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  • 1.
    Folke, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tekniker som stimulerar till okad fysisk aktivitet2011In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2011, Linkoping, Sweden, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Christine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Therese, Bjurquist
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A method to create interdisciplinary health and welfare technology research projects: collaboration between academia and care providers2016In: The one-page paper collection of the 10th World Conference of Gerontechnology / [ed] Johanna EMH van Bunswijk, 2016, Vol. 15, p. 29-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are facing an aging population1 and the need for health and welfare technology to meet the users’ ‘need is a fact. To meet this challenge, the Arena for Health and Welfare Technology (the Arena) was initiated at Mälardalen University in 2014, as a multi-professional and interdisciplinary research initiative2. The aim of the Arena is to increase the collaboration of the researchers from the University and the external actors to create benefit and value for the future health and welfare. The Arena organizes events promoting interaction and interdisciplinary research projects. At a thematic day in May 2016, a working process to effectively initiate interdisciplinary research based on the users ‘needs, was introduced. Method To increase the participation for the thematic day and for future research projects within health and welfare technology, a call offering a grand from the Arena fond was created for participants that attended the thematic day. This call was aimed at stimulate the creation of interdisciplinary research projects within health and welfare technology, with the purpose to write proposals for external research funding. Speakers from the region were invited, representing health and social care, companies within the health and welfare technology field and regional R&D units. The speakers were presenting real needs based from the view of the clients, patients, relatives, staffs and organizations, which possibly could be solved by using health and welfare technology. After the user need presentations, a working process was followed, led by the company Konkret Utveckling AB. The goal of the working process was to identify prioritized needs for the day, and in the continuation create project groups to be the basis for future interdisciplinary research projects. After identifying the prioritized user needs, project groups started work to specify the framework for the planned research project, and then make a short oral presentation to share and discuss their research ideas. Results & Discussion The theme day attracted more than 50 interested participants. At the end of the thematic day, four interdisciplinary groups, including new constellations of researchers exists. The aims of the four groups were based on prioritized user needs, presented by regional health and welfare representatives. Involved group participants, researchers and company representatives, represented different disciplines, for example engineering, sensor technology, robotics, pedagogics, physiotherapy, nursing, social work and economy. The working method used during the thematic day was successful, and can be used in developing initiatives for interdisciplinary health and welfare technology research projects based on the needs of the end users.

  • 3.
    Hellstrom, Per Anders Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    FOLKE, MIA
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Evaluation of the IngVaL Pedobarography System for Monitoring of Walking Speed2018In: Healthcare Informatics Research, ISSN 2093-3681, E-ISSN 2093-369X, ISSN 2093-3681, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 118-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Walking speed is an important component of movement and is a predictor of health in the elderly. Pedobarography, the study of forces acting between the plantar surface of the foot and a supporting surface, is an approach to estimating walking speed even when no global positioning system signal is available. The developed portable system, Identifying Velocity and Load (IngVaL), is a cost effective alternative to commercially available pedobarography systems because it only uses three force sensing resistors. In this study, the IngVaL system was evaluated. The three variables investigated in this study were the sensor durability, the proportion of analyzable steps, and the linearity between the system output and the walking speed.

    Methods

    Data was collected from 40 participants, each of whom performed five walks at five different self-paced walking speeds. The linearity between the walking speed and step frequency measured with R2 values was compared for the walking speed obtained ‘A’ only using amplitude data from the force sensors, ‘B’ that obtained only using the step frequency, and ‘C’ that obtained by combining amplitude data for each of the 40 test participants.

    Results

    Improvement of the wireless data transmission increased the percentage of analyzable steps from 83.1% measured with a prototype to 96.6% for IngVaL. The linearity comparison showed that the methods A, B, and C were accurate for 2, 15, and 23 participants, respectively.

    Conclusions

    Increased sensor durability and a higher percentage of analyzed steps indicates that IngVaL is an improvement over the prototype system. The combined strategy of amplitude and step frequency was confirmed as the most accurate method.

