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  • 1.
    Hokkanen, S.
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Repo, E.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lou, S.
    University of Minnesota, United States.
    Sainio, T.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Sillanpää, M.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Adsorption of Ni2+, Cd2+, PO4 3- and NO3 - from aqueous solutions by nanostructured microfibrillated cellulose modified with carbonated hydroxyapatite2014In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, Vol. 252, p. 64-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of Ni2+, Cd2+, PO4 3- and NO3 - by carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) modified microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was studied in the aqueous solution. The modified adsorbent was characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR, SEM and EDAX analysis. The adsorption studies were conducted in batch mode. The effects of pH, contact time, the concentration of metals and the regeneration efficiency were studied. The removal of Ni2+, Cd2+, PO4 3- and NO3 - was not pH dependent. The maximum removal capacities of the CHA/MFC adsorbent for Ni2+, Cd2+, PO4 3- and NO3 - were 2.021, 1.224, 0.843 and 0.209mmol/g, respectively. The Langmuir and Sips models were representative to simulate adsorption isotherms. The results of adsorption kinetic indicate that adsorption was very fast for all studied compounds.

  • 2.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Byström, Maria
    Swedish Water Works Association, Sweden.
    Lead emissions from lost fishing sinkers2001In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, no 6, p. 231-236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Applications of Aquatic Mosses as Monitors of Heavy Metal Pollution1995Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents - column studies1999In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 229, no 1-2, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO(4)(3-), a column experiment was carried out under conditions of intermittent P loading. Two types of slag were used; crystalline slag (CS) and amorphous slag (AS). The slags were available in two particle sizes; 0-0.125 mm and 0.25-4 mm, respectively. The slags were mixed with inert sand to improve the hydraulic conductivity. In addition to the column experiment, a P fractionation experiment was conducted. The sorption experiment indicated that the removal of P by the CS (0.25-4 mm), the AS (0.25-4 mm) and the AS (0-0.125 mm) columns at the end of the experiment exceeded 95%. In the other columns, the P sorption had decreased remarkably indicating a beginning saturation of the substrates. The P fractionation experiment showed that the P sorption was largest in the uppermost layers. Clear gradients of the P sorption in the downward direction could also be observed. It was concluded that the P sorption by the coarser slags was high at the end of the experiment indicating that saturation had not been achieved.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Detection of metal contamination along a small river through transplantation of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica1995In: Aqua Fennica, ISSN 0356-7133, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Industrial by-products and natural substrata as phosphorus sorbents1999In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 309-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of phosphorus (P) removal in ecologically-engineered wastewater treatment facilities, such as artificial wetlands and sand filters, can be improved by using a reactive sorbent. The sorbent must therefore have a high P-sorption capacity and an adequate hydraulic conductivity. Several filter materials have been tested here in regard to their P-sorption capacity. In this study, three natural materials - opoka (a bedrock found in south-eastern Poland) limestone and the B horizon of a forest soil, plus two artificial materials - blast furnace slag (crystalline and amorphous, in two particle sizes (0-0.125 mm and 0.25-4 mm), and fly ash were investigated. Phosphate sorption and isotherm studies were performed. In addition, physical and chemical properties of the materials were also investigated. The P-sorption experiment showed that all materials were capable of sorbing P to various extents. The coarse crystalline slag had the highest P-sorption capacity followed in order by the fine crystalline slag, the fine amorphous slag, the B horizon, the limestone, the coarse amorphous slag, the ash and the opoka. The isotherm studies showed that the B horizon was the most efficient P retainer, followed in order by the coarse crystalline slag, the fine crystalline slag, the fine amorphous slag and the coarse amorphous slag, with opoka and limestone showing the poorest retention. It was concluded that the crystalline slags had the highest P-sorption capacities, and that coarse crystalline slag possessed the highest hydraulic conductivity, suggesting that this material is the most suitable for use in ecological wastewater treatment systems.

