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  • 1.
    Andersson, Henny
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Suhonen, Anssi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Reijonen, Tero
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Laatikainen, Reino
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Heitto, Anneli
    Finnoflag.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag.
    Technical Output Report – Pilot A in Sweden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2. Andersson, Henny
    et al.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Suhonen, Anssi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Reijonen, Tero
    Laatikainen, Reino
    Heitto, Anneli
    Hakalehto, Elias
    TECHNICAL REPORT ON PILOT A TESTS IN SWEDEN2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. ABB AB, Corporate Research, SE - 721 78, Västerås, Sweden.
    Rahmani, Mohamed Ali
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, SE - 721 78, Västerås, Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    PREDICTION AND MEASUREMENTS OF THE GAS BUBBLES INDUCED MIXING IN A BIO-REACTOR WATER MODEL2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a fuel gaining increased interest. To be commercially viable the biogas production process needs to be further improved with advanced industrial standards where the technical, economic and environmental aspects are fully considered.

    Understanding fluid dynamics and the microbial reactions in the digestion process is necessary to accurately model and predict the biogas production. In connection with the Swedish company SvenskVäxkraft AB we focus on reactors where part of the produced gas is re-injected at the bottom to generate a strong recirculation with a gas-lift effect with a rising flow in the core. The mixture motion in this type of bio-reactors is entirely induced by the gas.

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to study the effect of gas plumes of bubbles in the range smaller than 10mm with a maximum local gas volume fraction lower than 10%. This study shows that considering the appropriate models to account for the added agitation and turbulence by the bubbles improves the prediction of the liquid flow characteristics. Neglecting the induced bubble effect leads to erroneous results where the radial dispersion of the gas concentration, the liquid velocity and the turbulence are significantly underestimated.

    To validate the model we performed local measurements in an experimental facility where a laboratory water-model is equipped with advanced instruments to measure the gas volume fraction as well as the liquid and gas vertical velocities.

    It was found that using the bubble induced turbulence model by Sato et al. [8] with the Tomyami models for the drag and lift forces [3-6], provides predictions in good agreement with the measured quantities.

    This study shows that for such processes where the flow is mainly created by the bubbles presence, the pseudo-turbulence (the turbulence induced by the bubbles) and the bubble size distribution need to be properly considered.

  • 4.
    Blackman, Corey
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Techno-Economic Evaluation of Solar-Assisted Heating and Cooling Systems with Sorption Module Integrated Solar Collectors2015Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING FOR BUILDINGS AND INDUSTRY, SHC 2014, 2015, Vol. 70, s. 409-417Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Larsson, Eva K.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Engvall, K.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Liliedahl, T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Dong, C.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.
    Hu, X.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.
    Lu, Q.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.
    Modelling and Simulation of Biomass Conversion Processes2013Ingår i: Proceedings - 8th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, EUROSIM 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By utilizing biomass gasification, the energy contentof the biomass can be utilized to produce gas to be used forcogeneration of heat and power as well as other energy carrierssuch as fuels for vehicles. The concept is suitable forapplication to existing CHP plants as well as for utilizing spentliqour in small scale pulp and paper mills. The introductionwould enable flexible energy utilization, use of problematicfuels as well as protects the environment by e.g. avoiding therelease of toxic substances. In this paper, the possibilities todevelop this concept is discussed. In this paper we comparedifferent gasification processes with respect to what gas qualitywe get, and how the gasification can be modelled usingdifferent modelling approaches, and how these can becombined. Results from simulations are compared toexperimental results from pilot plant operations in differentscales and with different processes like CFB and BFBTechnologies, athmospheric and pressurized, and using steam,air and oxygen as oxidizing media.

  • 6.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Comparison of Gas Quality from Black Liquor and Wood Pellet Gasification Using Modelica Simulation and Pilot Plant Results2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 992-998Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to integrate biomass gasification with pulp & paper and CHP plants in order to complement the existing systems with production of chemicals, such as methane, hydrogen, and methanol etc. To perform system analysis of such integration, it is important to gain knowledge of relevant input data on expected synthesis gas composition by gasifying different types of feed stock. In this paper, the synthesis gas quality from wood pellets gasification (WPG) has been compared with black liquor gasification (BLG) through modeling and experimental results at pilot scale. In addition, the study develops regression models like Partial Least Squares (PLS) made from the experimental data. The regression models are then combined with dynamic models developed in Modelica for the investigation of dynamic energy and material balances for integrated plants. The data presented in this study could be used as input to relevant analysis using e.g. ASPEN plus and similar system analysis tools. 

  • 7.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Hartwell, Philip
    BioRegional MiniMills Ltd, UK.
    Experimental and numerical investigation of pellet and black liquor gasification for polygeneration plant2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, s. 1066-1064Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is vital to perform system analysis on integrated biomass gasification in chemical recovery systems in pulp and paper and heat and power plants for polygeneration applications. The proposed integration complements existing pulp and paper and heat and power production systems with production of chemicals such as methane and hydrogen. The potential to introduce gasification-based combined cycles comprising gas turbines and steam turbines to utilize black liquors and wood pellets also merits investigation. To perform such analysis, it is important to first build knowledge on expected synthesis gas composition by gasifying at smaller scale different types of feed stock. In the present paper, the synthesis gas quality from wood pellets gasification has been compared with black liquor gasification by means of numerical simulation as well as through pilot-scale experimental investigations. The experimental results have been correlated into partial least squares models to predict the composition of the synthesis gas produced under different operating conditions. The gas quality prediction models are combined with physical models using a generic open-source modelling language for investigating the dynamic performance of large-scale integrated polygeneration plants. The analysis is further complemented by considering potential gas separation using modern membrane technology for upgrading the synthesis gas with respect to hydrogen content. The experimental data and statistical models presented in this study form an important literature source for future use by the gasification and polygeneration research community on further integrated system analysis.

