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  • 1.
    Envall, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish Res Council Environm Agr Sci & Spatial Pl, Box 1206, S-11182 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Villavagen 16, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    aberg, Charlotte
    Swedish Res Council Environm Agr Sci & Spatial Pl, Box 1206, S-11182 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bring, Arvid
    Swedish Res Council Environm Agr Sci & Spatial Pl, Box 1206, S-11182 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Land, Magnus
    Swedish Res Council Environm Agr Sci & Spatial Pl, Box 1206, S-11182 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, Tekn Ringen 10B, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    What evidence exists related to soil retention of phosphorus from on-site wastewater treatment systems in boreal and temperate climate zones?: A systematic map protocol2020In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Soil-based on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWSs) are suspected to contribute to eutrophication of surface waters, due to the discharge of phosphorus (P). However, along the flow path between the facilities and surface waters, different processes contribute to delay the transport of phosphorus through the ground. This may reduce the unwanted impact on receiving water bodies. However, the strength and significance of this so-called soil retention remains unclear. In Sweden, there are nearly one million OWSs. To protect surface waters, a high P removal rate (up to 90%) is often required by the local municipalities. However, since these requirements may have costly consequences to property owners, it is debated as to whether they are too strict. In this debate, it is often claimed that the retention of P occurring in natural environments may be underestimated by authorities. Accordingly, there is a need for a scrutiny of the available evidence related to soil retention of phosphorus from OWSs. This is the objective of the planned systematic map. Focus will be on boreal and temperate climate zones. Methods Searches will be made for peer-reviewed articles and grey literature using bibliographic databases, search engines, specialist websites and stakeholder contacts. The references will be screened for relevance according to a predefined set of eligibility criteria. At stage one, after testing and clarifying the eligibility criteria, the references will be single-screened based on title and abstract. At stage two, potentially relevant references will be screened in full-text independently by two reviewers. We will compile a detailed database of the relevant studies. Moreover, a narrative report will be produced, describing the research landscape in general terms. This will be carried out with a conceptual model, describing the processes involved in P retention in natural environments, as a foundation. It will be discussed where the respective studies/study types fit into the conceptual model, and also evaluated how each study/study type can be related to the overarching question of eutrophication. Moreover, we will describe identified knowledge gaps that warrant further primary research effort, as well as identified knowledge clusters that could be suitable for systematic reviews.

  • 2.
    Envall, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish Res Council Environm, Agr Sci & Spatial Planning Formas, Sweden.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bring, Arvid
    Swedish Res Council Environm, Agr Sci & Spatial Planning Formas, Sweden.
    Land, Magnus
    Swedish Res Council Environm, Agr Sci & Spatial Planning Formas, Sweden.
    Åberg, Charlotte
    Swedish Res Council Environm, Agr Sci & Spatial Planning Formas, Sweden.
    Haddaway, Neal R.
    Leibniz Ctr Agr Landscape Res ZALF, Germany.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Existing evidence related to soil retention of phosphorus from on-site wastewater treatment systems in boreal and temperate climate zones: a systematic map2023In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden there are nearly one million soil-based on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs). OWTSs may contribute to eutrophication of surface waters, due to the discharge of phosphorus (P). Hence, in certain cases, a high P removal rate (up to 90%) of OWTSs is required by Swedish authorities. Since these requirements may have costly consequences to property owners, it is debated whether they are too strict. In this debate, it is often claimed that the soil retention of P occurring in the natural environments may be underestimated by authorities. Soil retention is the inhibition of the transport of P through the ground, due to different chemical, physical and biological processes occurring there. These processes make the P transport slower, which may reduce the unwanted impact on receiving water bodies. However, the efficiency of soil retention of P remains unclear. The objective of this systematic map was to collect, code, organise and elucidate the relevant evidence related to the topic, to be able to guide stakeholders through the evidence base, and to support future research synthesising, commissioning, and funding. The systematic map was carried out in response to needs declared by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management but the conclusions should be valid for a wider range of countries across boreo-temperate regions.