  • 4.
    Hellstrom, Per Anders Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Walking Intensity Estimation with a Portable Pedobarography System2016In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, IOS Press , 2016, Vol. 224, p. 27-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the possibility to find a correlation between the output from a portable pedobarography system and the walking intensity expressed as walking speed. The system uses shoe insoles with force sensing resistors and wireless transmission of the data via Bluetooth. The force-time integral, at the toe-off phase of the step, for the force sensors in the forward part of the right foot was used to measure impulse data for 10 subjects performing walks in three different walking speeds. This data was then corrected by multiplication with the step frequency. This pilot study indicates that the portable pedobarography system output shows a linear relationship with the walking intensity expressed as walking speed on an individual level.

  • 5.
    Hellstrom, Per Anders Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Posture Sensor as Feedback when Lifting Weights2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    When lifting a package or during strength training, right posture of the back is important to avoid back pain. Different sensor solutions to measure posture of the back are presented in research articles and patents. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using Lumo Lift as a device of giving feedback of good posture when lifting weights.

    Method

    Lumo Lift (Lumo Body Tech, Inc, USA) is an activity tracker aimed to for example guide the carrier to good posture. The small device is attached to the clothes using a magnetic clasp. It is calibrated to the user's good posture and vibrates when the posture is inaccurate. In this study the angle, in which the Lumo Lift is allowed to tilt before the device vibrates, was investigated. The device was placed at the top of a ruler and calibrated in upright position. Thereafter the ruler was tilted and the angle when the equipment vibrated was noted. Two different speeds of the tilts were performed. One speed simulating the normal speed of an inaccurate tilting torso when lifting weights. And one slow speed. Two Lumo Lifts were tilted 20 times forward and backwards, respectively.

    Result

    In normal speed the measured angle was between 6 and 25 degrees, when tilted forward, except two times when one of the devices gave no vibration during the whole tilt of 90 degrees. When tilted backwards the angle was between 8 and 32 degrees. During slow tilt the angle varied from 5 to 13 degrees forward and 4 to 13 degrees backwards.

    Discussion and conclusion

    Angle tilted before vibration is too large in normal tilting speed. This study indicates that Lumo Lift is not suitable of giving posture feedback during lifting in daily life.

  • 6.
    Lindén, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Innovations to control the environment for persons with movement disorders: Support in home care2013In: Recent Patents on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 1874-7647, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 109-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review focuses on recent innovations and patents with the aim to allow people with movement disorders to control their environment. This particularly includes different technologies for input devices to control computers and other electronic equipment used by persons with movement disorders, enabling the empowerment of this user group. The control of such devices can be the key to social inclusion and mean improved social contact with others, access of information or possibility to work. In this paper, several patents and innovations are described that enable such control, divided into the groups; Input devices in form of switches and touchscreens, Inertia and inclinometer sensors, Voice control and Gesture control. Also methods allowing monitoring and classification of physical activity, i.e. assisting to alarm in case of a fall and systems assisting in rehabilitation at home, are included, as are video games aimed to promote physical activity.

  • 7.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    An interactive health technology solution for encouraging physical activity: a first model based on a user perspective2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, the level of physical inactivity is increasing. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop and test a first model of an interactive health technology solution (called App&Move) that should encourage physically inactive adults to be more physically active. App&Move was iteratively developed based on the user perspective, a so-called user-centered design. First, available technology was assessed; the validity and reliability of one smartphone pedometer application and one commonly used traditional pedometer were investigated. It was found that none of the investigated pedometers could measure correctly in all investigated situations. However, measurements by a smartphone appli-cation was identified to have high potential when aimed at monitoring physical activity in everyday situations. As the next step, a questionnaire was developed and distributed in central Sweden. The 107 respondents who answered the questionnaire were divided and analyzed in groups of users and non-users of physical activity self-monitoring technology. The results showed that users and non-users of such technology mainly had similar opinions about desirable functions of the technology. To gain further knowledge concerning how to design App&Move, the target group physically inactive non-users participated in focus group interviews. Important results were that the technology should focus on encouragement rather than measurements and that it preferably should be integrated into already existing technology, if possible already owned and worn by the person. A brainstorming workshop confirmed that the smartphone was a suitable platform, and a decision to develop a smartphone application was taken. A first draft of App&Move was developed, focusing on encouragement and measuring everyday activity and exercise in minutes per day. App&Move was based on available physical activity recommendations and strategies for successful behavior change. App&Move was positively received in a user workshop and thereafter iteratively refined and developed based on further user input. App&Move was usability tested in 23 physically inactive adults who used App&Move for four weeks and answered two questionnaires. Three usability aspects, effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction, were assessed as follows: acceptable, high and medium, and slight increases in activity minutes were observed during the test period. To conclude, this thesis has investigated the user perspective of physical activity self-monitoring technology with a target group of physically inactive adults. Based on these findings, a behavior change application for smartphone, App&Move, was presented. The usability test indicated promising results with respect to usability and indicated an ability to encourage the users to physical activity to some extent.