  • 8.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Energiprocesser.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Energiprocesser.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Hartwell, Philip
    BioRegional MiniMills Ltd., United Kingdom.
    Modeling of Black Liquor Gasification2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Energiprocesser.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH, Energiprocesser.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Hartwell, Philip
    BioRegional MiniMills Ltd., United Kingdom.
    Modeling of Wood Gasification in an Atmospheric CFB Plant2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhällsteknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhällsteknik.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhällsteknik.
    Alternative Pathways to a fossil-fuel free energy system in the Mälardalen region of Sweden2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the Second International Green Energy Conference, 2006, 2006, s. 822-830Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on alternative pathways to a fossil-fuel free regional energy system in the Mälardalen region of Sweden with a population of 3 million inhabitants. We describe and address how the region can be made independent of fossil fuels by integration of resource management, technology advances, and behavior change in energy use. First we investigate the consumption pattern of the inhabitants. Then we study what resources are available, and how these can be used to fulfill the different demands. If we just use the resources in a pattern of business as usual today without changing the behavior, the balance between demands and resources is difficult to reach. By combining a slightly different behavior and a change of crops it could be possible to fulfill the needs. Some advanced technological solutions have also been proposed. For example, dedicated biomass energy plants such as fodder sugar beats can be used for ethanol production. Also Salix, straw, hemp and some cereals can be used and the residues can be gasified to produce dimethylether (DME), which is good as a replacement for diesel fuel. Still the fuel demand for transport is high, and the vehicle weight could be further reduced. For example, by going back to the car size we had only ten years ago the weight would be 25-30 % less, and fuel consumption would be at least 15 % lower. With diesel engines instead of Otto-engines the fuel consumption could be reduced by 35 %, and with hybrid technology additional 20% fuel reduction could be gained. Improved public transportation will also give a positive effect especially for those commuting between the larger cities and between the cities and the suburbs. The results of our calculations show that it would be possible to accomplish a fossil-free energy system in the Mälardalen region. The results of this study are important since it shows that an energy balance without fossil fuels could be possible for an area with a population in the order of 3 million people, which would also be valuable in studies of other areas in the world.

  • 11.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Alternative Pathways to a Fossil-Fuel Free Energy System in the Mälardalen region of Sweden2007Ingår i: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 1226-1236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on alternative pathways to a fossil-fuel free regional energy system in the Mälardalen region of Sweden with a population of 3 million inhabitants. We describe and address how the region can be made independent of fossil fuels by integration of resource management, technology advances, and behaviour change in energy use. First we investigate the consumption pattern of the inhabitants. Then we study what resources are available, and how these can be used to fulfil the different demands. If we just use the resources in a pattern of business as usual today without changing the behaviour, the balance between demands and resources is difficult to reach. By combining a slightly different behaviour and a change of crops we can fulfil the needs and it might even be possible to have a surplus of resources. Some advanced technological solutions have also been proposed. For example, dedicated biomass energy plants such as Salix, straw, hemp and some cereals can be used for ethanol production and the residues can be gasified to produce dimethylether (DME), which is good as a replacement for diesel fuel. Still the fueldemand for transport is high, and the vehicle weight could be further reduced. For example, by going back to the car size we had only 10 years ago the weight would be 25-30% less, and fuelconsumption would be at least 15% lower. With diesel engines instead of Otto engines the fuel consumption could be reduced by 35%, and with hybrid technology additional 20% fuel reduction could be gained. Improved public transportation will also give a positive effect especially for those commuting between the larger cities and between the cities and the suburbs. The results of our calculations show that it would be possible to accomplish a fossil-free energy system in the Mälardalen region. The results of this study are important since it shows that an energy balance without fossil fuels could be possible for an area with a population in the order of 3 million people, which would also be valuable in studies of other areas in the world.

  • 12.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Combined Solar Power, Hydrogen, TPV and Cyanobacter Production2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference of Applied Energy / [ed] Jinyue Yan, 2010, s. 179-188Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss design for a combined TPV and solar power system with production of biomass. During the passage through the solar collector cyanobacters or algae are getting sunshine to drive the photo synthesis. An algae suspension is circulated through a solar panel to drive photo synthesis. The flow rate is varying with solar intensity to balance the temperature increase. This is to avoid inhibition of the cyanobacters/algae growth rate due to too high temperature. PV cells are producing electricity when there is light, while TPV cells are used when it is dark. The biomass produced then is utilized for production of photons for the TPV system. As an alternative a system producing Hydrogen and electricity produced in a fuel cell system is discussed. Design criteria for the systems are discussed in this paper for a house that is principally self sufficient on energy. Both theoretical and practical obstacles are discussed, as there are a number of issues to solve before the technique can be used in ”real life”

