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  • 1.
    Aarts, Marcel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Using Kinect to interact with presentation software2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Imagination Studios is a company specialized in motion capturing and animation. Part of their daily business is working at trade shows where they have a booth to keep close contact with existing customers and also to find new ones. However, usually only two to three people will be working at the booth, and frequently, these people will be in meetings with potential customers. During a time like this, nobody is free to attend to other people checking out the booth. This can result in a potential loss of a new customer. This project seeks a way to alleviate that problem.The idea behind this project was to create an application that trade show visitors can interact with in a playful and innovative way while also giving them a feel of what Imagination Studios is all about while looking for information about the company. To do this it was decided to let users interact with the system by using a Microsoft Kinect. The Kinect allows for easy implementation of a user interface based on motion capturing while also being very cost effective. A new user interface was to be designed as well, without copying already existing solutions and without simply expanding a traditional UI with new elements. To achieve this several design sketches were made, and the most interesting ones were then turned into storyboards. These were then used to decide on the final design, which was then elaborated on by use of video sketches and a collage in Adobe Photoshop.Several tools were used during the actual implementation. For the actual visualization and graphical design, the Unreal Engine 3 in combination with UDK was decided upon. To connect Kinect and Unreal Engine 3, a third party addon called NIUI which makes use of the open source SDK OpenNI was used. For ease of debugging and programming in Unrealscript, the programming language used by the Unreal Engine 3, an addon for Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 called nFringe (Pixel Mine, Inc., 2010) was used.

  • 2.
    Abbasi, Mohsin Manshad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Identification of both Similar and Diverse Rare Cases in Post-Operative Pain Management2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about identification of rare and similar cases in post operative pain. This thesis works with real data consisting of about 3793 cases collected from various hospitals all around the World. It also implements four clustering techniques to study their results and choose the best one among them for the identification of rare cases

  • 3.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bugs and Debugging of Concurrent and Multicore Software2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, S.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Concurrency bugs in open source software: a case study2017In: Journal of Internet Services and Applications, ISSN 1867-4828, Vol. 8, no 1, 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixing-times would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software, understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful. This paper presents an empirical study focusing on understanding the differences and similarities between concurrency bugs and other bugs, as well as the differences among various concurrency bug types in terms of their severity and their fixing time, and reproducibility. Our basis is a comprehensive analysis of bug reports covering several generations of five open source software projects. The analysis involves a total of 11860 bug reports from the last decade, including 351 reports related to concurrency bugs. We found that concurrency bugs are different from other bugs in terms of their fixing time and severity while they are similar in terms of reproducibility. Our findings shed light on concurrency bugs and could thereby influence future design and development of concurrent software, their debugging and testing, as well as related tools.

  • 5.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Towards Classification of Concurrency Bugs Based on Observable Properties2015In: Proceedings - 1st International Workshop on Complex Faults and Failures in Large Software Systems, COUFLESS 2015, 2015, 41-47 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, classification is a way to find an organized structure of knowledge about objects. Classification serves to investigate the relationship between the items to be classified, and can be used to identify the current gaps in the field. In many cases users are able to order and relate objects by fitting them in a category. This paper presents initial work on a taxonomy for classification of errors (bugs) related to concurrent execution of application level software threads. By classifying concurrency bugs based on their corresponding observable properties, this research aims to examine and structure the state of the art in this field, as well as to provide practitioner support for testing and debugging of concurrent software. We also show how the proposed classification, and the different classes of bugs, relates to the state of the art in the field by providing a mapping of the classification to a number of recently published papers in the software engineering field.

  • 6.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Inam, Rafia
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Survey on Testing for Cyber Physical System2015In: Testing Software and Systems: 27th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2015, Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, November 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, 2015, 194-207 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) bridge the cyber-world of computing and communications with the physical world and require development of secure and reliable software. It asserts a big challenge not only on testing and verifying the correctness of all physical and cyber components of such big systems, but also on integration of these components. This paper develops a categorization of multiple levels of testing required to test CPS and makes a comparison of these levels with the levels of software testing based on the V-model. It presents a detailed state-of-the-art survey on the testing approaches performed on the CPS. Further, it provides challenges in CPS testing.

  • 7.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Model for Systematic Monitoring and Debugging of Starvation Bugs in Multicore Software2016In: 2016 ASE Workshop on Specification, Comprehension, Testing and Debugging of Concurrent Programs SCTDCP2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of multicore hardware, concurrent, parallel and multicore software are becoming increasingly popular. Software companies are spending a huge amount of time and resources to nd and debug the bugs. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are also important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. In this position paper, we propose a model for monitoring and debugging Starvation bugs as a type of concurrency bugs in multicore software. The model is composed into three phases: monitoring, detecting and debugging. The monitoring phase can support detecting phase by storing collected data from the system execution. The detecting phase can support debugging phase by comparing the stored data with starvation bug's properties, and the debugging phase can help in reproducing and removing the Starvation bug from multicore software. Our intention is that our model is the basis for developing tool(s) to enable solving Starvation bugs in software for multicore platforms.