  • 8.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stegräknar-appar för att främja folkhälsan - men mäter de rätt?2013In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2013, Stockholm, Sweden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hellstrom, Per Anders Rickard, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steps measured in relation to different amount of physical activity2015In: 4th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement ICAMPAM 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Koshmak, Gregory
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Johansson, A.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Heart rate measurement as a tool to quantify sedentary behavior2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 211, 2015, p. 105-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary work is very common today. The aim of this pilot study was to attempt to differentiate between typical work situations and to investigate the possibility to break sedentary behavior, based on physiological measurement among office workers. Ten test persons used one heart rate based activity monitor (Linkura), one pulse oximeter device (Wrist) and one movement based activity wristband (Fitbit Flex), in different working situations. The results showed that both heart rate devices, Linkura and Wrist, were able to detect differences in heart rate between the different working situations (resting, sitting, standing, slow walk and medium fast walk). The movement based device, Fitbit Flex, was only able to separate differences in steps between slow walk and medium fast walk. It can be concluded that heart rate measurement is a promising tool for quantifying and separating different working situations, such as sitting, standing and walking. 

  • 11.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Evaluation of different kind of pedometers measuring walking steps at different speeds2013In: International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement: 3rd International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of different kind of pedometers measuring walking steps at different speeds Anna Åkerberg and Maria Lindén The School of Innovation, Design & Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden INTRODUCTION: A common method to measure physical activity is with a pedometer, which counts number of steps taken. The pedometer is seen as an acceptable tool by both researchers and the public, although, research shows that traditional pedometers are capable of both over- and underestimate steps taken. It is now common that pedometers are integrated in other devices, such as cell phones, which enables measurements by a product already worn by a huge part of the population. To assess the potential of pedometers in cell phones, and to contribute to increase physical activity and a better health, they need to be evaluated and compared with traditional pedometers. PURPOSE: to evaluate the measurement accuracy of a pedometer cell phone application compared to traditional pedometers, measuring walking steps at different speeds. METHODS: Walking steps was measured by two pedometers and one pedometer cell phone application, on one individual (Female, 38 y, BMI: 30) walking on a motorized treadmill (Attract), at 7% slope. Equipment: Yamax LS2000 (Y) (Yamax, Japan)on the right hip, Omron Walking Style X (O) (Omron Health Care, Japan) in the left chest pocket and an iPhone 4S (Apple Inc., California, USA. SW: iOS6.0.1), in the right chest pocket, using the Pedometer Ultimate GPS+ (A) (Arawella Corp., V: 3.3.2) (walking sensitivity medium level). All pedometers were carried according to the manufacturers’ recommendations, and in the same position of all measurements. 200 walking steps were performed ten times at five speeds; 0.6, 1.2, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0 mph and the steps were also counted manually. The right target speed was held from the beginning of the measurement, and the pace of the steps was held with help of a metronome (Korg Micrometro MCM-1). Mean values and standard deviation was calculated. RESULTS: The steps were severely underestimated for all three pedometers at 0.6 mph (A=3.5±1.4, O=0.0±0.0 and Y=5.8±1.8) and 1.2 mph (A=5.2±3.1, O=137.4±39.5 and Y=21.2±17.7). The measurements could be regarded as good for both A (197.0± 7.7) and O (198.6±1.0) at 2.5 mph, where Y still underestimates (112.9±58.5). The same result at 3.0 mph (A=203.8±5.4, O= 199.2±1.9 and Y= 154.4±24.6). All pedometers measured about the same at 4.0 mph (A=170.3±15.7, O=185.7±6.4 and Y=171.7±20.2). CONCLUSION: The study shows that the evaluated pedometers cannot perform acceptable measurements in all five walking speeds, ranging from very slow to fast normal walking speed. However, both A and O, produce accurate measurements at speeds considered to be medium-fast. This limited study shows that A and O performs more accurate measurements compared to Y. Supported by: NovaMedTech