  • 13.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Mårtensson, Kenneth
    Enander, Måns
    How to develop a fossil fuel free Malardalen Region2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    How to save energy to reach a balance between production and consumption of heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles2011Ingår i: International Green Energy Conference (IGEC-6) Anadolu University / [ed] Hikmet Karakoc, Eskeshir, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to utilize a significant amount of renewable energy in Sweden and EU. Biomass can fulfil some 8 500- 12 500 TWh/y in EU, while the total utilization was 16 084 TWh/y 2009. Even though there is a significant amount of wind power, hydro power and potentially also solar power, it still is most economical to reduce the consumption of heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles. A saved kWh is normally cheaper than to produce one extra. In this paper different opportunities for saving energy will be discussed. This includes manufacturing industries, process industries, power plants and energy systems including distribution of power and smart grids, food production and transportation. There is also a major potential to save energy in buildings, both in the north where it is cold, and in the south where it can be very hot summertime. Here the potential is to avoid cooling instead. Technical solutions as well as economic incentives will be covered. Environmental aspects will be addressed, so that the solutions will be long term sustainable.

     

  • 15.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    How to save energy to reach a balance between production and consumptionof heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles2012Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 16-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to utilize a significant amount of renewable energy in Sweden and European union(EU). Biomass can fulfil some 8500e12,500 TW h/y in EU, while the total utilization was 16,084 TW h/y2009. Even though there is a significant amount of wind power, hydro power and potentially also solarpower, it still is most economical to reduce the consumption of heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles. Asaved kWh is normally cheaper than to produce one extra. In this paper different opportunities for savingenergy will be discussed. This includes manufacturing industries, process industries, power plants andenergy systems including distribution of power and smart grids, food production and transportation.There is also a major potential to save energy in buildings, both in the north where it is cold, and in thesouth where it can be very hot summer time. Here the potential is to avoid cooling instead. Technicalsolutions as well as economic incentives are covered. Environmental aspects are addressed, so that thesolutions will be long term sustainable.

  • 16.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    OPTIMIZATION OF THE ENERGY SYSTEM TO ACHIEVE A NATIONAL BALANCE WITHOUT FOSSIL FUELS2011Ingår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 684-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the overall energy balance for Sweden and to some extent EU27 is discussed. It deals with the reduction of the total consumption in industrial, transport, and domestic sectors through more efficient vehicles, industrial processes, and buildings and individual behavior. The conclusion is that it should be relatively easy for Sweden to reach a sustainable society if the political will, in the form of policies and incentives, is present. It would also be possible for the EU27 to reach a sustainable society, although it would be more demanding (challenging?).

  • 17.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, inyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    How to become independent of fossil fuels in Sweden2008Ingår i: quist / [ed] Lui Ronghou, Shanghai: SJTU press , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has got the toughest demand in the whole of Europe recently. In 2020 minimum 49 % of the energy should be renewable energy. To achieve the goal biogas production is being optimized, utilizing organic wastes and crops, to produce methane for cars and buses. In Vasteras a 200 MW waste gasification plant will be built to replace coal in an existing 600 MW PC-boiler with biogas. The plant will start up 2011. There will be co-firing with also peat, aside of the biogas. In Sweden 120 TWh/y of biomass is consumed, which is almost 1/3 of the total 400 TWh energy utilized annually. Most of it is used in co-generation (CHP) or pulp and paper industry. Now the plan is to increase production of liquid fuels for vehicles. Energy balances for production of bio ethanol in Sweden will be discussed. This can be an interesting part of poly-generation systems. Plug-in hybrid car are foreseen to be introduced on a large scale within the next 10 years. Here liquid fuels are used in a combustor with e.g. a turbine and generator primarily to produce electricity, while electric engines fed by electricity from batteries drive the vehicle. Today 60 % of the new cars are "environmental", that is low consuming diesel, ethanol or biogas. Seven years ago it was only 5 % of the new cars! Cities, county authorities and government are working together with companies and universities to drive the transfer away from fossil fuels.

  • 18.
    Daianova, Lilia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Evaluation of a regional bioenergy system with local production of biofuel for transportation, integrated with a CHP plant2012Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, s. 739-749Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The share of renewable liquid fuels (ethanol, fatty acid methyl ester, biogas, and renewable electricity) in the total transportation fuel in Sweden, has increased by the end of 2009 to such level that e.g. domestic bioethanol production is unable to satisfy current ethanol fuel demand. Regional small-scale ethanol production can assist the region in covering the regional needs in transport fuel supply.

    Current case study system includes the production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from locally available cereals straw. A mixed integer programming (MIP) model is developed for cost optimization of regional transport fuel supply (ethanol, biogas and petrol). The model is applied for two cases, one when ethanol production plant is integrated with an existing CHP plant (polygeneration), and one with a standalone ethanol production plant.

    The optimization results show that for both cases the changes in ethanol production costs have the biggest influence on the costs for supplying regional passenger car fleet with transport fuel. Petrol fuel price and straw production costs have also a significant effect on costs for supplying cars with transport fuel for both standalone ethanol production and integrated production system.

    By integrating the ethanol production process with a CHP plant, the costs for supplying regional passenger car fleet with transport fuel can be cut by 31%, from 150 to 104 €/MW h fuel, which should be compared with E5 costs of 115 €/MW h (excl VAT).