  • 8.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afza, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    10 Years of research on debugging concurrent and multicore software: a systematic mapping studyIn: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debugging – the process of identifying, localizing and fixing bugs – is a key activity in software development. Due to issues such as non-determinism and difficulties of reproducing failures, debugging concurrent software is significantly more challenging than debugging sequential software. A number of methods, models and tools for debugging concurrent and multicore software have been proposed, but the body of work partially lacks a common terminology and a more recent view of the problems to solve. This suggests the need for a classification, and an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the area. 

    This paper presents the results of a systematic mapping study in the field of debugging of concurrent and multicore software in the last decade (2005– 2014). The study is guided by two objectives: (1) to summarize the recent publication trends and (2) to clarify current research gaps in the field.

    Through a multi-stage selection process, we identified 145 relevant papers. Based on these, we summarize the publication trend in the field by showing distribution of publications with respect to year , publication venues , representation of academia and industry , and active research institutes . We also identify research gaps in the field based on attributes such as types of concurrency bugs, types of debugging processes , types of research  and research contributions.

    The main observations from the study are that during the years 2005–2014: (1) there is no focal conference or venue to publish papers in this area, hence a large variety of conferences and journal venues (90) are used to publish relevant papers in this area; (2) in terms of publication contribution, academia was more active in this area than industry; (3) most publications in the field address the data race bug; (4) bug identification is the most common stage of debugging addressed by articles in the period; (5) there are six types of research approaches found, with solution proposals being the most common one; and (6) the published papers essentially focus on four different types of contributions, with ”methods” being the type most common one.

    We can further conclude that there is still quite a number of aspects that are not sufficiently covered in the field, most notably including (1) exploring correction  and fixing bugs  in terms of debugging process; (2) order violation, suspension  and starvation  in terms of concurrency bugs; (3) validation and evaluation research  in the matter of research type; (4) metric  in terms of research contribution. It is clear that the concurrent, parallel and multicore software community needs broader studies in debugging.This systematic mapping study can help direct such efforts.

  • 9.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Paul Enoiu, Eduard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Study on Concurrency Bugs in an Open Source Software2016In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 472, 2016, Vol. 472, 16-31 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixingtimes would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful.

  • 10.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Proposing Combined Approaches to Remove ECG Artifacts from Surface EMG Signals2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromyography (EMG) is a tool routinely used for a variety of applications in a very large breadth of disciplines. However, this signal is inevitably contaminated by various artifacts originated from different sources. Electrical activity of heart muscles, electrocardiogram (ECG), is one of sources which affects the EMG signals due to the proximity of the collection sites to the heart and makes its analysis non-reliable. Different methods have been proposed to remove ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals; however, in spite of numerous attempts to eliminate or reduce this artifact, the problem of accurate and effective de-noising of EMG still remains a challenge. In this study common methods such as high pass filter (HPF), gating method, spike clipping, hybrid technique, template subtraction, independent component analysis (ICA), wavelet transform, wavelet-ICA, artificial neural network (ANN), and adaptive noise canceller (ANC) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are used to remove ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals and their accuracy and effectiveness is investigated. HPF, gating method and spike clipping are fast; however they remove useful information from EMG signals. Hybrid technique and ANC are time consuming. Template subtraction requires predetermined QRS pattern. Using wavelet transform some artifacts remain in the original signal and part of the desired signal is removed. ICA requires multi-channel signals. Wavelet-ICA approach does not require multi-channel signals; however, it is user-dependent. ANN and ANFIS have good performance, but it is possible to improve their results by combining them with other techniques. For some applications of EMG signals such as rehabilitation, motion control and motion prediction, the quality of EMG signals is very important. Furthermore, the artifact removal methods need to be online and automatic. Hence, efficient methods such as ANN-wavelet, adaptive subtraction and automated wavelet-ICA are proposed to effectively eliminate ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals. To compare the results of the investigated methods and the proposed methods in this study, clean EMG signals from biceps and deltoid muscles and ECG artifacts from pectoralis major muscle are recorded from five healthy subjects to create 10 channels of contaminated EMG signals by adding the recorded ECG artifacts to the clean EMG signals. The artifact removal methods are also applied to the 10 channels of real contaminated EMG signals from pectoralis major muscle of the left side. Evaluation criteria such as signal to noise ratio, relative error, correlation coefficient, elapsed time and power spectrum density are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. It is found that the performance of the proposed ANN-wavelet method is superior to the other methods with a signal to noise ratio, relative error and correlation coefficient of 15.53, 0.01 and 0.98 respectively.

