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  • 1.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hörndahl, T.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biosystems and Technology, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Svensson, S. -E
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biosystems and Technology, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zidane, Tekai Eddine Khalil
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    De Luca, P.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain.
    Amaducci, S.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Piacenza, Italy.
    Colauzzi, M.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Piacenza, Italy.
    Experimental results, integrated model validation, and economic aspects of agrivoltaic systems at northern latitudes2024In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 437, article id 140235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaic systems, which allow the coexistence of crop and electricity production on the same land, are an integrated water–energy–food nexus solution that allows the simultaneous attainment of conflicting Sustainable Development Goals. This study aims to analyse experimental results on the responses of ley grass yield and quality to shadings in the first agrivoltaic system in Sweden. It also aims to validate an integrated modelling platform for assessing agrivoltaic systems' performances before installation. An economic analysis is carried out to compare the profitability of agrivoltaic versus conventional ground-mounted photovoltaic systems and, using a Monte Carlo Analysis, to identify the parameters that most affect the profitability. Despite the agrivoltaic systems’ supporting structures and photovoltaic modules producing an average ∼25% reduction in photosynthetically active radiation at ground level, no statistically significant difference was observed between the yield of the samples under the agrivoltaic system compared to the yield of the samples in the reference area. The agrivoltaic system attained land equivalent ratios of 1.27 and 1.39 in 2021 and 2022, respectively. The validation results of the integrated modelling platform show that the sub-model concerning the crop yield response to shading conditions tends to underestimate ∼7% the actual average crop yield under the agrivoltaic system. The results of the economic analysis show that, from a net present value perspective, agrivoltaic systems have a profitability that is ∼30 times higher than a conventional crop rotation in Sweden.

  • 2.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Kärrbo Prästgård AB, Sweden.
    Nordström, Josefin
    Solkompaniet Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Pontus
    Solkompaniet Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Hörndahl, Torsten
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Sweden.
    Svensson, Sven-Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Sweden.
    Evaluation of the first agrivoltaic system in Sweden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems in Sweden have primarily been seen as an energy efficiency measure to reduce the amount of purchased electricity for buildings, both residential and commercial. Only recently utility-scale solar systems have begun to increase their share of the solar market to support national energy and emissions targets. Due to the economies of scale, conventional ground-mounted PV (CGMPV) installations represent the best solution for producing electricity at the lowest specific initial investment costs. This relatively new solar market segment, with large-scale ground-mounted solar farms on agricultural land, has faced several challenges with the permitting process. Agricultural land that is suitable for cultivation is of "national importance" according to the Swedish Environmental Code. Cultivable agricultural land may be exploited for other purposes on a permanent basis only if it is necessary to satisfy essential societal interests and there is no other possible land to use within the area in question. Traditionally, ground-mounted solar farms have increased competition for land resources for food production and drawn criticism in the so-called "food-versus-fuel (electricity)" debate over whether agricultural land should be used for electricity generation or food production. Agrivoltaic (APV) systems represent an intelligent solution to avoid land use competition by combining arable farming and electricity production on the same agricultural land. The main objective of this project was to study how APV systems perform from an energy, agricultural and economic perspective compared to CGMPV systems and agriculture production. The project aimed to highlight advantages and disadvantages of APV systems at northern latitudes with an energy-food-water perspective. The aim was pursued by establishing an APV test site, the first APV system in Sweden, monitoring its performance both from an energy and agricultural point of view, and developing new techno-economic models. Data from the APV test site were used to better understand how APV systems at northern latitudes affect: 1) the efficiency of the solar modules; 2) crop productivity, and 3) the financial return for ground-based solar PV systems. The first agrivoltaic system in Sweden has been built on a permanent ley grass field, at Kärrbo Prästgård, Västerås, and research activities have been carried out on the ley grass during 2021 and 2022. As in previous research studies in other countries, we defined three sub-fields: 1) a sub-field is covered only by the ley grass (reference area), 2) a sub-field is a CGMPV system 11.8 kWp solar PV system with two rows of solar modules with a 30° tilt and 3) the last subfield is a  22.8 kWp APV system with three rows of vertically mounted solar modules, with ley grass between the modules. This field set-up allowed for comparisons between practices (agriculture and electricity generation) and technologies (CGMPV systems versus APV systems). The calculated specific electricity production during a typical meteorological year for the APV system and the CGMPV system was 1,067 kWh/kWp/year and 1,116 kWh/kWp/year, respectively. Nevertheless, the APV system tends to have higher efficiency than the CGMPV systems due to the solar irradiation patterns on the solar cell surfaces and wind cooling of the PV modules. The main results of the project in terms of shadow effects on the ley grass showed that the APV system did not significantly affect the productivity of the forage grass in 2021-2022. There was no statistically significant difference between the yield of the samples taken in the APV system and the reference area. Even so, the yield per hectare is reduced by approximatively 10%, when the distance between the vertically mounted solar modules is 10 meters, due to the area under the solar modules that cannot be mechanically harvested. The measurements performed at the test site allowed us to validate the earlier developed model for both electricity production and the effects of shading on crop production. Having a model to assess crop yields under APV systems is of utmost importance to be able to pre-assess the system's effects on food production, which is one of the main goals of APV system regulations worldwide. From an economic perspective, APV systems cannot compete with CGMPV systems due to lower electricity production per hectare, lower density of the solar modules per hectare, and higher investment costs per hectare. Nevertheless, APV systems can be the solution to overcome the legal obstacles that prohibit or hinder the use of agricultural land for electricity generation with PV systems. 