  • 7. Johansson, Lena
    Phosphorus available for plant uptake in sewage sludge - A literature survey2000In: VATTEN, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 56, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Phosphorus removal in wetland systems1997Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Phosphorus Sorption to Filter Substrates: Potential Benefits for On-site Wastewater Treatment1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Removal of phosphorus from wastewater in constructed wetlands1996In: Proceedings of the Sino-Swedish Seminar on Sustainable USe of Water Resources - with Special Emphasis on Recharge and Protection of Groundwater / [ed] Castensson R. och Gustafsson J-E, 1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates) for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater1997In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Water, Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing attention is being focused on the phosphorus retention capacity of wetlands. Several attempts have been made to improve the reduction of phosphorus in wastewater by the use of constructed wetlands. One way of improving the phosphorus reduction capacity is to use efficient filter materials in the wetland. Leca(R) (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates) has been tested in Norway, where laboratory and field investigations gave promising results. To further study the chemical removal mechanism of Leca, an experiment utilising five columns was performed. A phosphate solution was applied to the columns intermittently and samples were taken twice a week. Parallel to this study, a P-fractionation experiment was conducted to find out how the phosphate was sorbed to various components of the material. Both experiments showed that only a small amount of the applied phosphate was sorbed by the Leca. The amount sorbed was primarily attached to Al-complexes. In a second column experiment Opoka, a reactive medium rich in CaCO3, was added to Leca and sand to investigate the P-sorption capacity. The results from this investigation showed a higher P-uptake than in the previous column experiment. The lime additive clearly increased the P-sorption and, in this study, Leca in its pure form could be considered as chemically non-reactive. 

  • 12.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Enskog, Lina
    Bra fosforprodukter från avloppsslam1999Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms2000In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were included in a set of experiments to investigate the P retention mechanisms from model P-solution. Experiments focusing on the P sorption, capacity and calcium (Ca) and PO4 determination were carried out. The pH was also measured. The P sorption experiment showed that some slags were efficient P retainers, while the opoka was the least efficient P retainer. The pH decreased in all samples as a function of P addition. In the slag samples, the Ca concentration also decreased as a function of P addition, suggesting Ca-P precipitation as the major P removal mechanism for the slag. The Ca and PO4 speciation data ruled out the formation of amorphous calcium phosphates and/or octacalcium phosphate as the major P removal mechanism. However, the calculated ion activity products displayed clear evidence that hydroxyapatite had precipitated above a certain critical supersaturation limit. This would explain the poor P retention efficiency of the opoka samples in this study as the ion activity products were too low. The finding that direct hydroxyapatite formation is the predominant P removal mechanism might have important implications for their possible use as fertiliser due to the poor solubility of hydroxyapatite.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hylander, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Phosphorus removal from wastewater by filter media: retention and estimated plant availability of sorbed phosphorus1998In: Journal of the Polish Academy of Science, no 458, p. 397-409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hylander, Lars
    Uppsala Universitet, Sweden.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Små avlopp för kretslopp - sorption till reaktiva filter1999In: VATTEN, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mersch, Jacques
    Université de Metz, France.
    Transplanted aquatic mosses and freshwater mussels to investigate the trace metal contamination in the rivers Meurthe and Plaine, France1993In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Environmental Technology, ISSN 0959-3330, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 1027-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic mosses Cinclidotus nigricans and freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha were transferred at eight monitoring sites along the rivers Meurthe and Plaine (northeastern France) for a biological assessment of the trace metal contamination. Autochthonous Fontinalis antipyretica mosses were collected at the end of the experiment. The major contaminants detected in the organisms were Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. A comparison between the native and the introduced bryophytes showed that the transfer technique was preferable to assess the recent pollution situation. In the case of the transplanted mosses, high initial levels of strongly bound Pb and Zn prevented an accurate assessment of the contamination with these two metals, since only little depuration occurred at unpolluted sites. A good qualitative agreement was observed between the indications obtained from the mosses and those obtained from the mussels, suggesting that both are suitable indicators for monitoring purposes. The observed quantitative disparities were attributed to inherent differences in the accumulation strategies of each sentinel organism. Due to specific uptake and depuration kinetics, mosses and mussels appeared to be complementary in the detection of various types of pollution.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of bryophytes as bioindicators1994In: International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology / [ed] Sladeckova, Stuttgart, 1994, p. 2026-2028Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlström, Hans
    Light Expanded Clay Aggregates (LECA) as reactive filter medium in constructed wetlands1996In: Proceedings Ecotechnics 95 International Symposium on Ecological Engineering / [ed] Thofelt, L. och Englund, A., Östersund: Mitthögskolan , 1996, p. 215-224Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Johansson, Lena
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ridderstolpe, Peter
    Hylander, Lars
    Uppsala university.
    Simán, Gyula
    Uppsala university.
    Phosphorus recycling from wastewater by filter media used as fertilzers1999In: DIAS Plant Production: Volym 13, Danish Institute og Agricultural Sciences , 1999, p. 139-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Energy.
    Blast furnace slag and pine bark as potential filter media for metal sorption from landfill leachate2005In: Proceedings of ECO-TECH'05 Bioremediation and Leachate Treatment, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Constructed wetlands for treatment of landfill leachate - experiences from Sweden and Norway2004In: VATTEN, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Filter materials - a possible method to optimise the phosphorus reduction in small-scale wastewater treatment systems?2002In: Kalmar ECO-TECH'01 Leachate and Waste Water Treatment with High-Tech and Natural Systems / [ed] Hoegland, William, Kalmar, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Filtermaterial för fosforreduktion - en litteraturstudie2002Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Substrates for phosphorus removal - potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment?2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of substrates potential for removal of phosphorus (P) in wastewater has been reviewed. The substrates consist of natural materials, industrial by-products and man-made products. Most substrates have been investigated in batch and column studies in the laboratory; others have also been tested in field trials. The results from these investigations vary, but a few substrates, e.g. wollastonite, slag material and, to some extent, light weight aggregate products, have demonstrated promising properties with regard to P-sorption capacity and hydraulics. The problems of normalisation of data are discussed, as well as the substrates potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment.

