and memory consumption can be reduced by as much as 48% and 32% respectively for industrially representative systems.

  • 10.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Norström, Christer
    Business Situation Reflected in Automotive Electronic Architectures: Analysis of Four Commercial CasesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Key Factors for Achieving Project Success in Integration of Automotive Mechatronics2007In: Journal of Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, ISSN 1614-5046, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 141-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a multiple case study on integration of automotive mechatronic components. Based on the findings, we identify that the root causes of problems in integration are largely related to decisions omitted in electronic strategy.

    We present and recommend use of checklists defining key factors to address in order to achieve successful integration projects in terms of cost and quality. Our recommendations are defined by checklists for critical decisions in areas; functionality, platform, integration, and stakeholder involvement.

    The recommendations are established based on practitioner experience and then validated in a multiple case study. Five cases of integration are studied for different heavy vehicles in one company, and the fulfillment of our recommendations is measured. Finally we define project success criteria and we compare the level of fulfillment with the project success in terms of time plan and resource consumption.

    The main contribution of this study is the validated recommendations, each including a set of checkpoints that defines recommendation fulfillment. We also present defining characteristics to identify a high risk project. We provide a set of observable project properties and show how they affect project risk.

  • 12.
    Hallmans, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB Ludvika, Sweden .
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GPGPU for Industrial Control Systems2013In: 18th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation ETFA'13, 2013, p. Article number 6648166-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work in progress paper we present parts of our ongoing work on using the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in the context of Embedded Systems. As a first step we are investigating the possibility to move functions from a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to a GPU. If it is possible to make such a migration then it would simplify the hardware designs for some embedded systems by removing external hardware and also remove a potential life cycle issue with obsolete components. We are currently designing a test system to be able to compare performance between a legacy control system used today in industry, based on a CPU/DSP combination, to a new design with a CPU/GPU combination. In this setting the pre-filtering of sampled data, previously done in the DSP, is moved to the GPU.

  • 13.
    Lednicki, Luka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sandström, K.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Model level worst-case execution time analysis for IEC 614992013In: CBSE - Proc. ACM SIGSOFT Symp. Compon. Based Softw. Eng., 2013, p. 169-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard provides a possibility to develop industrial embedded systems in a component-based manner. Besides alleviating the efforts of system design, the component-based approach also allows analysis of various system characteristics using system models even before the actual deployment. One of the crucial characteristics in the domain of safety-critical and real-time systems is timing: a failure to execute a specific task on time can have severe consequences. This paper presents a method for compositional modellevel analysis of worst-case execution time of IEC 61499 software models. The analysis is performed on one hierarchical level of composition at a time, and the results can be stored together with the software artefact to be used when analysis is performed on the higher hierarchical level, or when the unit is reused in another system. The analysis has been implemented as a plug-in for the 4DIAC tool. 

  • 14.
    Lednicki, Luka
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sandström, Kristian
    ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden.
    Device Utilization Analysis for IEC 61499 Systems in Early Stages of Development2013In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, IEEE , 2013, p. Article number 6647970-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-driven and component-based approaches, such as the IEC~61499 standard, allow us to apply analysis to systems in early stages of development. When applied to embedded systems, early analysis can help guide the development process of both the software and the hardware platform, and thus reduce the time and cost of the development. In this paper we present a method for early analysis of device utilization for IEC~61499 systems. The method is based on determining device-specific worst-case execution time of each activity in the application. For this, we use timing information for individual algorithms together with IEC~61499 software and platform models. We provide a prototype implementation integrated in an open-source development environment.

  • 15.
    Liu, Meng
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Chiru, Cezar
    Mälardalen University.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    On providing real-time guarantees in cloud-based platforms2016In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, article id Article number 7496534Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud technologies are gaining more and more attentions in recent years. Cloud-based service brings benefits in cost, energy efficiency, sharing of resources, increased flexibility, adaptability and evolvability. However, there are a number of associated challenges that need to be properly addressed before applying the cloud technique generally in industries. Providing efficient and predictable computation and communication is one of the important challenges, since many industrial systems (e.g. a control system) have specific timing requirements. Our current work thus focuses on guaranteeing the predictability of a cloud-based service. Virtualization, as one of the key technologies in Cloud Computing, is used to abstract details of resources away from end-services which simplifies the resource sharing. It thus improves the resource utilization and saves budget for end-users. In this preliminary work, we have implemented a distributed system using virtualization techniques (including virtual machines and virtual switches). Additionally, we generate a number of experiments to investigate how QoS policies can help us to provide real-time communication guarantees. 