  • 19.
    Daianova, Lilia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Local production of bioethanol to meet the growing demands of a regional transport system2011Ingår i: Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, May 2011, Linköping, Sweden, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    : Energy security and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are the driving forces behind the development of renewable fuel sources worldwide. In Sweden, a relatively rapid development in bioethanol usage in transportation has been driven by the implementation of national taxation regulations on carbon neutral transport fuels. The demand for bioethanol to fuel transportation is growing and cannot be met through current domestic production alone. Lignocellulosic ethanol derived from agricultural crop residues may be a feasible alternative source of ethanol to secure a consistent regional fuel supply in Swedish climatic conditions. This paper analyzes how the regional energy system can contribute to reducing CO2 emissions by realizing local small scale bioethanol production and substituting petrol fuel with high blend ethanol mixtures for private road transport. The results show that about 13 000 m3 of bioethanol can be produced from the straw available in the studied region and that this amount can meet the current regional ethanol fuel demand. Replacing the current demand for petrol fuel for passenger cars with ethanol fuel can potentially reduce CO2 emissions from transportation by 48%.

  • 20.
    Daianova, Lilia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Locally produced bioethanol for a regional self-sufficient transport fuel system2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Daraei, Mahsa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Evaluation of biofuel production integrated with existing CHP plants and the impacts on production planning of the system – A case study2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 252, artikel-id 113461Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration has caused a transformative shift in global energy systems, which is contributing to an increased use of renewables. Sweden is among the countries trying to shift to a fossil-fuel-free system in all energy sectors. This paper addresses the fuel demand and supply in the transportation sector in the county of Västmanland in Sweden. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization model is developed to minimize cost in the studied system. The model is further used to investigate the influence of three different scenarios on production planning of regional Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants: (1) straw-based biofuel production integrated with existing CHP plants to fuel combustion engine vehicles, (2) use of electric vehicles, and (3) use of hybrid vehicles fueled by both electricity and bioethanol. Potential solar power generation from rooftop solar cells is also included in the model. The energy system in scenario 2 is found to have the highest overall system efficiency; however, a large amount of power needs to be imported to the system. Hybrid vehicles can potentially reduce the electricity import and CO2 emissions compared to the current situation. Electricity production from rooftop solar collectors could provide the energy needs of the vehicles during summer, while regionally produced straw-based bioethanol integrated with CHP plants can satisfy the fuel needs of the vehicles in winter. This approach could affect the production planning of CHP plants, result in less fuel use and increase the share of renewable resources in the regional transportation system. 

  • 22.
    Daraei, Mahsa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Optimization of a regional energy system including CHP plants and local PV system and hydropower: Scenarios for the County of Västmanland in Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 230, s. 1111-1127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing the energy needs of the cumulatively increasing population has become a challenge for the regional energy systems in the world. The most critical challenge is to supply enough energy in the forms of heat and power during the cold and warm periods of the year with the lowest production cost and minimum environmental impacts. A solution is to increase the green energy supply from renewable energy resources such as solar, wind power, and hydropower. In order to apply this solution in the real energy system, potentials for clean energy supply in an optimized manner should be evaluated. In this study, an optimization model is developed for a regional energy system in the central part of Sweden. The studied system consists of Combined Heat and Power (CHP)plants and heat water boilers together with renewable energy supply from rooftop Photo Voltaic (PV)- solar collectors and regional hydropower plants. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)is used to create the model based on the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP)method. The goal is to evaluate the influence of local renewable energy systems on the production planning of CHP plants in a region. Two different scenarios are investigated based on the extremes in energy supply and demand concerning the increased use of Electrical Vehicles (EVs)and more application of Heat Pumps (HPs)in the system. The results show that installation of rooftop PV systems has the potential to reduce the electricity import to the region; however, it will at the same time reduce the operation time of the CHP plans during the summer period. With increased use of HPs for heating, the shut off time for CHP plants is further increased. Increase in electric passenger cars penetration in the system has no impacts on the production profiles of the plants. The regional electricity demand grows significantly by more utilization of EVs and increased application of heat pumps in the studied system. The high electricity demand will mainly be satisfied by importing electricity from outside the region together with low production from CHP plants and the power generated by the rooftop PV systems and regional hydropower. The developed optimization model with studied scenarios can be applied to other energy systems to increase the knowledge of production planning and feasibility of a fossil fuel free energy system.

  • 23.
    Daraei, Mahsa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Evaluation of potential fossil fuel free energy system: Scenarios for optimization of a regional integrated system2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, s. 964-970Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth and urbanization have led to increases in energy demand and consequently, greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the availability of the fossil fuel as the main source of energy supply has been changed. Utilization of renewable resources including solar, wind, and hydropower together with distributed energy systems could eliminate the dependency on fossil fuel energy sources. In this paper, energy use and supply trends have been studied for the Counties of Västmanland and Södermanland in Sweden in order to develop a scenario for the regional energy system in 2030. The aim is to use the scenario for evaluation of the impacts of regional renewable energy resources on the production planning of CHP plants. The scenario shows that there is not enough potential for electricity production from renewable resources such as solar, wind, and hydropower to fulfill the estimated demand in 2030. Around 75% of electricity needs in Västmanland and 89% of power demands in Södermanland need to be met by imported electricity to these regions. Efficiency improvements and a more complex energy system integrating also with other energy resources like biomass, waste and industrial waste heat are necessary to develop a sustainable energy system.