  • 11.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Chiew, Thiam Kian
    University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia .
    Web Service Response Time Monitoring: Architecture and Validation2011In: Communications in Computer and Information Science Volume 164 CCIS, 2011, 2011, 276-282 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web services are used in many Web applications in order to save time and cost during software development process. To peruse Web service response time, a suitable tool is needed to automate the measurement of the response time. However, not many suitable tools are available for automatic measurement of response time. This research is carried out in the context of quality of Web services in order to measure and visualize Web service response time. The method proposed in this research for accomplishing this goal is based on creating a proxy for connecting to the required Web service, and then calculating the Web services response time via the proxy. A software tool is designed based on the proposed method in order to guide the implementation that is still in progress. The tool can be validated through empirical validation using three test cases for three different Web service access situations.

  • 12.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Runtime Verification for Detecting Suspension Bugs in Multicore and Parallel Software2017In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, 2017, 77-80 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicore hardware development increases the popularity of parallel and multicore software, while testing and debugging the software become more difficult, frustrating and costly. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are both important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue, particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. Suspension-based-locking bug is one type of concurrency bugs. This position paper proposes a model based on runtime verification and reflection technique in the context of multicore and parallel software to monitor and detect suspension-based-locking bugs. The model is not only able to detect faults, but also diagnose and even repair them. The model is composed of four layers: Logging, Monitoring, Suspension Bug Diagnosis and Mitigation. The logging layer will observe the events and save them into a file system. The monitoring layer will detect the presents of bugs in the software. The suspension bug diagnosis will identify Suspension bugs by comparing the captured data with the suspension bug properties. Finally, the mitigation layer will reconfigure the software to mitigate the suspension bugs. A functional architecture of a runtime verification tool is also proposed in this paper. This architecture is based on the proposed model and is comprised of different modules. 

  • 13.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fallah, Ali
    Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, Hamid
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    A Novel Approach for Removing ECG Interferences from Surface EMG signals Using a Combined ANFIS and Wavelet2015In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 26, 52-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the removal of electrocardiogram (ECG) interferences from electromyogram (EMG) signals has been given large consideration. Where the quality of EMG signal is of interest, it is important to remove ECG interferences from EMG signals. In this paper, an efficient method based on a combination of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and wavelet transform is proposed to effectively eliminate ECG interferences from surface EMG signals. The proposed approach is compared with other common methods such as high-pass filter, artificial neural network, adaptive noise canceller, wavelet transform, subtraction method and ANFIS. It is found that the performance of the proposed ANFIS-wavelet method is superior to the other methods with the signal to noise ratio and relative error of 14.97 dB and 0.02 respectively and a significantly higher correlation coefficient (p < 0.05).

  • 14.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, H.
    School of Engineering, Auckland University of TechnologyAuckland, New Zealand .
    Linden, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluation of wavelet based methods in removing motion artifact from ECG signal2015In: IFMBE Proceedings, 2015, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate recording and precise analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are crucial in the pathophysiological study and clinical treatment. These recordings are often corrupted by different artifacts. The aim of this study is to propose two different methods, wavelet transform based on nonlinear thresholding and a combination method using wavelet and independent component analysis (ICA), to remove motion artifact from ECG signals. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, the developed techniques are applied to the real and simulated ECG data. The results of this evaluation are presented using quantitative and qualitative criteria. The results show that the proposed methods are able to reduce motion artifacts in ECG signals. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the wavelet technique is equal to 13.85. The wavelet-ICA method performed better with SNR of 14.23.

  • 15.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, Hamid
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    ECG Artifact Removal from Surface EMG Signal Using an Automated Method Based on Wavelet-ICA2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 211, 2015, 91-97 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at proposing an efficient method for automated electrocardiography (ECG) artifact removal from surface electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from upper trunk muscles. Wavelet transform is applied to the simulated data set of corrupted surface EMG signals to create multidimensional signal. Afterward, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to separate ECG artifact components from the original EMG signal. Components that correspond to the ECG artifact are then identified by an automated detection algorithm and are subsequently removed using a conventional high pass filter. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with wavelet transform, ICA, adaptive filter and empirical mode decomposition-ICA methods. The automated artifact removal method proposed in this study successfully removes the ECG artifacts from EMG signals with a signal to noise ratio value of 9.38 while keeping the distortion of original EMG to a minimum.