  • 25.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review2010In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 826-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

  • 26.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Treatment of landfill leachate in a constructed wetland at Isätra landfill site2003In: Proceedings of the 9th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Drizo, Aleksandra
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Renman, Gunno
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    The use of blast furnace and electric arc furnace steel slag in water pollution control2011In: Proceedings of the 6th European Slag Conference, 20-22 October, Madrid, Spain, 2011, p. 103-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filter technology has proved to be successful with regard to removal of pollutants from varying wastewater streams. A large number of filter materials have been investigated with promising results, among them several steel and iron slag materials. However, despite significant scientific evidence over the past 15 years on the efficiency of steel slag in P removal in particular from a variety of wastewaters around the world, currently there are very few full-scale steel slag filters in operation. In this paper we will present research efforts and experiences in using blast furnace slag in Sweden and electric arc furnace steel slag in Vermont, USA and hindrances faced in obtaining regulatory approvals for this innovative technology.

  • 28.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Färm, Carina
    Treating polluted water flows with filter technique2004Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Repo, E.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Sillanpää, M.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Filter materials for metal removal from mine drainage-a review2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 15, p. 9109-9128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of filter materials, organic and inorganic, for removal of heavy metals in mine drainage have been reviewed. Bark, chitin, chitosan, commercial ion exchangers, dairy manure compost, lignite, peat, rice husks, vegetal compost, and yeast are examples of organic materials, while bio-carbons, calcareous shale, dolomite, fly ash, limestone, olivine, steel slag materials and zeolites are examples of inorganic materials. The majority of these filter materials have been investigated in laboratory studies, based on various experimental set-ups (batch and/or column tests) and different conditions. A few materials, for instance steel slag materials, have also been subjects to field investigations under real-life conditions. The results from these investigations show that steel slag materials have the potential to remove heavy metals under different conditions. Ion exchange has been suggested as the major metal removal mechanisms not only for steel slag but also for lignite. Other suggested removal mechanisms have also been identified. Adsorption has been suggested important for activated carbon, precipitation for chitosan and sulphate reduction for olivine. General findings indicate that the results with regard to metal removal vary due to experimental set ups, composition of mine drainage and properties of filter materials and the discrepancies between studies renders normalisation of data difficult. However, the literature reveals that Fe, Zn, Pb, Hg and Al are removed to a large extent. Further investigations, especially under real-life conditions, are however necessary in order to find suitable filter materials for treatment of mine drainage. 