    Methods: Searches were made for peer-reviewed and grey literature using bibliographic databases, search engines, specialist websites, and stakeholder contacts. The references were screened for relevance according to a predefined set of eligibility criteria. A detailed database of the relevant studies was compiled. Data and metadata that enable evaluation and discussion of the character and quality of the evidence base were extracted and coded. Special focus was placed on assessing if existing evidence could contribute to policy and practice decision making. Descriptive information about the evidence base was presented in tables and figures. An interactive evidence atlas and a choropleth were created, displaying the locations of all studies.

    Review findings: 234 articles out of 10,797 screened records fulfilled the eligibility criteria. These articles contain 256 studies, performed in the field or in the laboratory. Six different study types were identified, based on where the measurements were conducted. Most studies, including laboratory studies, lack replicates. Most field studies are observational case studies.

    Conclusions: It is not possible to derive valid generic measures of the efficiency of soil retention of P occurring in the natural soil environment from available research. Neither does the evidence base allow for answering the question of the magnitude of the potential impact of OWTSs on the P concentration in recipients on a general basis, or under what conditions OWTSs generally have such an impact. A compilation of groundwater studies may provide examples of how far the P may reach in x years, but the number of groundwater studies is insufficient to draw any general conclusions, given the complexity and variability of the systems. Future research should strive for replicated study designs, more elaborate reporting, and the establishment of a reporting standard.

  • 3.
    Hokkanen, S.
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Repo, E.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lou, S.
    University of Minnesota, United States.
    Sainio, T.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Sillanpää, M.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Adsorption of Ni2+, Cd2+, PO4 3- and NO3 - from aqueous solutions by nanostructured microfibrillated cellulose modified with carbonated hydroxyapatite2014In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, Vol. 252, p. 64-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of Ni2+, Cd2+, PO4 3- and NO3 - by carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) modified microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was studied in the aqueous solution. The modified adsorbent was characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR, SEM and EDAX analysis. The adsorption studies were conducted in batch mode. The effects of pH, contact time, the concentration of metals and the regeneration efficiency were studied. The removal of Ni2+, Cd2+, PO4 3- and NO3 - was not pH dependent. The maximum removal capacities of the CHA/MFC adsorbent for Ni2+, Cd2+, PO4 3- and NO3 - were 2.021, 1.224, 0.843 and 0.209mmol/g, respectively. The Langmuir and Sips models were representative to simulate adsorption isotherms. The results of adsorption kinetic indicate that adsorption was very fast for all studied compounds.

