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  • 1.
    Bajracharya, Rojeena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Shrestha, Rakesh
    Res Inst Sweden RISE, S-72212 Västerås, Sweden..
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan..
    Jung, Haejoon
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect & Informat Convergence Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    Shin, Hyundong
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect & Informat Convergence Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    5G and Beyond Private Military Communication: Trend, Requirements, Challenges and Enablers2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 83996-84012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication networks are becoming increasingly important in military operations, with task fields like time-critical targeting, covert special operations, command and control, training, and logistics, all relying heavily on the communication network and its services. On the other hand, commercial communication has dramatically transformed our society and the way we communicate. The newest network mode at present, 5G and beyond (5GB), is characterized by high speed, low latency, high reliability, and high communication density. Although the use of 5GB commercial networks for defense agencies can offer greater flexibility and efficiency, they also face a new challenge that requires high standards of network protection and harsh working conditions and environments. In this paper, we discuss the significance of communication networks in several potential military applications, particularly for warfare, training/drilling, logistics, and special mission-specific stations. We present the communication trends adopted in military applications. Then, we open up various 5GB key performance indexes and their use cases for the military communication systems. We also elaborate on unique challenges of the military communication networks that are unlikely to be resolved via commercial 5GB research. The various 5GB enabling technologies for military communication systems are discussed. Lastly, we present and analyze 5GB new radio for the private military communication under C-band.

  • 2.
    Bajracharya, Rojeena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Shrestha, Rakesh
    Res Inst Sweden, S-72212 Västerås, Sweden..
    Jung, Haejoon
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect & Informat Convergence Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    Bandit Approach for Fair and Efficient Coexistence of NR-U in Unlicensed Bands2023In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 5208-5223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New radio in unlicensed spectrum (NR-U) is an evolutionary extension of the existing unlicensed spectrum technologies, which allows New radio (NR) to operate in the shared and unlicensed frequency bands. However, in such bands, NR-U should coexist with other radio access technologies (RATs) in a commonly shared spectrum. As various RATs possess dissimilar physical and link-layer configurations, NR-U should comply with the requirements for harmonious coexistence with them. For this reason, the majority of the existing studies on NR-U are focused on fair coexistence. In contrast, the efforts on attaining efficiency of the spectrum and fairness concurrently have gained comparatively few interests as they exhibit an adverse feature. Motivated by this limitation, we propose an algorithm called Thompson's sampling-based online gradient ascent (TS-OGA), which jointly considers the fairness between NR-U and incumbents and, at the same time, the efficiency via pertinent idle period adjustment of the incumbents in the operating channel. Because NR-U deals with the two conflicting and competing objectives (i.e., fairness and efficiency), we model it as a multi-objective multi-armed bandit problem using the Generalized Gini Index aggregation function (GGAF). In the proposed scheme, TS-OGA, a Thompson's sampling (TS) policy is employed together with the online gradient ascent to address the multi-objective optimization problem. Through simulation results, we show that TS-OGA can significantly enhance overall channel throughput, while maintaining fairness. Further, TS-OGA provides the best performance compared to three different baseline algorithms such as e-greedy, upper confidence bound, and pure TS.

  • 3.
    Bajracharya, Rojeena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Shrestha, Rakesh
    Res Inst Sweden RISE, S-72212 Västerås, Sweden..
    Jung, Haejoon
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    Shin, Hyundong
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    Neutral Host Technology: The Future of Mobile Network Operators2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 99221-99234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutral host network (NHN) is a new self-contained network envisioned by fifth generation (5G) of cellular networks, which offers wireless connection to its subscribers from a variety of service providers, including both conventional mobile network operators and non-conventional service providers. The NHN infrastructure, which is operated and maintained by a third neutral party, is rented or leased to network operators looking to scale up their network capacities and coverage in a cost-effective way. This paper highlights NHN as an emerging communication technology for private networks and discuss its opportunities and challenges in realizing multi-tenanted space such as factory, hospitals, stadiums, and universities. The paper also investigates the current state of the art in NHN and elaborates on the underlying enabling technologies for the NHN. Lastly, an efficient radio access network (RAN) slicing scheme based on the multi-arm bandit approach has been proposed to allocate radio resources to various slices, which maximizes resource utilization while guaranteeing the availability of resources to meet the capacity needs of each multi-tenanted operator. The simulation results show that the proposed Thompson's sampling (TS)-based approach performs best in finding the optimal RAN slice for all the operators.

  • 4.
    Shrestha, R.
    et al.
    Research Institute of Sweden, RISE, Västerås, Sweden.
    Bajracharya, Rojeena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kim, S.
    School of Integrated Technology (SIT), Yonsei University, Incheon, South Korea.
    Adaptive software platform architecture for aerial vehicle safety levels in real-world applications2023In: Advances in Computers, Academic Press Inc. , 2023Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban cities have congested with vehicles, resulting in traffic jams, and a lot of time and energy will be wasted while traveling. In the near future, low-altitude aerial vehicles are expected to be implemented for air traffic as a resolution to overcome these issues. Due to the threats to commercial aircraft as well as danger to the public and objects on the ground, these low-altitude aerial vehicles should exhibit an equivalent level of safety similar to commercial aircraft. We propose a new safety level for low-altitude electric propeller-based compact aerial vehicles. The safety level of Aerial Vehicles is based on the concept of civil aviation safety levels and automotive safety levels, and we incorporate the appropriate safety characteristics from both automotive safety integrity levels and aviation safety levels. We also discussed adjusting the aerial vehicle safety levels with NASA's Technical Capability Levels (TCL), which helps design an Electrical and Electronics (E/E) architecture for the aerial vehicles. We presented a new conceptual E/E architecture for the aerial vehicles based on adjusted technical capabilities levels and aerial vehicle safety levels to provide functional safety for the aerial vehicle. We also discuss the adaptive software platform based on virtualization, which partitions the time-critical operating system of aerial vehicles to host several applications of different software levels on the same hardware.

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