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  • 1.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Professionalism, governance and inclusive education: A total population study of Swedish special needs educatorsIn: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research shows that special needs educators (SNEs) have had problems defining their occupational roles and jurisdiction, particularly regarding inclusive education. There are two occupational groups of SNEs in Sweden, namely special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name SNEs to refer to both groups. Here, results from a total population study of Swedish SNEs are presented (N = 3367, response rate 75%). The aim is to explore differences in SNEs’ interpretation of school difficulties and if these differences are influenced by SNEs’ employment in different parts of the school organisation. Statistical cluster-analysis was used to categorise SNEs into five distinct groups based on how they view the problems of pupils in school difficulties. Key concepts employed in the analysis are, primarily organisational vs occupational governance in relation to professional jurisdiction. Findings suggest that SNEs are less unanimous in their views of school problems, than prior research indicates. The variance is partly due to where they work in the school organisation, but we also find indications that different groups of SNEs experience different forms of governance with regard to their professionalism. The results are important due to the scope of the data and method of analysis as well as the illustrated variance of professional values and situations of SNEs and the potential consequences for the development of inclusive education.

  • 2.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Klang, Nina
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning2015Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Malmö Högskola, Sweden.
    Challenging Traditions?: Pupils in Need of Special Support in Swedish Independent Schools2012In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 262-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the general situation for pupils in need of special support (PNSS) within the Swedish independent compulsory schools. The analysis is based upon a survey of all independent schools in Sweden. Results show that the amount of PNSS is lower in independent schools than in municipal schools and that a deficit perspective seems to be common regarding explanations of school problems. There is, however, great diversity among the schools. Conclusions are that the challenge of independent schools to the traditional way of conceiving education, regarding school choice, seems to be more effective less for some other groups of pupils than for PNSS and that there are few signs that independent schools challenge traditions in work with PNSS in municipal schools.

  • 4.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Inclusive education in Sweden: Past, present and future issues2012In: Bildning för alla: En pedagogisk utmaning / [ed] Barow, Thomas ; Östlund, Daniel, Kristianstad: Kristianstad University Press , 2012, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Magnusson, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Nordmark, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Rytzler, Johannes
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Pedagogikens centrala frågor.: En läsning av Klaus Mollenhauers Forgotten Connections. On culture and upbringing.2018In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 151-161Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Enacting Contradictory educational ideals: Balancing marketization and social inclusion in practice2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The marketization of education is an international phenomenon, with widespread consequences for schools, teachers and pupils. The marketization of the Swedish education system is a particularly interesting and extreme case in the international and European context. The realisation of market ideology in the Swedish education system can be viewed as a success in terms of its implementation and public and political acceptance. For instance, the proportions of pupils attending independent schools and the number of independent schools have grown exponentially, and school choice is seen as a democratic right and supported by most established political parties. However, there are several problems. Most importantly, market elements have contributed to increased segregation related to pupils’ background, the provision of special support, and of attainment. This is a real dilemma for a system that has emphasised social inclusion and education for all, egalitarian views that are seen as a point of departure for the Swedish education system. Thus, Swedish education lives with a tension of two educational ideologies, an individualistic-market educational ideology and a collectivistic-egalitarian educational ideology. Of course, both ideologies are far from unidimensional and encompass several different values and concepts. 

    Several studies conclude or assume that these ideologies – and the policies inspired by them – are contradictory and that market mechanisms will undermine inclusive ambitions. However, this may appear differently in different schools, as policies are interpreted and enacted rather than implemented. While there are examples of policy analyses regarding one or both of these ideologies, and studies regarding their contradictions and incompatibility, there have been few attempts to study empirically the interplay and consequences of their coexistence and enactment in schools. In particular, we know very little about ‘unexceptional’ or ‘ordinary’ schools and their enactment of policies.

