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  • 1.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch Isa
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Pajuvirta, Andreas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Tit for tat and big steps: The case of Swedish banks' internationalization 1961-20102014Inngår i: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 1049-1063Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines four major Swedish banks' internationalization process patterns during the period 1961-2010. The study complements earlier studies by also considering the banks' levels of market commitment. One objective is to determine if 'Tit for tat'-behaviour seen in earlier studies of Swedish banks still prevails after the deregulation. Adding to earlier studies, this study also considers the level of market activities and commitments. A secondary purpose is to examine how the financial crisis has affected the banks with reference to the banks' internationalization patterns. The empirical study is based on archival data on the studied banks' foreign operations. The results show that the banks' behaviour follows 'Tit for tat'-behaviour but that the internationalization has accelerated after the deregulation, hence being carried out with 'big steps' rather than small steps. The analysis also shows that the mimetic behaviour is complemented by other types of internationalization behaviours. The differences in bank internationalization also mean that the effect of a financial crisis varies depending on how the banks have internationalized.

  • 2.
    Hadjikhani, A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch Isa
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation. Uppsala University, Department of Business Studies.
    The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms' regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour2014Inngår i: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 155-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Commitment in the internationalization process model (IP-model) is challenged by the search for knowledge through experience and interactions. Critics opposing this logic even forced the founder of the model to call for the need for integration of other elements in order to understand irregular behaviour like rapid internationalization, loss of commitment and market exit. Aligned with this call, the paper raises the question of how the IP-model can be applied to analyse both regular/incremental and irregular/non-incremental behaviour of the firms. To reach an answer, the paper proposes a theoretical view by adding expectation and unknown uncertainty to the IP-model and examines this in a case study. The contribution is a further development of the IP-model by merging these two concepts that provide tools for understanding irregular behaviour. The paper analyses a Swedish firm's internationalization in different foreign markets for the period of 1995-2009. Conclusions support the understanding of how the model can describe regular incremental and irregular non-incremental commitment behaviour.

  • 3.
    Hadjikhani, A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of discontinuity on firms' business relationship behaviour2012Inngår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 134-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: With a comparative aim, the purpose of this paper is to challenge the general assumption behind relationship longevity. The question under attention is whether firms' relationship of a discontinuous nature is different from continuous relationships and if so what this diversity entails. In the essay, a conceptual view is developed and tested statistically. The ambition is to add new knowledge to the field of business relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The essay's theoretical foundation rests on relationship theory and employs the four relationship behaviour elements of trust, commitment, cooperation and adaptation. Differences/similarities in the effects among these elements are tested for two types of relationships, i.e. those of continuous and discontinuous exchange, using data from 353 Swedish firms. Findings: The results show that a firm's behaviour in continuous relationships rests on incremental change, in the sense that the relationship elements of trust, commitment, cooperation and adaptation display sequential and progressive effects. This supports the common notion of a gradual strengthening of the business relationship resulting in longevity. Contrary to this, a firm's behaviour in discontinuous relationships is guided by the level of trust, which thus forms the base for the remaining elements. The absence of incremental change in the relationship behaviour and the pivotal role of trust mean that these relationships are weaker and are faced with interruptions and interference from competitors. Thereby business firms are confronted with different marketing challenges. The differences in the relationship behaviour of the two types signify that the view of relationships indeed needs advancement. Originality/value: Falling from a continuous to a discontinuous business relationship is becoming more common due to reasons such as market crises, business or firm crisis or because of the nature of the businesses as such. While earlier research studied the relationships' continuity and discontinuity separately, this paper enriches the earlier efforts and compares the two types. Understanding the differences between the two types of relationship can enrich the knowledge, not only for researchers but also for business managers.

  • 4. Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Lee, Joong-Woo
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    Commitment Dimensions in the International Industrial Relationship2006Inngår i: Business Networks and International Marketing, Doo Yang Publishing Co. (Seoul, South Korea) , 2006, s. 401-418Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5. Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Lee, Joong-Woo
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    The Impact of Connected Relationship on Consumers' Distrust and Conduct - A Swedish Case in an International Context2006Inngår i: Business Networks and International Marketing, Doo Yang Publishing Co. Seoul, South Korea , 2006, s. 141-160Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Effect of Discontinuity in Business Relationship2010Inngår i: Proceedings from the 26th IMP-conference in Budapest, Hungary in 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Pourmand, Firouze
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala University.
    Impact of international political units on smallbusiness firms’ relationships – the case of EU andSwedish small firms2009Inngår i: International Journal of Business Environment, ISSN 1740-0589, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 435-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Industrial relationships and the effects of different types of connections2009Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 679-686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emphasizing the primary and secondary functions in business networks, this paper is based on the presumption that the primary function of the focal dyadic relationship is connected to business, political, ancillary and competitive relationships, i.e. what has been denoted as the secondary function. The question is how these secondary functions affect the primary function. The conceptual view developed for the focal dyadic relationship is founded on the two key relationship concepts of trust and commitment. The empirical study is based on a survey of 353 firms and their most important customer relationships. The analysis examines nine hypotheses through a structural model in LISREL. Conclusions from the statistical test show the heterogeneity in the impacts of these different types of connections on trust and commitment. Knowledge of the impact of these connections can aid the further understanding of relationship connections and also assist business firms in developing strategies towards these units.