  • 16.
    Abdalsalam Noman, Riam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Alqaisy, Ahmad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design av hörnväggfixtur2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Abdelkarim, Sofia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hasan Hawre, Hazhwan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kartläggning av ergonomin i en produktionscell: Med utformningsförslag för en ergonomisk arbetsplats2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose: The aim of the work is to map the ergonomics in a production cell and propose and compare the solutions to identified problems. In order to identify the problem and come up with some solutions, these questions have been answered.• What factors lead to operations that are harmful to the body?• How can a production cell be designed to be more ergonomic for employees?• What are the advantages / disadvantages of ergonomics in a production company?

     

    Method: To perform the study and achieve the purpose of the work, the authors used a case study company where observations were made in parallel with a literature review mainly on ergonomics variety of analysis and quality. The case study company has been used as the basis for the case study where ergonomics are mapped by means of observations, interviews and data that were analyzed by means of literature study done in parallel.

    Study results: The study resulted in a survey of ergonomics in a production cell at the case study company and 5 different suggestions for improvement. The production cell on the case study company is a red cell today, which means that the production cell is in a non-accepted position and in need for urgent changes in ergonomics. Factors leading to bad ergonomics and a non-accepted position as Volvo's requirements have been identified. Many heavy lifting and many torque is what has the highest negative impact on the working environment and ergonomics. Lack of adequate lifting tools have led to those not used in the production cell today. This leads to repetitive work and encumbrance at the case study company. Further, also the working height of the paths contributed to an increased workload as operators are in an unnatural posture. All of these factors are the basis of the 5 suggestions for improvement as the study also resulted in. New custom lifting tools, job rotation, reverse the order of the court, new packaging and pallet to the gears and the robot turn. All these proposed solutions lead to reduced stress and improved ergonomics in the production cell as manual lifting and twists are reduced. The solutions also leads to the production cell shifting from a non-accepted position with demands of urgent change to a yellow production cell that requires an action plan for the future.

     

    Implications: The aim of this study was to map the ergonomics in a production cell. With the study in hand, a conclusion is drawn that the aim has been achieved when all three of the questions have been addressed. Factors leading to poor ergonomics are identified. As well the advantages and disadvantages of investing in ergonomics identified and how production cells should be formed. With this information in mind, a number of proposed solutions have been developed.

     

    Recommendations: Further studies on the subject are recommended to increase knowledge and interest. It may be appropriate to carry out more case studies at more industries to strengthen the study’s results and generalizability. Furthermore, studies are recommended where the entire work environment is studied and not only physical ergonomics. By studying the whole working environment and the many factors that interact it can lead to a greater force being created for higher efficiency and quality in production.

     

    Keywords: Ergonomics, Ergonomics, Work, Volvo CE, Load, Lifting Tools, Body Injury, Advantages, Improvements, Quality

  • 18.
    Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mahmoud, W. A.
    Al-Isra Private University, Amman, Jordan.
    Robust distance-based watermarking for digital image2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Security and Management, SAM 2008, 2008, 404-409 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an algorithm is developed to invisibly watermark a cover object (color image) using watermark object (iconic image). The algorithm is based on the distances among the addresses of values of the cover object. These distances use to make the embedding. The order of manipulating these distances are specified by the values of the watermark data which is dealt with serially. The algorithm serves and achieves self encryption key. Each watermark object has its unique pattern of distances at different possible lengths of distance bits. This enhances the complexity of sequential embedding. The algorithm is tested using direct and single level and double level of Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D DWT) embeddings. Two important issues are addressed. Firstly is to achieve a high Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The ratio was found to increase with an increasing of distance bits. Secondly is that the watermarked object retains the same properties of cover object. The algorithm shows resisting and withstanding against the most important attacks. Some of these include the lossy compression, blurring, resize and some types of Noise.

  • 19. Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mahmoud, Waleed A.
    Robust Distance-Based Watermarking for Digital Video2008In: Proceedings of The Annual SIGRAD Conference, Stockholm, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Indirect Wavelet-Based Cardio Arrhythmia Detection Algorithm2008In: Medicinteknikdagarna, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2008, 14-15 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Abduljalil, Vian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Databasreplikering av kunddata i en DMZ miljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Abdullah, Syed Md Jakaria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Virtual Clustered-based Multiprocessor Scheduling in Linux Kernel2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements of multiprocessor architectures have led to increasing use of multiprocessors in real-time embedded systems. The two most popular real-time scheduling approaches in multiprocessors are global and partitioned scheduling. Cluster based multiprocessor scheduling can be seen as a hybrid approach combining benefits of both partitioned and global scheduling. Virtual clustering further enhances it by providing dynamic cluster resource allocation duringrun-time and applying hierarchical scheduling to ensure temporal isolation between different software components. Over the years, the study of virtual clustered-based multiprocessor scheduling has been limited to theoretical analysis. In this thesis, we implemented a Virtual-Clustered Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (VC-HSF) in Linux without modifying the base Linux kernel. This work includes complete design, implementation and experimentation of this framework in a multiprocessor platform. Our main contributions are twofold: (i) to the best of our knowledge, our work is the first implementation of any virtual-clustered real-time multiprocessor scheduling in an operating system, (ii) our design and implementation gives practical insights about challenges of implementing any virtual-clustered algorithms for real-time scheduling.