  • 4.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Byström, Maria
    Swedish Water Works Association, Sweden.
    Lead emissions from lost fishing sinkers2001In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, no 6, p. 231-236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Applications of Aquatic Mosses as Monitors of Heavy Metal Pollution1995Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents - column studies1999In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 229, no 1-2, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO(4)(3-), a column experiment was carried out under conditions of intermittent P loading. Two types of slag were used; crystalline slag (CS) and amorphous slag (AS). The slags were available in two particle sizes; 0-0.125 mm and 0.25-4 mm, respectively. The slags were mixed with inert sand to improve the hydraulic conductivity. In addition to the column experiment, a P fractionation experiment was conducted. The sorption experiment indicated that the removal of P by the CS (0.25-4 mm), the AS (0.25-4 mm) and the AS (0-0.125 mm) columns at the end of the experiment exceeded 95%. In the other columns, the P sorption had decreased remarkably indicating a beginning saturation of the substrates. The P fractionation experiment showed that the P sorption was largest in the uppermost layers. Clear gradients of the P sorption in the downward direction could also be observed. It was concluded that the P sorption by the coarser slags was high at the end of the experiment indicating that saturation had not been achieved.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Detection of metal contamination along a small river through transplantation of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica1995In: Aqua Fennica, ISSN 0356-7133, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Industrial by-products and natural substrata as phosphorus sorbents1999In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 309-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of phosphorus (P) removal in ecologically-engineered wastewater treatment facilities, such as artificial wetlands and sand filters, can be improved by using a reactive sorbent. The sorbent must therefore have a high P-sorption capacity and an adequate hydraulic conductivity. Several filter materials have been tested here in regard to their P-sorption capacity. In this study, three natural materials - opoka (a bedrock found in south-eastern Poland) limestone and the B horizon of a forest soil, plus two artificial materials - blast furnace slag (crystalline and amorphous, in two particle sizes (0-0.125 mm and 0.25-4 mm), and fly ash were investigated. Phosphate sorption and isotherm studies were performed. In addition, physical and chemical properties of the materials were also investigated. The P-sorption experiment showed that all materials were capable of sorbing P to various extents. The coarse crystalline slag had the highest P-sorption capacity followed in order by the fine crystalline slag, the fine amorphous slag, the B horizon, the limestone, the coarse amorphous slag, the ash and the opoka. The isotherm studies showed that the B horizon was the most efficient P retainer, followed in order by the coarse crystalline slag, the fine crystalline slag, the fine amorphous slag and the coarse amorphous slag, with opoka and limestone showing the poorest retention. It was concluded that the crystalline slags had the highest P-sorption capacities, and that coarse crystalline slag possessed the highest hydraulic conductivity, suggesting that this material is the most suitable for use in ecological wastewater treatment systems.

  • 9. Johansson, Lena
    Phosphorus available for plant uptake in sewage sludge - A literature survey2000In: VATTEN, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 56, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Phosphorus removal in wetland systems1997Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Phosphorus Sorption to Filter Substrates: Potential Benefits for On-site Wastewater Treatment1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Removal of phosphorus from wastewater in constructed wetlands1996In: Proceedings of the Sino-Swedish Seminar on Sustainable USe of Water Resources - with Special Emphasis on Recharge and Protection of Groundwater / [ed] Castensson R. och Gustafsson J-E, 1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates) for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater1997In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Water, Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing attention is being focused on the phosphorus retention capacity of wetlands. Several attempts have been made to improve the reduction of phosphorus in wastewater by the use of constructed wetlands. One way of improving the phosphorus reduction capacity is to use efficient filter materials in the wetland. Leca(R) (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates) has been tested in Norway, where laboratory and field investigations gave promising results. To further study the chemical removal mechanism of Leca, an experiment utilising five columns was performed. A phosphate solution was applied to the columns intermittently and samples were taken twice a week. Parallel to this study, a P-fractionation experiment was conducted to find out how the phosphate was sorbed to various components of the material. Both experiments showed that only a small amount of the applied phosphate was sorbed by the Leca. The amount sorbed was primarily attached to Al-complexes. In a second column experiment Opoka, a reactive medium rich in CaCO3, was added to Leca and sand to investigate the P-sorption capacity. The results from this investigation showed a higher P-uptake than in the previous column experiment. The lime additive clearly increased the P-sorption and, in this study, Leca in its pure form could be considered as chemically non-reactive. 