  • 24.
    Daraei, Mahsa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Potential biofuel production in a fossil fuel free transportation system: A scenario for the County of Västmanland in Sweden2019Ingår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, s. 1330-1336Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution and increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere and other energy related issues caused a transformative shift in energy system which contributes to increased utilization of renewables as alternative to generate green energy carriers. The potential of renewable resources in different region and potential energy conversion have been largely considered by many researcher in many countries. The energy conversion technologies to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels have made impressive technical advances. Sweden has also been challenging with mitigation of CO2 emission and trying to shift into a fossil fuel free system in all energy sectors. This paper deals with the current status of fuel demand and supply in the transport sector in a County in Sweden. A scenario for a fossil fuel free transport sector at a regional level is developed to investigate the potential biofuel production from regionally produced straw. The results and analysis indicate that the potential for cereal based bioethanol production in the region is sufficient to meet the biofuel demand of the County. Using the fallow land for cereal cultivation, it is feasible to shift into a fossil fuel free transportation system where all passenger cars are fueled by bioethanol. The results and finding from the current paper will be used to develop further study on optimization of local biofuel production integrated with CHP plants considering application of other feedstock such as municipal wastes.

  • 25.
    Daraei, Mahsa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Potentials for increased application of renewables in the transportation system: A case study for Södermanland County, Sweden2019Ingår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, s. 267-273Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, possible alternations in a regional transport sector are assessed to increase the use of renewable resources. Three scenarios are developed aimed to investigate different alternatives including potential straw-based bioethanol supply to fuel regional cars with combustion engines, more use of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) with use of potential power from solar energy, and the feasibility of application of hybrid cars fueled with electricity and bioethanol. The evaluation considers the reduction in CO 2 emissions and increased balance in energy demand and supply. Results of the study indicate that application of hybrid vehicles with bioethanol-fueled engines and electrical motors could potentially reduce the CO 2 emissions compared with other proposed approaches in the studied scenarios. At the same time, there would be a balance in the system, so that, the bioethanol production from the available cereal straw in the region can meet the energy demand of suggested hybrid cars in wintertime. While, the energy supply from solar cells installed on the rooftop of the buildings can cover the electricity need of the motor during summer. This approach will also result in increased use of renewables in the transportation system.

  • 26.
    den Boer, Emilia
    et al.
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology.
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Environmental Engineering, Teaching and Research, Savonia University of Applied.
    Malo, Laura
    Environmental Engineering, Teaching and Research, Savonia University of Applied, Center for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo,.
    Huopana, Tuomas
    The Department of Environmental Science, The University of Eastern Finland,.
    Current Status of Waste-to-Energy Utilisation in some parts of Baltic Sea Region2011Ingår i: Journal of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences, ISSN 1799-6848, Vol. 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of preliminary assessment of the current status ofwaste-to-energy utilisation in selected regions, which was conducted within theREMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production)project. The REMOWE project is part of the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013 and has been partly-financed by the European Union. The most and least advanced regions with regard to the renewable energy share in final energyconsumption were presented, also some Finnish data was included. The wastetypes which were identified as relevant for energy recovery include municipalwaste, sewage sludge, industrial waste, as well as agricultural waste and byproducts. In both considered regions there is high energy recovery potential.

  • 27.
    den Boer, Emilia
    et al.
    Wroclaw University of Technology, POland.
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Łukaszewska, Agnieszka
    Marschal Office of Lower Silesia, Poland.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Lõõnik, Jaan
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency, Estonia.
    Belous, Olga
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Comparative assessment of waste-to-energy potential in European regions2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of assessment of the current status of waste-to-energy utilisation in five selected regions, which was conducted within the REMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production) project. The REMOWE project is part of the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013 and has been partly-financed by the European Union. The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the current practice with focus on the best practices that can be transferred to other regions. The selected regions are Estonia; Lower Silesia (Poland), Western Lithuania and North Savo Region (Finland) and the County of Västmanland (Sweden). The current situations in the project regions are presented with regard to the waste generation and treatment and the potential to use waste as RES. The waste types which were identified as relevant for energy recovery include municipal waste, sewage sludge, industrial waste (two streams: one suitable for biogas generation and the other one as alternative fuel for combustion) as well as animal manure. The greatest energy potential show residual municipal waste (68% of the total potential) and animal manure (24%). Energy recovery from these wastes should be a priority in waste management systems of individual regions. Current energy recovery from waste is very low in the considered regions, except for the County of Västmanland, where app. 68% of the waste to energy potential is utilised.

    Keywords: waste, renewable energies, sustainability, residues.

  • 28.
    den Boer, Jan
    et al.
    WAMECO S.C., ul. Malinowa 7, 55-002 Kamieniec Wrocławski, Poland.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.
    Łukaszewska, Agnieszka
    Marshal Office of Lower Silesia, Wybrzeże Słowackiego 12-14, 50-411 Wrocław, Poland.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    ENERGY POTENTIAL FROM RESIDUES IN NORTHERN CENTRAL EUROPEAN REGIONS2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the results of a study on the energy potential of residual materials in 5 regions in the Northern Central European area are presented. The highest potential for waste-to-energy is provided by the incineration of municipal residual waste and the digestion of manure. Related to the number of inhabitants, the potential is the highest in North Savo, whereas the current utilisation is by far the highest in the County of Västmanland. The total potential of waste-to-energy for the considered regions is the highest for Western Lithuania at app. 7%, with the other regions varying between 2,5 and 4% of the total primary energy use. The following waste-to-energy installations should be planned: waste incinerators (Estonia, Western Lithuania and Lower Silesia); energy recovery from waste derived fuels (North Savo, Lower Silesia and the County of Västmanland); anaerobic digestion of biodegradable part of municipal waste and of agricultural waste and by-products (Lower Silesia) as well as sewage sludge drying in Western Lithuania and Lower Silesia.