  • 16.
    Nikolaidis, Pavlos
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Didic, Alma
    Mälardalen University.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Sandström, Kristian
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Applying Mitigation Mechanisms for Cloud-based Controllers in Industrial IoT Applications2015In: Internet-of-Things Symposium IoT Symposium'15, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are two notable concepts that have evolved significantly over the past few years. In the automation industry, clouds are often used for monitoring vast amounts of data generated on the shop floor. Whereas, IoT is used to simplify the end devices and their connections to the rest of the system. In this paper we investigate the interplay of these two concepts and their use in the control applications in the automation industry. We develop a prototype in the industrial setup to explore the use of IoT devices that communicate with a cloud-based controller. Using the prototype, we perform a number of experiments to investigate the consequences of having a cloud server between the end device and the controller. Within this context we consider arbitrary jitter and delays, i.e., they can be smaller, equal or greater than the sampling periods. Moreover, we apply mitigation mechanisms to deal with the delays and jitter that are caused by the local and wide area networks (LAN and WAN).

  • 17.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jansen, Anton
    ABB.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Virtualize for Architecture Sustainability in Industrial Automation2013In: : Technology, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technique of virtualization and cloud computing to manage system functionality and resources regardless of their physical locations is changing the way businesses and users interact with IT resources. Although several commercially available virtualization solutions already exist in the market, both for server and embedded real-time based systems, the deployment of virtualization and cloud-based technologies into the industrial automation domain is new. In this paper, we will first present the emerging trends of industrial automation domain and identify the architectural sustainability challenges that follow. Based on these challenges, we will then analyze how virtualization technology can contribute to cope with them, as well as the additional opportunities that it brings to industrial automation domain. The contributions of this paper are (1) to communicate the main trends happening in industrial automation, (2) clarify the architecture sustainability challenges that the automation domain is facing, and (3) identify the potentials of further utilizing virtualization technology in the industry domain.

  • 18.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Internet of Things for Industrial Automation - Challenges and Technical2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Data Intensive Systems, DSDIS 2015, 2015, p. 532-539Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using internet of things (IoT) to connect things, service, and people for intelligent operations has been discussed and deployed in many industry domains such as smart city, smart energy, healthcare, food and water tracking, logistics and retail, and transportation. However, scarce information is available for IoT usage in industrial automation domain for reliable and collaborative automation with respect to e.g., enabling scalable collaboration between heterogeneous devices and systems, offering predictable and fault-tolerant real-time closed-loop control, and inclusion of intelligent service features from edge devices to the cloud. In this paper, we will clarify the specific quality attribute constraints within industrial automation, present specific industrial IoT challenges due to these constraints, and discuss the potentials of utilizing some technical solutions to cope with these challenges.

  • 19.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Sandström, Kristian
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Virtualize for Test Environment in Industrial Automation2014In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing system test for large-scale industrial systems is a challenging activity due to the complexity involved in managing the variety of distributed hardware systems in general, and the hardware-related challenges in test environment in particular. Virtualization technology opens up the possibility to address these challenges, e.g., with respect to cost efficient scalability. In this paper, we identify hardware-related challenges in the test environment for industrial automation systems, identify relevant research studies that address these issues using virtualization technology, and analyze their applicability in the industry domain. In addition, we analyze the impacts of virtualization on essential industrial system requirements with respect to performance, timing, reliability, availability, and safety in the industrial automation domain, and we discuss further limitations in the virtualized test environment.

  • 20.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Enforcing Temporal Constraints in Embedded Control Systems2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer control systems are embedded in a large and growing group of products, ranging from consumer entertainment products to large airliners. Products such as automotive vehicles, aircraft, and industrial robots are equipped with advanced computer control systems and have high requirements of reliable and safe operation. A common property of these systems is that the computer systems are becoming increasingly more complex due to the inclusion of more functionality. At the same time, the product cycles are becoming shorter leading to requirements of shorter time to market. To meet this challenging task, the development of computer control systems must be a well-defined and controlled engineering process. One important part in reaching this goal is to find methods for dealing with the complexity of computer systems. A computer control system is typically realized by a set of concurrent activities with inter-dependencies that have to meet a set of pre defined temporal constraints. Because of this, it is difficult to know in advance if the implementation of a design will meet its temporal constraints. Furthermore, it is hard to foresee the consequence of introducing alterations or additional functionality in a system. For a method to be useful it also has to capture all the relevant aspects of the application domain, and in the domain of embedded control systems this includes the ability to express and enforce the temporal constraints of control activities. Moreover, the computer system is a heterogeneous system with many responsibilities. Hence, methods for embedded control systems should support not only control activities but also activities related to e.g., human-machine interaction and communication. The work presented in this thesis contributes with methods for enforcing temporal constraints in embedded control systems. The results include an industrial case study pointing out limitations in classic real-time models and giving indications of engineering needs. Moreover, a method is presented for pre-run-time scheduling of periodic control activities under the interference of sporadic interrupts. Furthermore, a method is presented for enforcement of complex temporal constraints using standard priority based real-time operating systems. Finally, the work includes a method for management of communication resources in distributed systems.