  • 14.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Enskog, Lina
    Bra fosforprodukter från avloppsslam1999Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms2000In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were included in a set of experiments to investigate the P retention mechanisms from model P-solution. Experiments focusing on the P sorption, capacity and calcium (Ca) and PO4 determination were carried out. The pH was also measured. The P sorption experiment showed that some slags were efficient P retainers, while the opoka was the least efficient P retainer. The pH decreased in all samples as a function of P addition. In the slag samples, the Ca concentration also decreased as a function of P addition, suggesting Ca-P precipitation as the major P removal mechanism for the slag. The Ca and PO4 speciation data ruled out the formation of amorphous calcium phosphates and/or octacalcium phosphate as the major P removal mechanism. However, the calculated ion activity products displayed clear evidence that hydroxyapatite had precipitated above a certain critical supersaturation limit. This would explain the poor P retention efficiency of the opoka samples in this study as the ion activity products were too low. The finding that direct hydroxyapatite formation is the predominant P removal mechanism might have important implications for their possible use as fertiliser due to the poor solubility of hydroxyapatite.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hylander, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Phosphorus removal from wastewater by filter media: retention and estimated plant availability of sorbed phosphorus1998In: Journal of the Polish Academy of Science, no 458, p. 397-409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hylander, Lars
    Uppsala Universitet, Sweden.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Små avlopp för kretslopp - sorption till reaktiva filter1999In: VATTEN, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mersch, Jacques
    Université de Metz, France.
    Transplanted aquatic mosses and freshwater mussels to investigate the trace metal contamination in the rivers Meurthe and Plaine, France1993In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Environmental Technology, ISSN 0959-3330, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 1027-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic mosses Cinclidotus nigricans and freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha were transferred at eight monitoring sites along the rivers Meurthe and Plaine (northeastern France) for a biological assessment of the trace metal contamination. Autochthonous Fontinalis antipyretica mosses were collected at the end of the experiment. The major contaminants detected in the organisms were Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. A comparison between the native and the introduced bryophytes showed that the transfer technique was preferable to assess the recent pollution situation. In the case of the transplanted mosses, high initial levels of strongly bound Pb and Zn prevented an accurate assessment of the contamination with these two metals, since only little depuration occurred at unpolluted sites. A good qualitative agreement was observed between the indications obtained from the mosses and those obtained from the mussels, suggesting that both are suitable indicators for monitoring purposes. The observed quantitative disparities were attributed to inherent differences in the accumulation strategies of each sentinel organism. Due to specific uptake and depuration kinetics, mosses and mussels appeared to be complementary in the detection of various types of pollution.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of bryophytes as bioindicators1994In: International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology / [ed] Sladeckova, Stuttgart, 1994, p. 2026-2028Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlström, Hans
    Light Expanded Clay Aggregates (LECA) as reactive filter medium in constructed wetlands1996In: Proceedings Ecotechnics 95 International Symposium on Ecological Engineering / [ed] Thofelt, L. och Englund, A., Östersund: Mitthögskolan , 1996, p. 215-224Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ridderstolpe, Peter
    Hylander, Lars
    Uppsala university.
    Simán, Gyula
    Uppsala university.
    Phosphorus recycling from wastewater by filter media used as fertilzers1999In: DIAS Plant Production: Volym 13, Danish Institute og Agricultural Sciences , 1999, p. 139-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Energy.
    Blast furnace slag and pine bark as potential filter media for metal sorption from landfill leachate2005In: Proceedings of ECO-TECH'05 Bioremediation and Leachate Treatment, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Constructed wetlands for treatment of landfill leachate - experiences from Sweden and Norway2004In: VATTEN, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Filter materials - a possible method to optimise the phosphorus reduction in small-scale wastewater treatment systems?2002In: Kalmar ECO-TECH'01 Leachate and Waste Water Treatment with High-Tech and Natural Systems / [ed] Hoegland, William, Kalmar, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Filtermaterial för fosforreduktion - en litteraturstudie2002Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Substrates for phosphorus removal - potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment?2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of substrates potential for removal of phosphorus (P) in wastewater has been reviewed. The substrates consist of natural materials, industrial by-products and man-made products. Most substrates have been investigated in batch and column studies in the laboratory; others have also been tested in field trials. The results from these investigations vary, but a few substrates, e.g. wollastonite, slag material and, to some extent, light weight aggregate products, have demonstrated promising properties with regard to P-sorption capacity and hydraulics. The problems of normalisation of data are discussed, as well as the substrates potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment.