  • 12.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    The relevence of the user perspective in a project within health technology2017In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2017 MTD 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    How Accurate are Pedometer Cell Phone Applications?2012In: Procedia Technology, ISSN 2212-0173, Vol. 5, p. 787-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate pedometers are useful tools to motivate and estimate physical activity. There are today free pedometer applications available for download to cell phones, thus enabling measurements by a device already worn. It is important to evaluate their accuracy and appropriate ways to wear the cell phone when using pedometer applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of six different free pedometer applications for three different cell phones, worn at three different cell phone positions. 10 test persons performed test sequences of 200 steps with each application, cell phone, and cell phone position. Only one application and cell phone combination showed a good accuracy with reasonable low standard deviation, especially in one of the cell phone positions. The majority of applications evaluated in this study, did not show high accuracy. There is a need of further evaluation of pedometer cell phone applications.

  • 14.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pedometer cell phone applications and future trends in measuring physical activity2013In: Information Systems and Technologies for Enhancing Health and Social Care, IGI Global , 2013, p. 324-339Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A huge proportion of the world population is suffering from lifestyle related and preventable welfare diseases. Physical activity is one important means of achieving beneficial health impacts and of reducing the risk of chronic disease. Pedometers are often used to measure physical activity. Nowadays, cell phones are very common, and pedometer applications enable measurements to be made by a device that is already owned. This chapter presents a study of the measurement accuracy of pedometer cell phone applications. The results show that only one combination of pedometer application and cell phone provided high accuracy when tested by different test persons. In some cases, the measurements indicate that the orientation of the cell phone used during measurement might be relevant. In addition, it would be valuable to gain knowledge about the overall and everyday physical activity pattern, which would be very valuable in contributing to a healthier population.

  • 15.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Accuracy in pedometers: Dependent on the technology for measurement?2014In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 2014, Vol. 200, p. 173-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are a variety of pedometers available based on different technologies. The aim of this study was to investigate step measurement accuracy regarding two different pedometer technologies, spring-suspended lever arm and accelerometers, in six walking environments, compared to a reference method. Descriptive data indicates that the spring-suspended lever arm pedometer had the largest SD and underestimated the steps in five out of six walking environments. The ANOVA showed that both pedometer technologies performed accurate measurements in one of the walking environments. However, none of the pedometer technologies performed accurate step measurements in all six walking environments.

  • 16.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluation of a Selected Pedometer Cell Phone Application for iPhone2014In: International conference on health and social welfare and coproduction HW2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Investigation of the validity and reliability of a smartphone pedometer application2016In: European Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 2167-9169, E-ISSN 2167-9177, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and measurement agreement of a smartphone pedometer application and a traditional pedometer, both compared to manual step count, in six environments. The study also examined the relative reliability of two positions of the smartphone pedometer application in the six environments. Twenty participants carried two smartphones (iPhone 4S) with the same pedometer application (Pedometer FREE GPSþ) in two device positions together with a traditional pedometer (Yamax LS2000) while walking in six environments. The pedometer application in the chest position (app chest) differed significantly from the manual step count when walking uphill (p¼0.003), the application in the trouser (pants) position (app pants) differed for downhill (p¼0.001) and the traditional pedometer (trad ped) differed upstairs (p¼0.007). The measurement agreement was high for app pants uphill, app chest downhill and trad ped downstairs. The relative reliability was fair for app chest, but poor for app pants. In conclusion, the pedometer application and traditional pedometer were valid for step self-monitoring in some environments, and the measurement agreement compared to manual step count was mainly medium to high. The relative reliability for the smartphone pedometer application was partly acceptable. Smartphones could be useful in some environments for physical activity self-monitoring.