    The project’s main objective is to develop a theoretical understanding of how these educational ideologies influence school’s work and organisation via policy and the enactment of policy. Using interviews with head teachers, the research questions are:

    • How do head teachers address, define and reflect around the challenges of social inclusion and market oriented policies in their work and in their schools?
    • To what extent do they believe pupils in general, and vulnerable pupils in particular are affected by market mechanisms in education? What are the challenges and/or benefits?

     

     

    The theoretical point of departure is inspired by the work of Michael Apple, (2004), Thomas Popkewitz, (2008) and Stephen Ball (1993; Ball et al., 2012). Questions about what education should accomplish, how it is organised and who is to be educated are often implicit in political discourse. Here, educational ideologies are seen as rendering different answers to these questions and thus leading to different implications for educational practice and organisation. It is argued that these ideologies have different conceptualization of society, democracy and even the individual citizen. While public education may historically have collectivistic ideals, the market ideal views the citizen-in-the-making as a consumer rather than as a participant in the shaping of future society. The individual consumer of education is thus to be able to choose schooling according to his/her preferences. This can be opposed to viewing schooling as contributing to social cohesion and inclusion by accommodating a plurality of pupils.

    These ideologies in turn find their way to policies, i.e. products of compromises, agendas and influences of various actors at various stages. Often containing contradicting goals and ambitions, policies then have to be interpreted and enacted by schools in a meaningful manner that fulfils the will of regulating and governing agencies as well as appeals to their prospective clients, namely pupils and parents.

     

    Method  

    For the purposes of this study, head teachers of primary schools have been chosen as respondents. Being in a middle management position, head teachers in Sweden are held accountable for the both the educational and economic situation of their schools. They answer to their principal organiser (PO) regarding economics, whether the PO is a municipality or a private organisation. Simultaneously, they are also accountable for the day to day work, the attainment of the pupils and the organisational situation the teachers work within. Additionally, head teachers are legally responsible for the special educational services and the preventive work against bullying. Finally yet importantly, they are to promote their schools as they compete for pupils (and thus fiscal resources). It can thus be argued that if anyone would see the consequences of market mechanisms and the responsibility of maintaining or achieving social inclusion, it would be the head teachers.

    Twenty school leaders from both municipal and independent schools in three municipalities will be interviewed and asked to reflect upon marketization of education and dimensions of social inclusion. They are asked how these ideologies translate into their work, the organisation of their school, their staff, pupils and guardians of the pupils. In addition, documents and policies from each municipality and each school will be analysed.

    The selection of municipalities and respondents is strategic. The three municipalities chosen have had different political approaches as regards the acceptance of market influences and thus very different experiences of the introduction of school choice and competition between schools. Municipality A has been very positive towards choice and private actors, for instance, implementing a ‘purchaser-provider’ model in the school sector services for several years. Municipality B has on the other hand been restrictive and attempted to veto the introduction of privately run schools several times. The third municipality is markedly smaller than the other two, and had not had any independent schools up until quite recently. In order to enrich the material with different experiences and perspectives, respondents will be contacted from schools with varying pupil demographics, in areas with varying social situations, and from both publically run schools and independent schools. These semi-structured interviews will take approximately an hour each and will be recorded and transcribed for subsequent analysis, using qualitative content analysis. Other theoretical devices, such as profession theory and organisation theory, may become useful to interpret these results.

    Expected outcomes/results

    The interviews are to be conducted in the upcoming month. The expected results are assumed to shed light upon how these educational ideologies, namely the individualistic-market ideology and the collectivistic-egalitarian ideology, can influence day to day work in primary schools. A common assumption is that they are incompatible and contradictory, and this is expected to appear in the responses. However, some prior research has shown that they live side by side in practice. That is not to say that one does not influence or diminish the other, rather that schools find ways to balance the two, resolving dilemmas as they arise. Hopefully, the paper can render a more nuanced understanding of these educational ideologies, how the coexistence of them can appear in the local context, and how schools enact seemingly contradictory policies.

    Additionally, this research can contribute to an understanding of the role of head teachers as actors within the school system in general, and the individual schools in particular, especially as regards the consequences of marketization of the education system.