  • 27.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review2010In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 826-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

  • 28.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Treatment of landfill leachate in a constructed wetland at Isätra landfill site2003In: Proceedings of the 9th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Drizo, Aleksandra
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    The use of blast furnace and electric arc furnace steel slag in water pollution control2011In: Proceedings of the 6th European Slag Conference, 20-22 October, Madrid, Spain, 2011, p. 103-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filter technology has proved to be successful with regard to removal of pollutants from varying wastewater streams. A large number of filter materials have been investigated with promising results, among them several steel and iron slag materials. However, despite significant scientific evidence over the past 15 years on the efficiency of steel slag in P removal in particular from a variety of wastewaters around the world, currently there are very few full-scale steel slag filters in operation. In this paper we will present research efforts and experiences in using blast furnace slag in Sweden and electric arc furnace steel slag in Vermont, USA and hindrances faced in obtaining regulatory approvals for this innovative technology.

  • 30.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Färm, Carina
    Treating polluted water flows with filter technique2004Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Repo, E.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Sillanpää, M.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Filter materials for metal removal from mine drainage-a review2014In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 15, p. 9109-9128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of filter materials, organic and inorganic, for removal of heavy metals in mine drainage have been reviewed. Bark, chitin, chitosan, commercial ion exchangers, dairy manure compost, lignite, peat, rice husks, vegetal compost, and yeast are examples of organic materials, while bio-carbons, calcareous shale, dolomite, fly ash, limestone, olivine, steel slag materials and zeolites are examples of inorganic materials. The majority of these filter materials have been investigated in laboratory studies, based on various experimental set-ups (batch and/or column tests) and different conditions. A few materials, for instance steel slag materials, have also been subjects to field investigations under real-life conditions. The results from these investigations show that steel slag materials have the potential to remove heavy metals under different conditions. Ion exchange has been suggested as the major metal removal mechanisms not only for steel slag but also for lignite. Other suggested removal mechanisms have also been identified. Adsorption has been suggested important for activated carbon, precipitation for chitosan and sulphate reduction for olivine. General findings indicate that the results with regard to metal removal vary due to experimental set ups, composition of mine drainage and properties of filter materials and the discrepancies between studies renders normalisation of data difficult. However, the literature reveals that Fe, Zn, Pb, Hg and Al are removed to a large extent. Further investigations, especially under real-life conditions, are however necessary in order to find suitable filter materials for treatment of mine drainage. 

  • 32.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Veibäck, Frida
    Environmental impacts of landfill covering by use of industrial by-products2003In: Proceedings of Kalmar ECO-TECH'03, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Khokhotva, O. P.
    et al.
    National Technical University of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The impact of surface properties of modified pine bark on the mechanism of sorption of heavy metals from aqueous media2017In: Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 1063-455X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface properties of pine bark before and after the treatment with urea solution and the adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions at different pH values have been studied. Types of active sorption sites, their surface concentration and change after the bark treatment with urea solution were determined. The results of potentiometric titration were processed by using ProtoFit and FITEQL software programs. The data obtained make it possible to conclude that in the extraction mechanism of heavy metals from water the share of ion exchange decreases and the share of complexation increases. The impact of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the range of their concentrations up to 3000 mg/dm3 on Cu(II) extraction from model aqueous solutions was also investigated. 

  • 34.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Treatment of landfill leachate using filter substrates2005In: Proceedings Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 35.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wastewater phosphorous removal by blast furnace slag: Laboratory and field investigations in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the metal sorption process to pine barkManuscript (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag - on-site experiment for treatment of low strenght landfill leachate2008In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, no 5, p. 998-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 10 1 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used.  