  • 29.
    Ericson, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. KTH.
    A simplified model for anaerobic digestion of solid waste using real data from a full-scale biogas plant2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Ericson, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. KTH.
    Exploring the possibility of using a simple neural network for the prediction of biogas production of a solid waste digester2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Freidank, Tim
    et al.
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Drescher-Hartung, Silvia
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Behnsen, Andreas
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    MIDTERM OUTPUT REPORT – PILOT B IN SWEDEN2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Belous, Olga
    Klaipeda University.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology.
    MANUAL FOR SORTING OF WASTE FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Daianova, Lilia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    SCENARIOS FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY USE - SWEDISH PERSPECTIVE.2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of waste for energy purposes becomes increasingly interesting both with respect to waste management and for the energy systems. The decisions on alternative uses of waste for energy are mainly influenced by different policies, waste management, energy supply and use, as well as technologies. Two important issues, namely, a clear priority of waste prevention in waste management within EU and the growing concern for food losses and food waste at global and at national level, shall be carefully considered and addressed. This paper proposes scenarios for waste to energy systems with focus on Sweden and with a broader EU approach is applied: Biofuels Sweden, Electric vehicles and Bioenergy Europe. As baseline for the scenario development inventory of waste-to-energy related policies and goals on international, national, regional and local level as well as inventory of existing scenarios and reports with future trends is made. A low waste availability level is recommended to be included in sensitivity analysis for scenarios.

  • 34.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Policy Based Scenarios for Waste-to-Energy Use: Swedish Perspective2014Ingår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 679-688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of waste for energy purposes becomes increasingly interesting with respect to waste management and the energy systems. The decisions on alternative uses of waste for energy are mainly influenced by different policies, waste management, energy supply and use, as well as technologies. Two important issues, namely, a clear priority of waste prevention in waste management within EU and the growing concern for food losses and food waste at global and national level, shall be carefully considered and addressed. This paper proposes policy based scenarios for waste-to-energy systems with a focus on Sweden and with a broader EU approach. As baseline for the scenario development an inventory of waste-to-energy related policies and goals on international, national, regional and local level as well as inventory of existing scenarios and reports with future trends is made. The main substitute for fossil fuels and the possibilities for renewable energy export are basic elements that define scenarios. Biofuels and electricity are identified as main substitutes for the fossil fuels. A low waste availability level is recommended to be included in sensitivity analysis for scenarios. This paper assumes relative decoupling in Low Waste scenario in 2030, and absolute decoupling first in 2050.

  • 35.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Waste-to-energy in a Polish perspective2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

     Energy recovery from waste becomes increasingly interesting both with respect to waste management and for the sustainable energy supply. The REMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production) project, seeks to facilitate the implementation of sustainable systems for waste-to-energy in the project regions. Based on investigations done within the REMOWE project this paper discusses increased waste-to-energy utilization in Poland with focus on a comparison with the current state in Sweden. There are big differences between Sweden and Poland, and between Lower Silesia Voivodship in Poland and Västmanland County in Sweden. The REMOWE project through its outputs and discussions during meetings support transfer of technology, knowledge and best practice. Procedural justice and early involvement of public can increase social acceptance and successful implementation of projects regarding incineration, biogas production and separate collection of biodegradable waste.

  • 36.
    Hakalehto, E.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Heitto, A.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Andersson, Henny
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Reijonen, T.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Suhonen, A.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, A.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Laatikainen, R.
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Some remarks on processing of slaughterhouse wastes from ecological chicken abattoir and farm2016Ingår i: Microbiological Industrial Hygiene, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2016, s. 271-293Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the meat industries, it is always of high importance to follow up the zoonotic and other hazardous micro-organisms, and to prevent their risky distribution, emission and dissemination. Besides proper hygiene control, as well as organized exploitation of the side streams and slaughterhouse wastes helps in the hygienization of the biomasses, processes, and the entire industry. During this experimentation it turned out that it was possible to produce gases and chemical goods, not only from the carboxylates, but also from the more tedious protein and lipid containing wastes. Moreover, these promising results were obtained from a substrate mix with manure and wood chips. These results implied to the high versatility and flexibility of the bioprocess during Pilot A tests within the European Union Baltic Sea region project ABOWE. In Sweden these tests were carried out using the combined wastes from the ecological chicken farm and abattoir as the raw materials. This is a report of the practical set up during intensive experimentation conducted jointly by the Swedish and Finnish personnel. The report of the runs in Sweden is presented also in the public report of the European Union funded project (www.abowe.eu).

  • 37.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Bozena, Guziana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Guilnaz, Mirmoshtaghi
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Eva, Thorin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    WASTE-TO-ENERGY SCENARIOS ANALYSIS BASED ON ENERGY SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN SWEDEN2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy recovery from waste treatment is of great significance for the waste management and sustainable energy supply. Sweden has proposed an ambitious vision of zero net greenhouse gases emissions by 2050, which makes most possible use of resources that the waste represents necessary. This paper is to study how the waste-to-energy (WtE) can interact with other forms of renewable energy to affect the energy supply and demand in Sweden. Based on an assumption of waste generation-treatment balance in 2050 with two cases, power preference and motor fuels preference, are investigated under diverse WtE scenarios. The results indicate that WtE production can contribute to the primary energy supply by 38 to 186 TWh, amounting to 6% to 47% of the total. The power production can be ranged from 7 to 35 TWh and motor fuels from 2 to 34 TWh through under different WtE scenarios. Furthermore, the final mitigation of CO2 emission is estimated to be from 1 to 12 Mt in 2050 compared to base year of 2010, really depending on which WtE scenario is considered.