    Intent of publication 

    The results presented here are to be submitted to an international peer-reviewed journal shortly after presentation at the conference.

     

     

     

    References  

    Andersson, E., B. Malmberg & Östh, J. (2012). Travel to school distances in Sweden 2000-2006: changing school geography with equality implications. Journal of Transport Geography, 23:34-45.

    Apple, M. W. (2004). Ideology and curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Ball, S. J. (1993). What is policy? Texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse, 13(2): 10-17. Reprinted in Ball, S.J. (2006). (Ed.) Education Policy and Social Class. The selected works of Stephen J. Ball. New York: Routledge pp. 43-66

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools do Policy. Policy Enactment in Secondary Schools. London, England: Routledge.

    Booth, T., Ainscow, M. & Dyson, A. (1997). Understanding Inclusion and exclusion in the English competitive education system. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(4), 337-355.

    Dyson, A. & Gallanaugh, F. (2007). National policy and the development of inclusive school practices: a case study. Cambridge Journal of Education, 37(4), 437-488

     Englund, T. (1998a). Utbildning som “public good “ eller “private good”? In T. Englund (Ed.), Utbildningspolitiskt systemskifte?  (pp. 107-142). Stockholm: HLS förlag.

    Lubienski, C. (2009). Do Quasi-markets Foster Innovation in Education? A Comparative Perspective. OECD Education Working Papers No. 25, OECD Publishing.

    Lundahl, L., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A.-S. and Lundström, U. (2013). Educational marketization the Swedish way. Education Inquiry, 4(3): 497–517.

    Magnússon, G. (2015). Traditions and Challenges. Special Support in Swedish Independent Compulsory Schools. (Dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University.

    Popkewitz, T. (2008). Cosmopolitanism and the Age of School Reform. Science, Education, and Making Society by Making of the Child. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Rönnberg, L. (2015). Marketization on export: Representations of the Swedish free school model in English media. European Education Research Journal, 14(6), 549-565.

    SNAE [The Swedish National Agency for Education]. (2012b). Likvärdig utbildning i svensk grundskola? En kvantiativ analys av likvärdighet över tid. Stockholm, Sweden: The National Agency for Education.

    SNAE. (2014a). Private actors in preschools and schools. A mapping of independent education providers and owners in Sweden. Stockholm, Sweden: The National Agency for Education.

     SOU 2013:56. Friskolorna i samhället. Betänkande av friskolekommmittén. [The independent schools in society. Considerations from the independent school committee]. Stockholm, Sweden: Fritzes

    Trumberg, A. (2011). Den delade skolan. Segregationsprocesser i det svenska skolsystemet. Diss. Örebro: Örebro Universitet.

     Vlachos, J. (2011). Friskolor i förändring. In L. Hartman (Ed.), Konkurrensens konsekvenser – vad händer med svensk välfärd? (pp.66-110). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS förlag.

    Waldow, F. (2009). Undeclared imports: silent borrowing in educational policy-making and research in Sweden. Comparative Education, 45(4), 477-494.

  • 7.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Images of (Special) Education? Independent Schools’ Descriptions of their Special Educational Work.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important argument for the introduction of school choice in Sweden, was that independent schools would be a source for innovation. But what images arise independent schools are asked if there is anything that they would like to emphasise regarding special support? Do these images follow traditional notions of special education, or do they aim for alternative organisational solutions, approaching inclusive education?

    Here results from a total population questionnaire of the Swedish independent schools (N = 686; response rate = 79%) are presented. 400 written responses to two open-ended questions were received. The responses covered topics such as resource allocation, school descriptions, and good practice. Themes and categories were condensed using qualitative content analysis. The results are analysed statistically using official groupings of schools. Finally, the results are theorised in terms of special educational perspectives and inclusive education.  