  • 23.
    Abdullah, Syed Md Jakaria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Moghaddami Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Implementation of Virtual-Clustered Multiprocessor Scheduling in Linux2013In: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2013, 2013, 97-100 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster based multiprocessor scheduling can be seen as a hybrid approach combining benefits of both partitioned and global scheduling. Virtual clustering further enhances it by providing dynamic cluster resource allocation and applying hierarchical scheduling techniques. Over the years, the study of virtual cluster scheduling has been limited to theoretical analysis. In this paper, we present our initial ideas about implementing virtual cluster scheduling in Linux. The purpose of this implementation is twofold: (i) we would like to demonstrate the feasibility of its implementation in an operating system, without modifying the kernel source code, (ii) we present practical insights on the overhead of implementing this framework.

  • 24.
    Abdullahi, Beyar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyinflyttad: En analys av tidningen ”Nyinflyttad” som skickas till alla nya Arvikabor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This thesis aims to provide Arvika with a deeper insight into what their new residents think about the information they receive. Anyone moving to Arvika gets the magazine “Nyinflyttad/Recently moved in" sent home. The year 2011 Arvika had 1017 new residents, and they all got the same version of the magazine "Nyinflyttad/Recently moved in." A simpler version of the magazine hasn’t been made, although the municipality is aware that it is needed.

    The aim of my thesis is to see if the information that Arvika is sending to its new residents in meeting their information needs. 

    To get the answer on this question, I have examined data from the target group perspective. Through a focus group and various interviews, I have come up with a design proposal that is informative, clear and easy to read. I also think that my design proposal would benefit a much wider audience.

  • 25.
    Abedini, M.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Ahmadzadeh, Farzaneh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Noorossana, R.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Customer credit scoring using a hybrid data mining approach2016In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 45, no 10, 1576-1588 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A crucial decision in financial services is how to classify credit or loan applicants into good and bad applicants. The purpose of this paper is to propose a four-stage hybrid data mining approach to support the decision-making process. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is inspired by the bagging ensemble learning method and proposes a new voting method, namely two-level majority voting in the last stage. First some training subsets are generated. Then some different base classifiers are tuned and afterward some ensemble methods are applied to strengthen tuned classifiers. Finally, two-level majority voting schemes help the approach to achieve more accuracy. Findings: A comparison of results shows the proposed model outperforms powerful single classifiers such as multilayer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine, logistic regression (LR). In addition, it is more accurate than ensemble learning methods such as bagging-LR or rotation forest (RF)-MLP. The model outperforms single classifiers in terms of type I and II errors; it is close to some ensemble approaches such as bagging-LR and RF-MLP but fails to outperform them in terms of type I and II errors. Moreover, majority voting in the final stage provides more reliable results. Practical implications: The study concludes the approach would be beneficial for banks, credit card companies and other credit provider organisations. Originality/value: A novel four stages hybrid approach inspired by bagging ensemble method proposed. Moreover the two-level majority voting in two different schemes in the last stage provides more accuracy. An integrated evaluation criterion for classification errors provides an enhanced insight for error comparisons.

  • 26.
    Abid, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Roback, Joel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Produktutveckling för Cate & Nelson Design: Framtagning av möbel2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar examensarbete utfört för industridesignföretaget Cate & Nelson Design. Företaget ligger i Eskilstuna och jobbar i huvudsakligen med möbeldesign och inredningsprodukter. Projektgruppensuppgift har varit att ta fram en ny möbel för företaget och arbetet har omfattat utveckling av hela produkten från idé till prototyp.

  • 27.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Internet Traffic Management2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 28.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Network overload avoidance by traffic engineering and content caching2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet traffic volume continues to grow at a great rate, now driven by video and TV distribution. For network operators it is important to avoid congestion in the network, and to meet service level agreements with their customers.  This thesis presents work on two methods operators can use to reduce links loads in their networks: traffic engineering and content caching.

    This thesis studies access patterns for TV and video and the potential for caching.  The investigation is done both using simulation and by analysis of logs from a large TV-on-Demand system over four months.

    The results show that there is a small set of programs that account for a large fraction of the requests and that a comparatively small local cache can be used to significantly reduce the peak link loads during prime time. The investigation also demonstrates how the popularity of programs changes over time and shows that the access pattern in a TV-on-Demand system very much depends on the content type.

    For traffic engineering the objective is to avoid congestion in the network and to make better use of available resources by adapting the routing to the current traffic situation. The main challenge for traffic engineering in IP networks is to cope with the dynamics of Internet traffic demands.