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Renman, Agniezska
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Drizo, Aleksandra
    Effect of organic load on phosphorus and bacteria removal from wastewater using alkaline filter materials2013In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 47, no 16, p. 6289-6297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic matter released from septic tanks can disturb the subsequent step in on-site wastewater treatment such as the innovative filters for phosphorus removal. This study investigated the effect of organic load on phosphorus (P) and bacteria removal by reactive filter materials under real-life treatment conditions. Two long-term column experiments were conducted at very short hydraulic residence times (average ~5.5h), using wastewater with high (mean ~120mgL-1) and low (mean ~20mgL-1) BOD7 values. Two alkaline filter materials, the calcium-silicate material Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS), were tested for the removal capacity of total P, total organic carbon (TOC) and Enterococci. Both experiments showed that Polonite removed P significantly (p<0.01) better than BFS. An increase in P removal efficiency of 29.3% was observed for the Polonite filter at the lower concentration of BOD7 (p<0.05). Polonite was also better than BFS with regard to removal of TOC, but there were no significant differences between the two filter materials with regard to removal of Enterococci. The reduction in Enterococci was greater in the experiment using wastewater with high BOD7, an effect attributable to the higher concentration of bacteria in that wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of extensive pre-treatment of wastewater to achieve good phosphorus removal in reactive bed filters and prolonged filter life.

  • 39.
    Repo, E.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Green Chemistry, LUT Chemtech, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammo, Finland .
    Warchoł, J. K.
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland .
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sillanpää, M.
    Laboratory of Green Chemistry, LUT Chemtech, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland .
    Steel slag as a low-cost sorbent for metal removal in the presence of chelating agents2015In: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, ISSN 1226-086X, E-ISSN 1876-794X, Vol. 27, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial byproduct, steel slag was used as a low-cost sorbent for the removal of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents; EDTA, citrate, and oxalate. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted. Clear dependency between speciation of metals and their sorption behavior was observed. Precipitation and adsorption were suggested as main mechanisms. Diffusion played an important role in the kinetics of metal removal. Notable leaching of elements was observed when steel slag was in contact with the solutions under study. Modification with chitosan was successfully used to prevent leaching and improve the sorption capacity of steel slag.

  • 40.
    Sylwan, Ida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bergna, Davide
    Univ Oulu, Res Unit Sustainable Chem, POB 8000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Runtti, Hanna
    Univ Oulu, Res Unit Sustainable Chem, POB 8000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Primary and digested sludge-derived char as a Cd sorbent: feasibility of local utilisation2023In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 11, p. 2917-2930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal, occurring in municipal wastewater and stormwater as well as in wastewater from various industries. Char derived from the pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge has the potential to be a low-cost sorption media for the removal of Cd. However, the balance between possible local char production and demand has not been assessed previously. In this study, the Cd sorption capacities of chars derived from primary (PSC) and secondary sludge (DSC), as well as the feasibility of char production for Cd sorbent purposes, and the pyrolysis energy balance were evaluated. Results showed that the sorption capacity of PSC (9.1 mg/g; 800 degrees C, 70 min) was superior to that of DSC (6.0 mg/g; 800 degrees C, 70 min), and increased with a higher pyrolysis temperature. Pyrolysis of primary sludge had a more favourable energy balance compared with the pyrolysis of digested sludge, however, when accounting for loss of biogas production the energy balance of primary sludge pyrolysis was negative. Assessment of the regional demand (V & auml;ster & aring;s, Sweden) indicated that PSC or DSC may cover the local Cd sorbent demand. However, it was estimated that large char volumes would be required, thus making the use of DSC/PSC less feasible.