    Results show examples of alternative and inclusive approaches, as well as examples of traditional understanding and organisation of special support within the field. The idea of market competition as a driving force of innovation is not supported in this material, marketing and niching of schools can contribute to a less inclusive education system. The author argues that more research that is both large scale and contextual is needed to understand further how schools cope with contradicting educational ideals and policy when competing for pupils.

  • 8.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Parallell Paradigm shifts?: Developments of Market Ideals and Ideals of Inclusion in the Swedish Education System2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research indicates that the marketization of the Swedish education system has contributed to segregation, particularly between schools. Research on school choice, independent schools and special educational provision further strengthens this image which, in an education system previously seen as highly inclusive, must be seen as a disconcerting development. However, the interplay between the individualist discourse of market education and the more collective oriented discourse of inclusive education has not been studied to a high degree on a theoretical level. This article presents and compares developments within Swedish education as encompassing paradigm shifts taking place in international and national discourse on education. The first shift regards the shift from a state centred education system based upon collectivist ideals to a marketized education system based upon individualist ideals. The other shift regards a shift in how the need for special educational support was understood and defined leading to a move from a segregating special educational provision – where individuals were compensated for their deficits – to inclusive education as an ideal – encompassing different positions as regards participation in classrooms, curriculum and peer activities.Commonalities and differences between the two emerging paradigms are discussed as well as how they have affected each other. The article also relates these paradigms to political ideals and discourses about what education is and how it should be organised. As such, both shifts are seen as interventions for more democratic education, each departing from a different view of what democracy is and who is to be in focus for it. Conclusions are drawn about how different understandings of the concept of inclusion may be coloured by the hegemonic market paradigm's focus on the individual, leading to a different understandings of inclusion. This is thus a theoretical contribution to the discussion about inclusive education. As such it utilises theoretical tools from educational philosophy and democratic theory as well as theoretical works about special education and inclusive education, in particular Thomas Skrtic and Clark, Dyson and Millward. Although the focus is upon developments in the Swedish education system, the discussion and conclusions have relevance on an international level, particularly for the Nordic countries.

  • 9.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Representations of special support: Independent schools’ descriptions of special educational provision2016In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, ISSN 0885-6257, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 155-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important argument for the introduction of school choice in Sweden, was that independent schools would be a source for innovation. But do independent schools follow traditional patterns of special education, or do they aim for alternative organisational solutions, approaching inclusive education? Here, results from a total population questionnaire of the Swedish independent schools (N = 686; response rate = 79%) are presented. Four hundred written responses to two open-ended questions were received. The responses covered topics such as resource allocation, school descriptions and good practice. Themes and categories were condensed using qualitative content analysis and the results are theorised in terms of special educational perspectives and inclusive education. Results show examples of alternative and inclusive approaches, as well as examples of traditional understanding and organisation of special support within the field. The idea of market competition as a force of innovation is not supported in this material. Marketing and niching of schools can contribute to a less inclusive education system. More research that is both large scale and contextual is needed to understand further how schools cope with contradicting educational ideals and policy when competing for pupils.

  • 10.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Traditions and Challenges: Special Support in Swedish Independent Compulsory Schools2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has two overarching aims. The first is to generate further knowledge about Swedish independent schools, specifically regarding the organisation and provision of special support and how these relate to special educational traditions and inclusive education. This is conducted through four empirical studies, utilising data gathered in two total population survey studies. The first survey was a total population study of Swedish independent compulsory schools (N = 686, response rate = 79%), and results from this study are presented in articles I, II and IV. Article III presents results derived from a total population survey of special pedagogues (SENCOs) and special education teachers in Sweden educated according to the degree ordinances of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N = 4252, response rate = 75%).

    Article I contains a general description of special education issues in the total population of independent schools. Article II continues with comparisons of these issues in different groups of independent compulsory schools. Article III studies differences in organisational prioritisations regarding special support and special educators in municipal and independent schools. Finally, article IV presents qualitative content analysis of over 400 responses regarding special support at independent schools.