    This thesis proposes L-balanced routings that route the traffic on the shortest paths possible but make sure that no link is utilised to more than a given level L. L-balanced routing gives efficient routing of traffic and controlled spare capacity to handle unpredictable changes in traffic.  We present an L-balanced routing algorithm and a heuristic search method for finding L-balanced weight settings for the legacy routing protocols OSPF and IS-IS. We show that the search and the resulting weight settings work well in real network scenarios.

  • 29.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    SICS.
    Alonso, Juan
    Andersson, Anders
    SICS.
    Kreuger, Per
    SICS.
    A Multi Path Routing Algorithm for IP Networks Based on Flow Optimisation2002In: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Quality of Future Internet Services / [ed] Burkhard Stiller, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002, 135-144 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Caching for IPTV distribution with time-shift2013In: 2013 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, ICNC 2013, IEEE , 2013, 916-921 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today video and TV distribution dominate Internet traffic and the increasing demand for high-bandwidth multimedia services puts pressure on Internet service providers. In this paper we simulate TV distribution with time-shift and investigate the effect of introducing a local cache close to the viewers. We study what impact TV program popularity, program set size, cache replacement policy and other factors have on the caching efficiency. The simulation results show that introducing a local cache close to the viewers significantly reduces the network load from TV-on-Demand services. By caching 4% of the program volume we can decrease the peak load during prime time by almost 50%. We also show that the TV program type and how program popularity changes over time can have a big influence on cache hit ratios and the resulting link loads

  • 31.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robust Traffic Engineering using L-balanced Weight-Settings in OSPF/IS-IS2008Other (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robust Traffic Engineering using L-balanced Weight-Settings in OSPF/IS-IS2009In: Proceedings of the 2009 6th International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, BROADNETS 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet traffic volumes continue to grow at a great rate, now pushed by video and TV distribution in the networks. This brings up the need for traffic engineering mechanisms to better control the traffic. The objective of traffic engineering is to avoid congestion in the network and make good use of available resources by controlling and optimising the routing function. The challenge for traffic engineering in IP networks is to cope with the dynamics of Internet traffic demands. Today, the main alternative for intra-domain traffic engineering in IP networks is to use different methods for setting the weights in the routing protocols OSPF and IS-IS. In this paper we revisit the weight setting approach to traffic engineering but with focus on robustness. We propose I-balanced weight settings that route the traffic on the shortest paths possible but make sure that no link is utilised to more than a given level I. This gives efficient routing of traffic and controlled spare capacity to handle unpredictable changes in traffic. We present a heuristic search method for finding I-balanced weight settings and show that it works well in real network scenarios

  • 33.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Simulation of IPTV caching strategies2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, 2010, 187-193 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IPTV, where television is distributed over the Internet Protocol in a single operator network, has become popular and widespread. Many telecom and broadband companies have become TV providers and distribute TV channels using multicast over their backbone networks. IPTV also means an evolution to time-shifted television where viewers now often can choose to watch the programs at any time. However, distributing individual TV streams to each viewer requires a lot of bandwidth and is a big challenge for TV operators. In this paper we present an empirical IPTV workload model, simulate IPTV distribution with time-shift, and show that local caching can limit the bandwidth requirements significantly.

  • 34.
    Abrahamsson, Melissa
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Möten i stadsrummet: Att väcka en outnyttjad plats till liv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meetings in urban spaces is a thesis in information design with emphasis on spatial design. The aim of this thesis is to is to examine how poorly utilised spaces in urban environments can become more useful, as well as which criteria are required to enable a pleasant stay in these locations. The object of the study is the terrace outside Stockholm Public Library which, due to its current appearance and lack of function, most of the time is unused and deserted.

    The study’s aim is to generate a design proposal that encourages an increase in the flow of people to the terraces and that makes people want to spend more of their time there. The goal is to get more visitors to appreciate the terraces and utilise the space better.

    From the results of collected empirical data through spatial analysis, observations, notations of movement, interviews and discussions it has become clear that the reason for the terraces being unused is a lack of functionality and the spaces appearance. The conclusion of the theoretical and practical studies about spatiality, shape, urban public spaces and cognitive psychology etc., show that the choice of shape and placement of spatial elements can contribute to people choosing to linger on the library terraces. In its turn, this knowledge can create the right conditions for a changed pattern of movement and a greater flow of people to the location.

    A design proposal was created, based on theories and empirical data presented in the study. The aim design proposal is to show how it may be possible to draw visitors’ attention to the terraces and create a more natural flow there. This may be achieved by adding round shapes and curved lines, more variety in shape and proportion and by creating more obvious functions that meet visitors’ needs of activity and aesthetics. While this study is focused on the terraces of Stockholm Public Library it is my hope that these conclusions may also be applicable to similar environments in other location. 