  • 30.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Veibäck, Frida
    Environmental impacts of landfill covering by use of industrial by-products2003In: Proceedings of Kalmar ECO-TECH'03, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Khokhotva, O. P.
    et al.
    National Technical University of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The impact of surface properties of modified pine bark on the mechanism of sorption of heavy metals from aqueous media2017In: Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 1063-455X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface properties of pine bark before and after the treatment with urea solution and the adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions at different pH values have been studied. Types of active sorption sites, their surface concentration and change after the bark treatment with urea solution were determined. The results of potentiometric titration were processed by using ProtoFit and FITEQL software programs. The data obtained make it possible to conclude that in the extraction mechanism of heavy metals from water the share of ion exchange decreases and the share of complexation increases. The impact of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the range of their concentrations up to 3000 mg/dm3 on Cu(II) extraction from model aqueous solutions was also investigated. 

  • 32.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Treatment of landfill leachate using filter substrates2005In: Proceedings Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wastewater phosphorous removal by blast furnace slag: Laboratory and field investigations in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the metal sorption process to pine barkManuscript (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag - on-site experiment for treatment of low strenght landfill leachate2008In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, no 5, p. 998-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 10 1 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used.  

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Renman, Agniezska
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Drizo, Aleksandra
    Effect of organic load on phosphorus and bacteria removal from wastewater using alkaline filter materials2013In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 47, no 16, p. 6289-6297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic matter released from septic tanks can disturb the subsequent step in on-site wastewater treatment such as the innovative filters for phosphorus removal. This study investigated the effect of organic load on phosphorus (P) and bacteria removal by reactive filter materials under real-life treatment conditions. Two long-term column experiments were conducted at very short hydraulic residence times (average ~5.5h), using wastewater with high (mean ~120mgL-1) and low (mean ~20mgL-1) BOD7 values. Two alkaline filter materials, the calcium-silicate material Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS), were tested for the removal capacity of total P, total organic carbon (TOC) and Enterococci. Both experiments showed that Polonite removed P significantly (p<0.01) better than BFS. An increase in P removal efficiency of 29.3% was observed for the Polonite filter at the lower concentration of BOD7 (p<0.05). Polonite was also better than BFS with regard to removal of TOC, but there were no significant differences between the two filter materials with regard to removal of Enterococci. The reduction in Enterococci was greater in the experiment using wastewater with high BOD7, an effect attributable to the higher concentration of bacteria in that wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of extensive pre-treatment of wastewater to achieve good phosphorus removal in reactive bed filters and prolonged filter life.

  • 37.
    Repo, E.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Green Chemistry, LUT Chemtech, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammo, Finland .
    Warchoł, J. K.
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland .
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sillanpää, M.
    Laboratory of Green Chemistry, LUT Chemtech, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland .
    Steel slag as a low-cost sorbent for metal removal in the presence of chelating agents2015In: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, ISSN 1226-086X, E-ISSN 1876-794X, Vol. 27, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial byproduct, steel slag was used as a low-cost sorbent for the removal of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents; EDTA, citrate, and oxalate. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted. Clear dependency between speciation of metals and their sorption behavior was observed. Precipitation and adsorption were suggested as main mechanisms. Diffusion played an important role in the kinetics of metal removal. Notable leaching of elements was observed when steel slag was in contact with the solutions under study. Modification with chitosan was successfully used to prevent leaching and improve the sorption capacity of steel slag.

  • 38.
    Sylwan, Ida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Runtti, Hanna
    Oulu University, Finland.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    BIOCHAR ADSORPTION FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALSIN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Substrates for Phosphorus Removal - Potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment?2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of substrates potential for removal of phosphor-us (P) in wastewater has been reviewed. The substrates consist of natural materials, industrial by-products and man-made products. Most substrates have been investigated in batch and column studies in the laboratory; others have also been tested in field trials. The results from these investigations vary, but a few substrates, e.g. wollastonite, slag material and, to some extent, light weight aggregate products, have demonstrated promising properties with regard to P-sorption capacity and hydraulics. The problems of normalisation of data are discussed, as well as the substrates potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment.

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