  • 38.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Eva, Thorin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Bozena, Guziana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Tuomas, Huopana
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Jinyue, Yan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    A dynamic model to optimize a regional energy system with waste and crops as energy resources for greenhouse gases mitigation2012Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 522-532Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic model of a regional energy system has been developed to support sustainable waste treatmentwith greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation, addressing the possibility for development towardsa regional fossil fuel-free society between 2011 and 2030. The model is based on conventional mixedinteger linear programming (MILP) techniques to minimize the total cost of regional energy systems. TheCO2 emission component in the developed model includes both fossil and biogenic origins whenconsidering waste, fossil fuels and other renewable sources for energy production. A case study for thecounty of Västmanland in central Sweden is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the developedMILP model in five distinct scenarios. The results show significant potential for mitigating CO2 emissionby gradually replacing fossil fuels with different renewable energy sources. The MILP model can be usefulfor providing strategies for treating wastes sustainably and mitigating GHG emissions in a regionalenergy system, which can function as decision bases for formulating GHG reduction policies andassessing the associated economic implications.

  • 39.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Jan, Yinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Annual performance analysis and comparison of pellet production integrated with an existing combined heat and power plant2011Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, nr 10, s. 6317-6325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three optional pellet production processes integrated with an existing biomass-based CHP plant using different raw materials (wood chips and solid hydrolysis residues) are studied. The year is divided into 12 periods, and the integrated biorefinery systems are modeled and simulated for each period. The annual economic performance of three integrated biorefinery systems is analyzed based on the simulation results. The option of pellet production integrated with the existing CHP plant with the exhaust flue gas and superheated steam as drying mediums has the lowest specific pellet production cost of 105 €/tpellet, the shortest payback time of less than 2 years and the greatest CO2 reduction of the three options. An advantage in common among the three options is a dramatic increase of the total annual power production and significant CO2 reduction in spite of a small decrease of power efficiency.

  • 40.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Techno-economic analysis of an integrated biorefinery system for poly-generation of power, heat, pellets and bioethanol2014Ingår i: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 551-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethanol is an alternative to fossil fuels in the transportation sector. The use of pellet for heating is also an efficient way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This paper evaluates the techno-economic performance of a biorefinery system in which an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant is integrated with the production of bioethanol and pellet using straw as feedstock. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process is used for bioethanol production, and two different drying technologies are applied to dry hydrolysis solid residues. A sensitivity analysis is performed on critical parameters such as the bioethanol selling price and feedstock price. The bioethanol production cost is also calculated for two cases with either 10 year or 15 year payback times. The results show that the second case is currently a more feasible economic configuration and reduces production costs by 36.4%-77.3% compared to other types of poly-generation plants that are not integrated into existing CHP plants. 

  • 41.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    School of Chemical Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Techno-economic analysis of an integrated biorefinerysystem for poly-generation of power, heat, pelletand bioethanol2014Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, nr 38, s. 551-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Bioethanol is considered an alternative to fossil fuels in the transportation sector. The use of pellets for heating is another efficient way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This paper evaluates the techno-economic performance of a biorefinery system in which an existing combined heat and power plant integrates with the productions of bioethanol and pellets using straw as feedstock. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process for bioethanol production is used, and two different drying technologies are chosen for drying hydrolysis solid residues. A sensitivity analysis on critical parameters, such as the bioethanol selling price and feedstock price, is performed. The bioethanol production cost is also calculated for two cases at the conditions of ten-year and five-year payback time. The results show that the first case is a more feasible economic configuration at present, having an over 30% production cost reduction compared with the conventional cogeneration plants of bioethanol and solid fuel.

  • 42.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies suitable for use in district heating networks2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, s. 1721-1727, artikel-id EGYPRO33942Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in heat-to-power (HtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. HtP is used extensively in power generation via the steam Rankine cycle, but so far has not been used in district heating (DH). The aim of the study is to analyze the economic feasibility of using HtP technologies in a DH network. This is achieved by establishing suitable technologies and calculating the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) under conditions that may be found in DH. The result, for the vendors, temperatures and assumptions considered, is a range of 25–292 €/MWh, excluding the cost of heat. The breadth of this range in part reflects the importance of selecting appropriate products to match the heat source temperature.

  • 43.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Box 857, SE-501 15 Borås, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks2019Ingår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, s. 2430-2434Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Future energy systems need to be more flexible. The use of cross-sector coupling in combination with thermal storage in thermal grids has been shown to provide such flexibility. The presented study reviews how short-term storage in district heating distribution networks is used or modelled for flexibility, what are the most important parameters, and where the knowledge gaps remain. The results show that the potential for flexibility from district heating has not been fully exploited. Sensible thermal storage tanks are 50-100 times cheaper than electrical storage and storage in the distribution network requires little additional investment in infrastructure. In some countries, the majority of district heating systems have sensible thermal storage tanks, with as much as 64 % of their capacity available for flexibility services. Initial results suggest that only smaller networks are prevented from using the distribution network for storage, but the impacts of this type of use on the physical components and the capacity limitations remain unclear and show a need for standardised methods for analysis. There is a growing interest, both in Europe and China, in the use of short-term storage in district heating to provide flexibility, particularly in the form of ancillary services to the electricity grid, but implementations of these techniques are rare. The presented study identifies a number of remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in order to harness available flexibility in district heating.