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  • 3.
    Elkadeem, M. R.
    et al.
    Interdisciplinary Research Center for Renewable Energy and Power Systems (IRC-REPS), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Younes, A.
    Geography and GIS Department, Faculty of Arts, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.
    Abido, M. A.
    SDAIA-KFUPM Joint Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Amaducci, S.
    Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy.
    Croci, M.
    Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy.
    Zhang, J.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Landelius, T.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Agrivoltaic systems potentials in Sweden: A geospatial-assisted multi-criteria analysis2024In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 356, article id 122108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaic systems represent an intelligent solution combining electricity production from solar photovoltaic technology with agricultural production to avoid land use conflicts. Geographic Information System technologies can support the implementation and spread of agrivoltaic systems by identifying the most suitable areas using useful spatially explicit information concerning techno-agro-socio-economic criteria. In this study, we have developed a procedure to identify and classify suitable areas for agrivoltaic systems in Sweden. An Ordinal Priority Approach based multi-criteria decision-making algorithm is established to calculate the weights of the selected evaluation criteria through expert interviews. The land use data refers to the Corine Land Cover 2018 product. The results show that about 8.6% of the Swedish territory, approximately 38,485 km2, is suitable for installing agrivoltaic systems. Among this area, about 0.2% is classified as “excellent”, about 15% as “very good”, about 72% as “good”, about 13% as “moderate”, and about 0.1% as “poor”. Most “excellent”-classified areas are in Kalmar, Skåne, and Gotland. In contrast, most “very good” sites are in Skåne, Kalmar, and Östergötland. By deploying vertically mounted agrivoltaic systems with bifacial photovoltaic modules, the total potential installed capacity for “excellent” areas is about 2.5 GWp, while for areas classified “excellent” and “very good” is about 221 GWp. The total “excellent” areas can potentially supply about 2.4 TWh of electricity against the electricity consumption in 2021 of about 143 TWh. On the other hand, the land classified as “excellent” and “very good” could potentially provide about 207 TWh. The County of Västra Götaland shows the greatest potentials in terms of total potential electricity supply from agrivoltaic systems with about 227 TWh, followed by Skåne with a total potential of 206 TWh. 

  • 4.
    Lu, Silvia Ma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, D.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology 2 , Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.
    Anderson, M. C.
    USDA ARS, Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory 3 , Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Photosynthetically active radiation separation model for high-latitude regions in agrivoltaic systems modeling2024In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 013503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photosynthetically active radiation is a key parameter for determining crop yield. Separating photosynthetically active radiation into direct and diffuse components is significant to agrivoltaic systems. The varying shading conditions caused by the solar panels produce a higher contribution of diffuse irradiance reaching the crops. This study introduces a new separation model capable of accurately estimating the diffuse component from the global photosynthetically active radiation and conveniently retrievable meteorological parameters. The model modifies one of the highest-performing separation models for broadband irradiance, namely, the Yang2 model. Four new predictors are added: atmospheric optical thickness, vapor pressure deficit, aerosol optical depth, and surface albedo. The proposed model has been calibrated, tested, and validated at three sites in Sweden with latitudes above 58 °N, outperforming four other models in all examined locations, with R2 values greater than 0.90. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated using data retrieved from Sweden's first agrivoltaic system. A variety of data availability cases representative of current and future agrivoltaic systems is tested. If on-site measurements of diffuse photosynthetically active radiation are not available, the model calibrated based on nearby stations can be a suitable first approximation, obtaining an R2 of 0.89. Utilizing predictor values derived from satellite data is an alternative method, but the spatial resolution must be considered cautiously as the R2 dropped to 0.73.