  • 41.
    Sylwan, Ida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Runtti, Hanna
    Oulu University, Finland.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    BIOCHAR ADSORPTION FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALSIN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Sylwan, Ida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Runtti, Hanna
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center, Mälardalen University, P.O. Box 883, Västerås, SE-721 23, Sweden.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Romar, H.
    Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, Oulu, FI-90014, Finland.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Heavy metal sorption by sludge-derived biochar with focus on Pb2+ sorption capacity at µg/L concentrations2020In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 1-23, article id 1559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal wastewater management causes metal exposure to humans and the environment. Targeted metal removal is suggested to reduce metal loads during sludge reuse and release of effluent to receiving waters. Biochar is considered a low-cost sorbent with high sorption capacity for heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal sorption to sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) was investigated through batch experiments and modeling and compared to that of wood-derived biochar (WDBC) and activated carbon (AC). The aim was to investigate the sorption efficiency at metal concentrations comparable to those in municipal wastewater (&lt;1 mg/L), for which experimental data are lacking and isotherm models have not been verified in previous works. Pb2+ removal of up to 83% was demonstrated at concentrations comparable to those in municipal wastewater, at pH 2. SDBC showed superior Pb2+ sorption capacity (maximum ~2 mg/g at pH 2) compared to WDBC and AC (&lt;0 and (3.5 ± 0.4) × 10−3 mg/g, respectively); however, at the lowest concentration investigated (0.005 mg/L), SDBC released Pb2+. The potential risk of release of other heavy metals (i.e., Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn) needs to be further examined. The sorption capacity of SDBC over a metal concentration span of 0.005–150 mg Pb2+/L could be predicted with the Redlich– Peterson model. It was shown that experimental data at concentrations comparable to those in municipal wastewater are necessary to accurately model and predict the sorption capacity of SDBC at these concentrations. 

  • 43.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Filter media for storm water treatment in sustainable cities: A review2023In: Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2673-2718, Vol. 5, article id 1149252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Storm water treatment and management will be more important in the future due to climate changes, e.g., more frequent, and intense rain events that might cause flooding. To meet these challenges, low impact development (LID) technologies such as paved surfaces, green roofs and various bioretention systems have been suggested in urban areas. Various filter media, natural and engineered materials, have been used to amend the LID solutions in field experiments enhancing the removal of different contaminants present in storm water of different kinds. Researchers suggest locally available low-cost media having high capacity to remove pollutants. Other parameters to take into consideration when selecting filter media are clogging, hydraulic parameters. Climatic conditions in different regions, e.g., temperate, or cold climatic zones, do not seem to have a large impact on performance on LID solutions.

  • 44.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Substrates for Phosphorus Removal - Potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment?2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of substrates potential for removal of phosphor-us (P) in wastewater has been reviewed. The substrates consist of natural materials, industrial by-products and man-made products. Most substrates have been investigated in batch and column studies in the laboratory; others have also been tested in field trials. The results from these investigations vary, but a few substrates, e.g. wollastonite, slag material and, to some extent, light weight aggregate products, have demonstrated promising properties with regard to P-sorption capacity and hydraulics. The problems of normalisation of data are discussed, as well as the substrates potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment.

  • 45.
    Xie, Y.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, L.
    SINTEF Energy Research, P.O. Box 4761, Torgarden, 7465, Trondheim, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Carvalho, Lara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Z.
    Department of Energy and Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, 4036, Norway.
    Yu, X.
    Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Skreiberg, Ø.
    SINTEF Energy Research, P.O. Box 4761, Torgarden, 7465, Trondheim, Norway.
    A critical review on production, modification and utilization of biochar2022In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 161, article id 105405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increased interest in the production of sustainable biochar in the past years, as biochar shows versatile physicochemical properties and, can have a wide applicability in diverse fields. Comprehensive studies have been made to characterize biochar produced from various biomass materials, using different production technologies and under different process conditions. However, research is still lacking in correlating biochar properties needed for certain applications with (i) feedstock, (ii) biochar production processes and conditions and (iii) biochar upgrading and modification strategies. To produce biochar with desired properties, there is a great need to establish and clarify such correlations, which can guide the selection of feedstock, tuning and optimization of the production process and more efficient utilization of biochar. On the other hand, further elucidation of these correlations is also important for biochar-stakeholder and end-users for predicting physiochemical properties of biochar from certain feedstock and production conditions, assessing potential effects of biochar utilization and clearly address needs towards biochar critical properties. This review summarizes a wide range of literature on the impact of feedstocks and production processes and reactions conditions on the biochar properties and the most important biochar properties required for the different potential applications. Based on collected data, recommendations are provided for mapping out biochar production for different biochar applications. Knowledge gaps and perspectives for future research have also been identified regarding the characterization and production of biochar. 

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