    The second overarching aim of the thesis is to further develop the discussions initiated in the articles about how special education and inclusive education can be understood in light of the education reforms that introduced the independent schools. A critical theoretical analysis and contextualization of the empirical results from the articles is conducted to explain and describe the consequences of the new (market) education paradigm.

    Results show that, generally, the independent schools have not challenged special educational traditions to a significant degree. Rather, traditional conceptions, explanations and organisational measures are reproduced, and in some cases enhanced, by market mechanisms. However, there are great differences between the different types of schools with regard to both their perspectives on special education and their organisational approaches. There are also indications that the principle of choice is limited for this pupil group as compared to some other groups. Additionally, the increasing clustering of pupils in need of special support at certain schools replicates a system with special schools. In this case, market mechanisms are contributing to a system that is in contradiction to the idea of an inclusive school system.

    The theoretical interpretation of the results suggests that Skrtic’s theory can largely explain the empirical patterns found. However, his theory gives rise to different predictions or potential scenarios depending on what parts of his theory are underscored. Moreover, his theory must be complemented with additional perspectives to more fully account for diversity within the results, particularly as the results indicate that discourses/paradigms of special education and inclusive education often occur simultaneously and can thus be seen as expressions of practices taking place in a complex social and political environment.

    Keywords: Special education; inclusion; school choice; education reform; independent schools; compulso-ry schools; pupils in need of special support, SENCOs; special education teachers; critical pragmatism; Thomas M. Skrtic

  • 11.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Perimeters of, and challenges to, the jurisdiction of Swedish special educators: an exploration of free text responsesIn: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special needs educators (SNEs) have important roles in many education systems. However, their roles are often poorly defined, and differ greatly both between and within education systems. Studies show that SNEs have diverse tasks, have problems defining their jurisdiction, and approach special support with different perspectives than other professions. Here, the aim is to explore what Swedish SNEs express regarding their occupational role and jurisdiction, utilising 676 free text responses to an open question in a total population survey. The results illustrate that SNEs often have to take on tasks they do not view as appropriate and that they often experience misunderstanding from head teachers and colleagues about their roles and tasks, and that they risk being replaced by other professions. Some explanations can be found in vague legal definitions of their jurisdiction and the necessity of adaption to the local school context. The results are interpreted using Abbott’s theory of jurisdiction and Evetts’ distinctions of professionalisation and professionalism. The study confirms results from prior research to a high degree but adds further nuance and dimensions to them with formulations from active professionals.

  • 12.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Nilholm, C.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society, Malmö, Sweden .
    Similar Situations? Special Needs in Different Groups of Independent Schools2014In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, ISSN 0031-3831, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores differences between different groups of Swedish independent schools' work with pupils in need of special support (PNSS). Data comes from a total population study of independent schools. Data is analyzed using six categories of profile that may affect the special educational values at the schools, and therefore the situation for PNSS. Additionally, the data is analyzed with regard to the school ownership structure. Results show that diagnosis is important for receiving support, despite contrary legislative intentions. The groups differ regarding proportions of PNSS (12-100%), incidence of refusals of admission (8-40%), and in the way they explain problems and organize support. Generally, there is little challenge to a deficit perspective in views on school difficulties and the organization of support; market rationality may be a contributing factor. There are more differences between educational profiles of schools than there are between types of school ownership.

  • 13.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö högskola.
    Different Approaches to Special Educational Support?: Special Educators in Swedish Independent and Municipal schoolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The independent schools have become securely established in the Swedish education system as tokens of school choice and educational innovation. Prior research has shown that they generally have fewer pupils in need of support and lower proportions of special educators. Here, results are presented from a total population survey study of Swedish special educators (n=4252) educated according to degree ordinances from 2001 and onwards. The aim of this paper is to explore prerequisites of special educational work in Swedish independent schools and municipal schools in terms of: a) the occurrence of these special educators and their occupational situations, and b) what specific values they express regarding identification and work with school problems.