  • 5.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Solar Irradiance Assessment in Agrivoltaic Systems: Understanding Photosynthetically Active Radiation Separation Models and Dynamic Crop Albedo Effect in Agrivoltaic Systems Modelling2024Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaics, also referred as agrivoltaic systems, present an appealing solution, owing to its dual land use and integrated food-energy system, for the shift to renewable energy. However, it raises concerns about the complex synergies and trade-offs between crop growth and solar photovoltaic panels. Crops grown under open-field traditional agriculture receive uniformly distributed Sun irradiance, whereas agrivoltaics introduces variable shadowing, which interferes with the homogeneity of light collected by crops. 

    Agrivoltaics emphasises the significance of the diffuse irradiance component during shading conditions when direct irradiance is blocked by solar panels. Decomposition models are essential for estimating the diffuse light component from the global one. This thesis conducts a benchmarking investigation of state-of-the-art solar irradiance decomposition models to identify the most suitable ones for decomposing photosynthetically active radiation in specific Swedish sites. The results lead to a novel separation model that outperforms the top models revealed in the benchmarking analysis. Various scenarios common in agrivoltaic sites are used to test the applicability of the model and guide model selection based on available data. 

    In agrivoltaic systems, where solar panels disrupt incoming sunlight to crops, the crop reflectivity or albedo influences solar panels, particularly those with bifacial solar cells. This thesis further investigates how ground-reflected irradiance components affect the front and rear sides of bifacial system designs under varied ground albedo circumstances. Using Agri-OptiCE®, this research examines how albedo data quality affects bifacial systems. The findings contribute to improve the precision of plane-of-array irradiance and power output estimations, hence aiding the practical implementation of agrivoltaic systems across the globe. 

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  • 6.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Amaducci, S.
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Sustainable Crop Prod, Via Emilia Parmense 84, I-29122 Piacenza, Italy..
    Colauzzi, M.
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Sustainable Crop Prod, Via Emilia Parmense 84, I-29122 Piacenza, Italy..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Photosynthetically active radiation decomposition models for agrivoltaic systems applications2022In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 244, p. 536-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition models of solar irradiance estimate the magnitude of diffuse horizontal irradiance from global horizontal irradiance. These two radiation components are well known to be essential for predicting the performance of solar photovoltaic systems. In open-field agrivoltaic systems (i.e., the dual use of land for both agricultural activities and solar power conversion), cultivated crops receive unequal amounts of direct, diffuse, and reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). These uneven amounts depend on where the crops are growing due to the non-homogenous shadings caused by the presence of the installed solar panels (above the crops or vertically mounted). It is known that, per unit of total PAR, diffuse PAR is more efficient for canopy photosynthesis than is direct PAR. For this reason, it is essential to estimate the diffuse PAR component when agrivoltaic systems are being assessed, in order to properly predict the crop yield. Since PAR is the electro-magnetic radiation in the 400-700 nm waveband that can be used for photosynthesis by the crops, several stand-alone decomposition models typically used to split global horizontal irradiance are selected in this study to decompose PAR into direct and diffuse. These models are applied and validated in three locations in Sweden (Lanna, Hyltemossa and Norunda) using the coefficients stated on the models' original publications and locally fitted coefficients. The results showed weaker performances in all stand-alone models for non-locally fitted coefficients (nRMSE ranging from 27% to 43%). However, performances improve with re-parameterization, with a highest nRMSE of 35.24% in Lanna. The Y(ANG)2 decomposition model is the best-performing one, with the lowest nRMSE of 23.75% in Norunda when applying re-estimated coefficients. Country level sets of coefficients for the best-performing models (Y(ANG)2 and STARKE) are given after parameterization using combined data for all three locations in Sweden. These Sweden-fitted models are tested and show an nRMSE of 25.08% (Y(ANG)2) and 28.60% (STARKE). These results can be used to perform estimations of the PAR diffuse component in Sweden wherever ground measurements are not available. The overall methodology can be similarly applied to other countries.

  • 7.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sundström, Elin
    Mälardalen University.
    Nygren, Anton
    Mälardalen University.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Validation of Vertical Bifacial Agrivoltaic and Other Systems Modelling: Effect of Dynamic Albedo on Irradiance and Power Output Estimations2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In agrivoltaic systems combining solar photovoltaic and agricultural activities, ground albedo is mainly characterized by the crop and its seasonal variations. This study examines the effects of using fixed, satellite-derived, and hourly measured albedo on the performance of a vertical bifacial system and a 1-axis tracking system using a bifacial photovoltaic model (AgriOptiCE®). The model is developed with Matlab® and partially based on the open-source package pvlib. AgriOptiCE® is firstly validated by comparing estimated front and rear irradiances with on-site measurements for specific periods from a 1-axis tracker site in Golden, USA and a vertical agrivoltaic system in Västerås, Sweden. Furthermore, photovoltaic system power output estimations using AgriOptiCE® are also validated for the vertical agrivoltaic system and the conventional ground-mounted fixed-tilt system at the same location. The validations demonstrate the high accuracy of the proposed model in estimating front and rear irradiances and power output, obtaining R2 > 0.85 for all the studied cases. The study results indicate that measured albedo provides the highest accuracy, while satellite- derived albedo has poorer results due to the broader spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. Fixed albedo is not recommended for yearly assessment of bifacial PV systems because it cannot account for snow events and daily variations, resulting in lower overall accuracy. 