  • 21.
    Sandström, Kristian
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    TU/e, Netherlands .
    On Jitter in Time Partitioned Real-Time Systems2012In: Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 2012 IEEE 17th Conference on, 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent trends towards adopting hypervisors, hierarchical scheduling, and other virtualization technologies that achieve partitioned access to the CPU and other resources impose significant impact with respect to jitter performance in embedded real-time systems. In this paper we make a first step towards characterization, modeling and calculation of this jitter.

  • 22.
    Sandström, Kristian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vulgarakis, Aneta
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindgren, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Virtualization Technologies in Embedded Real-Time Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtualization is a promising solution to develop complex embedded systems with real-time requirements. This paper discusses the current state-of-the-art in virtualization technologies, with a particular focus on solutions for embedded real-time systems. Several such solutions have been developed over the past decade, and in this paper we give an overview of the more well known technologies and we provide a comparative assessment of key virtualization techniques available in these solutions. Gaps and lacking pieces are identified and further development and research is suggested.

  • 23.
    Yamamoto, Yuji
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Karakuri IoT - the concept and the result of pre-study2018In: Proceedings Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIII ICMR2018, 2018, p. 311-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although scholars and practitioners are actively discussing the potential benefits of introducing Internet of Thing (IoT) in production, IoT is still as an expensive solution in terms of investment and high technological threshold. Manufacturing companies seek a simpler and lower-cost approach to adopting IoT technologies in production, allowing companies to take advantage of the knowledge and innovation capabilities of people close to shop floor operations. This paper introduces the concept of “Karakuri IoT” – simple and low-cost IoT-aided improvements driven by the people close to shop floor operations. A pre-study is conducted to examine the feasibility of the concept. This paper presents the results of the pre-study.

  • 24.
    Yamamoto, Yuji
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Aranda Munoz, Alvaro
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Development of methods that support exploration of simple and low-cost IoT-aided improvement solutions at manufacturing plants2018In: The 2018 Annual Autumn Meeting of Japan Industrial Management Association JIMA, Tokyo, Japan, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Yang, Jinsong
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Sandström, Kristian
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Data Distribution Service for Industrial Automation2012In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2012, p. Art.nr: 6489544-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 is an open standard for the next generation of distributed control and automation. Data Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) is a specification of a publish/subscribe middleware for distributed systems, created by the Object Management Group (OMG) to standardize a data-centric publish-subscribe programming model for distributed systems. This paper evaluates the DDS communication performance based on a model built within the IEC 61499 standard and compares it with the traditional socket based solution for communication. According to the test results, the DDS communication has the potential to reduce the complexity and is suggested as a suitable solution for some classes of industrial control systems.

  • 26.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Model for Reuse and Optimization of Embedded Software Components2007In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 2007, p. 567-572Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering for embedded systems generic reusable software components must often be discarded in favor of using resource optimized solutions. In this paper we outline a modelthat enables the utilization of component-based principles even for embedded systems with high optimization demands. The model supports the creation of component variants optimized for different scenarios, through the introduction of an entrance preparation step and an ending verification step into the component design process. These activities are proposed to be supported by tools working on metadata associated with components, where the metadata is possible to automatically retrieve from many development tools. This paper outlines the theoretical model that is the basis for our current realization work.

  • 27.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Introducing Component Based Software Engineering at an Embedded Systems Sub-Contractor2008In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 34TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS, 2008, p. 59-67Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attractive benefits with successful implementation of component-based principles include managing complexity, reduction of time-to-market, increased quality, and reusability. Deployment of component-based development is however not simple - it depends on many strategic, technical, and business decisions. In this paper we report experiences from our attempts with finding a correct implementation of component-based principles for the business situation of sub-contractors of embedded systems. Findings related to suitable component models, component technologies, and component management are presented. Overall the results confirm the suitability of component-based principles for the domain, but also show the need (and potential) in further development of CBSE theory and technology for embedded systems. 

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