  • 35.
    Abram, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Transportoptimering för Husmuttern AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to serve as a logistical foundation for Husmuttern AB. This logistic foundation is defined by a transport solution, a loading solution that is associated with the transport, and a stock proposal for the elements. Husmuttern AB is a newly started company that has developed a new concept of modular housing, which will be built by order.The modular houses will be built by assembling prefabricated parts such as ceilings, walls, foundations and other elements. The advantage of building houses with prefabricated pieces is that the pieces themselves can hold a higher quality when prefabricated, than the pieces fabricated on the construction site, which results in a house that is built in a short matter of time, with high quality. Most of the elements will be prefabricated at Husmuttern’s micro factories.To make the prefabrication, construction and assembly of the houses possible, it is required that there is an efficient transport solution that transports all the necessary goods from retailers to the warehouse, micro-factory and construction site. The purpose of this work is to propose a suitable and efficient transport solution based on the weight and dimensions of the elements that have to be transported.This report is presenting solutions for these problems, where the solutions are assured by calculations that proves that the suggested transport is capable to deliver all necessary elements, and able of loading and unloading all the elements based on their weight and dimensions. A clear proposal on the stock solution for all elements is also presented in the report.The result of this work is considered as successful, due to the ensured transport method, loading method, and the suggested stock and transport partner. Thanks to these fundamental results, a foundation to the logistic solution is created and it is now possible to further develop the logistics, in order to achieve a complete logistics solution for Husmuttern AB.

  • 36.
    Abut, Hüseyin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ercil, Aytul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Erdogan, Hakan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Koman, Hakki Can
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tas, Fatih
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Argunsah, Ali Özgur
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cosar, Serhan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Karabalkan, Harun
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cökelek, Emre
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ficici, Rahmi
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sezer, Volkan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Danis, Serhan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Karaca, Mehmet
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Abbak, Mehmet
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Uzunbaş, Mustafa Gökhan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eritmen, Kayhan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kalaycıoglu, Caglar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Imamoğlu, Mümin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Karabat, Cagatay
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Peyic, Merve
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Arslan, Burak
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Data Collection with UYANIK: Too Much Pain; But Gains are Coming2007In: Proc. of the Biennial on DSP for In-Vehicle and Mobile Systems, Istanbul, Turkey, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Abut, Hüseyin
    et al.
    San Diego State University.
    Erdogan, Hakan
    Ercil, Aytul
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Koman, Hakki Can
    Tas, Fatih
    Argunsah, Ali Özgur
    Cosar, Serhan
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Karabalkan, Harun
    Cökelek, Emre
    Ficici, Rahmi
    Sezer, Volkan
    Danis, Serhan
    Karaca, Mehmet
    Abbak, Mehmet
    Uzunbaş, Mustafa Gökhan
    Eritmen, Kayhan
    Imamoğlu, Mümin
    Kalaycıoglu, Caglar
    Real-World Data Collection with UYANIK2009In: In-Vehicle Corpus and Signal Processing for Driver Behavior, Springer, 2009, 23-44 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Achuthan, K.
    et al.
    Amrita Center for Cybersecurity Systems and Networks, Kerala, India.
    Ramesh, M. V.
    Amrita Center for International Programs, Kerala, India.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Raman, R.
    Center for Research in Advanced Technologies for Education, Kerala, India.
    Internationalizing engineering education with phased study programs: India-European experience2015In: Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE, 2015, no FebruaryConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the critical challenges seen in the past decades have impacted citizens in a global way. Given shrinking resources, educationists find preparing students for the global market place a formidable challenge. Hence exposing students to multi-lateral educational initiatives are critical to their growth, understanding and future contributions. This paper focuses on European Union's Erasmus Mundus programs, involving academic cooperation amongst international universities in engineering programs. A phased undergraduate engineering program with multiple specializations is analyzed within this context. Based on their performance at the end of first phase, selected students were provided opportunities using scholarship to pursue completion of their degree requirements at various European universities. This paper will elaborate the impact of differing pedagogical interventions, language and cultural differences amongst these countries on students in diverse engineering disciplines. The data presented is based on on the feedback analysis from Eramus Mundus students (N=121) that underwent the mobility programs. The findings have given important insights into the structure of the initiative and implications for academia and education policy makers for internationalizing engineering education. These included considering digital interventions such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and Virtual Laboratory (VL) initiatives for systemic reorganization of engineering education.