  • 8.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Amaducci, S.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dept. of Sustainable Crop Production, Piacenza, Italy.
    Colauzzi, M.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dept. of Sustainable Crop Production, Piacenza, Italy.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layouts2023In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 339, article id 120981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaic systems are becoming increasingly popular as a crucial technology for attaining multiple sustainable development goals, such as affordable and clean energy, zero hunger, clean water and sanitation, and climate action. However, a comprehensive understanding of the shading effects on crops is essential for choosing an optimal agrivoltaic system, as an incorrect choice can result in significant crop yield reductions. In this study, fixed vertical, one-axis tracking, and two-axis tracking photovoltaic arrays were developed for agrivoltaic applications to analyse the shading conditions on the ground used for crop production. The models demonstrated remarkable accuracy in comparison to commercial software such as PVsyst® and SketchUp®. These models will help to reduce crop yield uncertainty under agrivoltaic systems by providing accurate photosynthetically active radiation distribution at the crop level. The photosynthetically active radiation distribution was further analysed using a light homogeneity index, and the results showed that homogeneity and photosynthetically active radiation reduction varied significantly depending on the agrivoltaic system design, ranging from 86% to 95%, and 11% to 22%, respectively. Studying the effect of shading with distribution analysis is crucial for identifying the most suitable agrivoltaic system layout for specific crops and geographical locations.

  • 9.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ma Lu, Silvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Amaducci, Stefano
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dept. of Sustainable Crop Production, Emilia Parmense 84, Piacenza, Italy.
    Colauzzi, Michele
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dept. of Sustainable Crop Production, Emilia Parmense 84, Piacenza, Italy.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layoutsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrivoltaic systems are becoming more popular as a critical technology for attaining several sustainable development goals such as affordable and clean energy, zero hunger, clean water and sanitation, and climate action. However, understanding the shading effects on crops is fundamental to choosing an optimal agrivoltaic system as a wrong choice could lead to severe crop reductions. In this study, fixed vertical, one-axis tracking, and two-axis tracking photovoltaic arrays for agrivoltaic applications are developed to analyse the shading conditions on the ground used for crop production. The models have shown remarkably similar accuracy compared to commercial software such as PVsyst® and SketchUp®. The developed models will help reduce the crop yield uncertainty under agrivoltaic systems by providing accurate photosynthetically active radiation distribution at the crop level. The distribution was further analysed using a light homogeneity index and calculating the yearly photosynthetically active radiation reduction. The homogeneity and photosynthetically active radiation reduction varied significantly depending on the agrivoltaic system design, from 91% to 95% and 11% to 34%, respectively. To identify the most suitable agrivoltaic system layout dependent on crop and geographical location, it is of fundamental importance to study the effect of shadings with distribution analysis.

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  • 10.
    Zainali, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Qadir, Omar
    Mälardalen University.
    Parlak, Sertac Cem
    Mälardalen University.
    Lu, Silvia Ma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Computational fluid dynamics modelling of microclimate for a vertical agrivoltaic system2023In: Energy Nexus, ISSN 2772-4271, Vol. 9, article id 100173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing worldwide population is leading to a continuous increase in energy and food demand. These increasing demands have led to fierce land-use conflicts as we need agricultural land for food production while striving towards renewable energy systems such as large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, which also require in most of the cases agricultural flat land for implementation. It is therefore essential to identify the interrelationships between the food, and energy sectors and develop sustainable solutions to achieve global goals such as food and energy security. A technology that has shown promising potential in supporting food and energy security, as well as supporting water security, is agrivoltaic (AV) systems. This technology combines conventional farm activities with PV systems on the same land. Understanding the microclimatic conditions in an AV system is essential for an accurate assessment of crop yield potential as well as for the energy performance of the PV systems. Nevertheless, the complex mechanisms governing the microclimatic conditions under agrivoltaic systems represent an underdeveloped research area. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for a vertical AV system is developed and validated. The CFD model showed PV module temperature estimation errors in the order of 0–2 °C and ground temperature errors in the order of 0–1 °C. The shading caused by the vertical PV system resulted in a reduction of solar irradiance by 38%. CFD modelling can be seen as a robust approach to analysing microclimatic parameters and assessing AV system performance.

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