  • 18.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Technologies for physical activity self-monitoring: a study of differences between users and non-users2017In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, p. 17-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Different kinds of physical activity (PA) self-monitoring technologies are used today to monitor and motivate PA behavior change. The user focus is essential in the development process of this technology, including potential future users such as representatives from the group of non-users. There is also a need to study whether there are differences between the groups of users and non-users. The aims of this study were to investigate possible differences between users and non-users regarding their opinions about PA self-monitoring technologies and to investigate differences in demographic variables between the groups. Materials and methods: Participants were randomly selected from seven municipalities in central Sweden. In total, 107 adults responded to the Physical Activity Products Questionnaire, which consisted of 22 questions. Results: Significant differences between the users and non-users were shown for six of the 20 measurement-related items: measures accurately (p = 0.007), measures with high precision (p = 0.024), measures distance (p = 0.020), measures speed (p = 0.003), shows minutes of activity (p = 0.004), and shows geographical position (p = 0.000). Significant differences between the users and non-users were also found for two of the 29 encouragement items: measures accurately (p = 0.001) and has long-term memory (p = 0.019). Significant differences between the groups were also shown for level of education (p = 0.030) and level of physical exercise (p = 0.037). Conclusion: With a few exceptions, the users and the non-users in this study had similar opinions about PA self-monitoring technologies. Because this study showed significant differences regarding level of education and level of physical exercise, these demographic variables seemed more relevant to investigate than differences in opinions about the PA self-monitoring technologies.

  • 19.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    The development and usability evaluation of an interactive health technology solution for the encouragement of physical activity in inactive adults - based on the user perspectiveManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical inactivity is increasing worldwide. Technology shows good evidence forhaving a good impact on health. Successful behaviour change regarding physical activity requires user involvement and the integration of relevant behaviour change techniques into the technology. The aim of this study was, based on the user perspective, to develop and later evaluate the usability of an interactive health technology solution that can encourage physically inactive adults to physical activity. A mixed methods design with a user-centred approach was used. The data collection included a brainstorming workshop, a user workshop, technical development and a usability evaluation (effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction) involving 35 participants. From the brainstorming workshop, four themes were identified: focus, platform, characteristics and content. A schematic model of a first prototype was presented at the user workshop, and the feedback was positive. A behaviour change application was developed (App&Move), with a focus on encouraging functions. App&Move, which measures physical activity in minutes per day, has integrated behaviour change techniques, is based on available physical activity recommendations, relies on scientific evidence and is strongly based on the user perspective. The usability evaluation of App&Move showed that effectiveness was acceptable, efficiency was (with one exception) high, and satisfaction was medium. The results from this study contributes to the development of a first model of a behaviour change application that aims to encourage physically inactive adults to physical activity. In conclusion, the usability evaluation of App&Move showed promising usability, and the application seemed to encourage physical activity to some extent.

  • 20.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Utvärdering av en stegräknarapplikation; mätnoggrannhet i olika mätmiljöer och positioner2014In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2014 MTD10, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Åkerlind, Charlotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    How can technology promote physical activity? Opinions from physically inactive non-users of self-monitoring technologiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To achieve a more physically active and healthier population, the opinions of potential future users of physical activity self-monitoring technologies need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of physically inactive non-users of physical activity self-monitoring technologies, regarding how and when technology possibly could measure and encourage physical activity. METHODS: Two focus group interviews were performed, consisting of 11 physically inactive persons who had no previous experience with regular use of physical activity self-monitoring technology. The focus groups were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The transcripts of the two focus groups resulted in 17 subcategories and five categories, which formed two themes: measurement complexity and performance and basic qualities. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the physically inactive non-users of physical activity self-monitoring technologies had positive, innovative and mainly similar opinions about how technology could promote physical activity. Since the concept of encouragement permeates the results, it can be concluded that the physical activity technology for this particular target group should primarily be based on encouraging features and functions. Further, the study indicated that it is preferable to integrate physical activity self-monitoring technology into already existing technology that the user already owns.

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