  • 44.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Towards smart thermal grids: Techno-economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies for district heating2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, s. 766-776Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in low-temperature heat-to-power (LTHtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. LTHtP has so far not been used in district heating. The aim of the study is to establish under what conditions the use of existing LTHtP technology is technically and economically feasible using a district heating system as the heat source. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is identified as the most interesting LTHtP technology, due to its high relative efficiency and the commercial availability of devices operating at temperatures in the district heating operating range. The levelised cost of electricity of several ORC devices is calculated for temperatures found in district heating, assuming a zero cost of heat. A case study from Sweden is used to calculate the levelised cost of electricity, the net present value and payback period, based on income from the electricity produced, excluding taxes. Hourly spot market electricity prices from 2017 are used, as well as forecast scenarios for 2020, 2030 and 2040. A sensitivity study tests the importance of electricity price, cost of heat and capital/installation cost. Based on the case study, the best levelised cost of electricity achieved was 26.5 EUR/MWh, with a payback period greater than 30 years. Under current Swedish market conditions, the ORC does not appear to be economically feasible for use in district heating, but the net present value and payback period may be significantly more attractive under other countries’ market conditions or with reduced capital costs. For a positive net present value in the Swedish market the capital cost should be reduced to 1.7 EUR/W installed, or the average electricity price should be at least 35.2 EUR/MWh, if the cost of heat is zero. The cost of heat is an important factor in these calculations and should be developed further in future work.

  • 45.
    Huopana, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Antikainen, Eero
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag, Finland.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Sustainability assessment of biorefinery and dry digestion systems: Case:Sweden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Huopanaa, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Appled Sciences, Finland.
    Lõõnik, Jaan
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency, Estland.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Polen.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    A REGIONAL MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOGAS  PRODUCTION: Case study: North Savo, Finland. REMOWE Report, Integrated report no: O5.3.3, O5.3.6, O5.4.3, O5.4.4, O5.6.12012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Eskelinen, Tuomo
    Huopana, Tuomas
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    INVESTMENT MEMO ABOWE PILOT B SWEDEN2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is one output of ABOWE project (Implementing Advanced Concepts for Biological Utilization of Waste), which belongs to EU Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. ABOWE works with two promising technologies to unlock investments. Two mobile pilot plants have been built and will be tested in several Baltic Sea regions. These pilots are based on a novel biorefinery concept from Finnoflag Oy, Finland, known as Pilot A as well as a German dry fermentation process, known as Pilot B. The pilots form the basis for compilation of Investment Memos and organizing Investor Events. Also a regional model is used to evaluate the new processes’ economic and climatic impacts in each region. The desired outcome from ABOWE is implementer/investor driven continuation projects targeting full-scaleplant investments of the two technologies.

    The purpose of ABOWE Work Package 2 is to gather and communicate information from many aspects of technologies which are piloted with Pilot A and Pilot B to support investment decisions for full scale plants. In practice, a demo full scaleplant would be needed in order to convince the commercial investors and implementers to full scale plants. This means that ABOWE provides with profound information and a step forward regarding the two technologies. After ABOWE, the technology will need development for full-scale, and the feasibility will need further analysis. An implementer and investor should be found to conduct development further towards full-scale demo plant.

  • 48.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Eskelinen, Tuomo
    Lappi, Mervi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kauppinen, Marja
    Huopana, Tuomas
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    INVESTMENT MEMO ABOWE PILOT A SWEDEN2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This report was compiled by the ABOWE project (Implementing Advanced Concepts for Biological Utilization of Waste) funded by the EU Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. This report presentsresults and information of relevance for the up-scaling of the Finnoflag biorefinery technology, piloted in Finland, Poland and Sweden, to support investment decisions towards full-scale implementation.

    The piloting of the technology done by the ABOWE project provides valuable information and a step forward regarding the technology. The next step, after the pilot phase, would be to construct a full-scalede monstration plant to showcase the potential of the technology to potential commercial investorsor implementers. The bioprocess will need to be further designedand optimized through longer testing with selected waste materials to produce targeted products. This will all0w for full-scaleoperationsand further feasibility analysis. This falls beyond the scope of the ABOWE project. This report forms the basis of an investment memo that provides decision support topossible implementers and investors that are interested in taking the lead in the development of the technology further to a full-scale demo plant.

  • 49.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Daheem, Mehmood
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhixin, Yu
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Biomethane production via anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 1172-1177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector accounts for the second biggest greenhouse gas emissionin the European Union (EU). In order to achieve the target of CO2 emission reduction there is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. Biomethane can be produced through anaerobic digestion or biomass gasification. Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process. Since the raw gas contains approximately 65 vol% CH4 and 3 5vol%, an upgrading process is needed to remove CO2. Göteborg biomass gasification project (GoBiGas) is the world's first demonstration plant for large-scale production of biomethane through the gasification of forest residues. To achieve high purity CH4, a methanation process is required after gasification. This work compares these two technologies from the perspective of energy efficiency. Simulation results show that they have similar efficiencies: 62-64% for AE and ~65% for GoBiG.

  • 50.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Han, Song
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Potentials of energy saving and efficiency improvement from lighting and space heating: a case study of SAAB2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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