  • 9. Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Thilenius, PeterMälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    Non-Busines Actors in a Busines Network: A Comparative Case on Firms' Actions in Developing and Developed Countries2005Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    The Impact of Horizontal and Vertical Connections on Relationships’ Commitment and Trust2005Inngår i: Journal of Business & Industral Marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 136-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - While an ever-increasing body of research on business networks has commented on vertically connected relationships, this study embeds the horizontally connected relationships. Constructed on business network theories the paper aims to add more knowledge on business networks by developing a connection model including both vertical and horizontal connections. The model aims to explore the impact ofconnections on focal business relationships. It differentiates connected relationships on the basis of their vertical and horizontal natures. Thepurpose is to grasp the impact of these different connected relationships on the focal business relationship. The focal relationship elements are defined by commitment and trust, which capture their properties from the dyadic interaction and the two types of connected relationships. Design/methodology/approach - The paper tests the theoretical construction empirically. The empirical study is based on the IMP2 survey, utilizing information from extensive interviews with 138 firms regarding their relationships with important foreign customers. Findings - The statistical findings in the form of a LISREL-model clearly expose the impact of the horizontal connections and verify the validity of the theoretical model. It depicts that trust increase by vertical connections leading to increased commitment, thus strengthening the relationship while horizontalconnection, on the contrary, weakens it. The facts also demonstrate how the horizontal connections impose effects on technological long-term investments. Originality/value - Marketing researchers advocating certain theoretical views are thereby required to observe respect for the market realities with which managers are confronted.

  • 11.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Expectations in the internationalization process – The case of two Swedish banks’ foreign activities 1995-20102013Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of banks’ internationalization are few, particularly of Swedish banks’ and studies holding a process view of internationalization. This is surprising considering the fact that banks’ have an incredibly important role in our societies. Furthermore, the Swedish banks have until recently been restricted from internationalizing. However today the four largest Swedish banks have all become multinational. The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyze the two Swedish banks Handelsbanken and Swedbank’s internationalization process between the years 1995-2010. This achieved by covering all relevant foreign markets that the banks are active in during their internationalization process in a longitudinal cross-case study based on archival sources (i.e. newspaper articles, press releases and annual reports). The analytical framework is constructed from behavioral theories and follows a process view of firms’ internationalization by applying the concepts of market commitment, market knowledge and expectation. Latterly firms’ expectation is included to take the future dimension into account in understanding firms’ internationalization behavior.

    Conclusions made in this thesis show that the banks internationalization process has some semblances but otherwise they show completely different internationalization behaviors. The study shows that firms’ internationalization process is bound to what the firm will expect of the future and that this expectation is very different based on what knowledge the firm has and its experience. Furthermore the study evidences through empirical findings that the internationalization process of firms’ is also strongly related to the state of the market, i.e. stable or unstable.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch Isa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Pajuvirta, Andreas
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Internationalization of Swedish Banks in Russia and the Impact of Political Environment2012Inngår i: Business, Society, and Politics / [ed] Amjad Hadjikhani, Ulf Elg, Pervez Ghauri, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, 28, s. 173-193Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter one of few studies made of banks’ internationalization process in emerging markets, focusing on behaviour relating to the political environment is presented. Aiming to understand banks’ behaviour in the Russia, an analytical framework built on the internationalization process model incorporating the impact of political environment is developed. The empirical data in the chapter concern Sweden’s four largest banks’ expansion into the Russian market and is presented in form of an long- itudinal cross-case study with secondary data between years 1990 and 2010, collected retrospectively. The secondary data consist of newspaper articles, annual reports and press releases. Findings show that in stable periods, Swedish banks have followed the pattern of the internationalization process model when expanding into the Russian market. In periods of instability, the banks’ behaviour is heterogenic and can be opportunistic or cautious. 

  • 13.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Melén Hånell, Sara
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Sweden.
    Safari, Aswo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch Isa
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Digitalization in the global sales era: The analysis of a cross-national dataset2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers shop increasingly on-line without thinking of national borders. This circumstancehighlights the need to increase the understanding of consumers’ cross-national purchasing and e-commerce. This study focuses on consumers’ online purchasing behaviour, studying consumers’ internet skills, website perceived ease of use and web-trust as antecedents of purchase intent. By analysing a cross-national data set of 788 consumers from different countries, the results show that consumers which make online-purchases are skilled internet- users. Moreover, the lack of trust that consumers may feel when making online-purchases, canbe lessened by a website’s perceived ease of use. The results have implications for future studiesabout e-commerce as an international phenomenon.

  • 14.
    Thilenius, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Ekonomihögskolan.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Studies in Business Networks: Some thoughts on IT and Internationalization2005Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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