    Results show that while the respondents are demographically similar and express similar values, they have very different occupational situations. Those employed in independent schools often have shorter experience as special educators, are more often employed part time than full time and have other occupational positions to a higher degree, for instance as head teachers, than those employed in municipal schools.

    The results can be seen as indicators of different approaches towards special educational needs and the special educational work. Apparent is that independent schools offer these special educational resources to a much lower degree and utilize them differently. This is likely to influence the current situation of pupils. It can also be interpreted as an indicator of innovative approaches to special education at the independent schools that do employ special educators.

  • 14.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Varying access to professional, special educational support: a total population comparison of special educators in Swedish independent and municipal schools2018In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Independent schools are securely established in the Swedish education system. Prior research shows they generally have fewer pupils in need of support and lower proportions of special educators. Here, results are presented from a total population study of Swedish special educators (n = 4252) examined after 2001. The aim was to explore and compare the occupational situations of special educators working in Swedish municipal and independent schools. This is done by studying their occupational situations and the values they express regarding identification of – and work with – special support. The results show that while the respondents are demographically similar and express similar values, they have very different occupational situations. Those employed in independent schools have fewer years’ experience as special educators, are more often employed part‐time than full‐time and are more likely to hold other positions in schools (such as head teacher) than those employed in municipal schools. The results further illustrate different organisational approaches towards special educational support. Apparent is that independent schools offer professional special educational resources to a lower degree and utilise them differently. This is likely to influence the situation of pupils in need of support, and has consequences for the image of the Swedish education system.

  • 15.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Rytzler, Johannes
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Didaktik som alternativ till en instrumentell högskolepedagogik2018In: Högskolepedagogisk utveckling i teori och praktik / [ed] Eva Ärlamalm-Hagsér & Marie Öhman, Västerås: Mälardalens högskola , 2018, p. 9-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna artikel diskuterar vi rådande utbildningspolitiska ideal för högre utbildning och deras konsekvenser för högskolepedagogikens pedagogiska och didaktiska dimensioner. Högskolepedagogik kontextualiseras som utbildningsfenomen i relation till en internationell utbildningspolitisk utveckling. Sedan diskuterar vi John Biggs Constructive Alignment (CA), som ett exempel på högskolepedagogiskt uttryck för denna utveckling. Vi menar att CA, trots det sympatiska perspektivet på studentens handling och lärande, gör undervisning och utbildning instrumentell och urholkar olika vetenskapliga ämnestraditioner. Vi föreslår att undervisning i högre utbildning borde diskuteras i termer av didaktik, som förankrar undervisningen i ämnet och den pedagogiska relationen mellan lärare, student och ämne. Vi betraktar didaktik som en teori om utbildning och  undervisning som bevakar utbildningens innehållsliga och mellanmänskliga dimensioner. Därmed argumenterar vi för didaktik som ett radikalt svar och möjligt alternativ till det rådande utbildningspolitiska idealet.

  • 16.
    Rytzler, Johannes
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Forskarskolan Filosofiska studier av pedagogiska relationer.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Approaching Higher Education with Didaktik: University Teaching for Intellectual Emancipation.2018In: European Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 2156-8235, E-ISSN 2156-8243, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European higher education has been highly influenced by theBologna-process, entailing coordination and standardisation frompolicy to teaching practices. This led to increased demands onuniversity teachers. Courses in university pedagogy are requiredas part of competence development and have become decisivefor employment. Constructive Alignment has become a popularmodel, being in line with Bologna-process ideals. Emerging is aninstrumental view of higher education that risks excavatinguniversity pedagogy of its pedagogical dimensions and reducingthe autonomy of the university teachers with focus onstandardisation and emphasis on effective output.This paper proposes a Didaktik-approach to university pedagogy.We argue that Didaktik can help revive relational and emancipatoryelements of higher education. By viewing the relationship betweenteachers and students as a gathering around common interests, wemaintain that Didaktik emphasises teachers’ reflections regardingthe subject, the students, and other educational dimensions.

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