  • 39.
    Adam, Hemin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cost effect by implementing LEAN2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of master thesis performed at Volvo Powertrain in Koping, Sweden. Today Volvo Powertrain processes and assembles gearboxes for many of Volvo trucks, buses and dump trucks. It also sends gearbox components to Volvo’s plants in North and South Americas, and additionally produces Volvo Penta’s revolutionary marine gear called “IPS” within the company.In order to meet customer requirements for reduced lead time/ freezing time for order placement of products in Koping, Volvo Powertrain wants to achieve a more resource-efficient production. What will the economic costs be in order to reduce the lead time and implement improvements? Since all decision includes cost investment.The aim of this thesis is to make a deep analysis of Order-To-Delivery process between the customers of Volvo Penta, Volvo VCE as well as aftermarket and clarifying the impact of lead time shortening both in practical and economical point of view.After completing the Value Stream Mapping on the current state, problems and non-value adding time are identified. Problems that are found are the long waiting time between the machines, which is the majority of the throughput time. Other issues are the long setup time, and operations that are not performed correctly. Other types of waste were also observed included the long waiting time of material handling between the different buildings.Based on the Value Stream Mapping and through other Lean tools, various proposals have been presented to simplify and increase machine time availability and flexible the production. There have also been various scenarios calculated about what the economic costs will be if the selected items in this thesis are prioritized over other products.

  • 40.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Di Rocco, Juri
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Iovino, Ludovico
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Pierantonio, Alfonso
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Semantic-based Model Matching with EMFCompare2016In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings (CEUR-WS.org), Saint Malo, France: CEUR-WS , 2016, Vol. 1706, 40-49 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Langer, Philip
    EclipsSource, Austria.
    Posse, Ernesto
    Zeligsoft, Canada.
    Towards Seamless Hybrid Graphical-Textual Modelling for UML and Profiles2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10376, Springer, 2017, 20-33 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific modelling languages, in particular those described in terms of UML profiles, use graphical notations to maximise human understanding and facilitate communication among stakeholders. Nevertheless, textual notations are preferred for specific purposes, due to the nature of a specific domain, or for personal preference. The mutually exclusive use of graphical or textual modelling is not sufficient for the development of complex systems developed by large heterogeneous teams. We envision a modern modelling framework supporting seamless hybrid graphical and textual modelling. Such a framework would provide several benefits, among which: flexible separation of concerns, multi-view modelling based on multiple notations, convenient text-based editing operations, and text-based model editing outside the modelling environment, and faster modelling activities. In this paper we describe our work towards such a framework for UML and profiles. The uniqueness is that both graphical and textual modelling are done on a common persistent model resource, thus dramatically reducing the need for synchronisation among the two notations.

  • 42.
    Adelmar, Catrine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Modell för navigering i Scania Multis digitala verkstadshandbok2008Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem

    Funktioner i tunga fordon går allt mer från att vara mekaniska till att styras med hjälp av elektroniska signaler. För att förstå hur komponenter och system fungerar och ska repareras har mekanikerna Verkstadshandboken till sin hjälp. Från tryckt media har Verkstadshandboken övergått till digital publicering i visningsprodukten Scania Multi.

     

    Scania Multi var inledningsvis ett program för reservdelsinformation och har en navigeringsstruktur som är anpassad efter komponenternas placering på fordonet. Det är inte logiskt att hitta information om hur system och komponenter fungerar och ska lagas när man följer en navigeringsstruktur som från början är avsedd för reservdelar, det märks. Mekanikerna som använder Verkstadshandboken i Scania Multi har klagat över att information för reparationer och funktionsbeskrivningar inte finns. Ofta visar det sig att informationen faktiskt finns där men har varit svår att hitta.

    Metod

    Vilka risker och hinder finns det som påverkar om man vill eller orkar ta del av information? Olika signaler från vår omgivning påverkar våra val och beteenden och avgör om ett budskap når fram eller inte. Signalerna inverkar alltså på de val vi gör när vi ställs inför en ny situation.

     

    För att budskapet ska nå ända fram måste signalen vara rätt, ren och stark. Inom området informationsarkitektur pratar man om hur olika sorters design påverkar våra val och handlingar när vi ska interagera med ett digitalt informationsmaterial. Här pratar man om grafisk, informations- och interaktionsdesign. Jag har kopplat de olika typerna av design med de tre olika signalerna.

     

    Utifrån resonemanget om att rätt, ren och stark signal kan jämställas med informationsarkitekturens olika sorters design, gjorde jag en prototyp. Prototypens informationsdesign bygger på att jag har använt och strukturerat informationen med hjälp av den del i ISO standarden STEP som kallas Product Life Cycle Support. När jag sorterade informationen inom de olika avdelningarna använde jag mig av Information Mapping metoden.

     

    Prototypen har en fysisk och en funktionell vy som ska stödja mekanikernas behov när de använder Verkstadshandboken. För att ta reda på hur signalerna i prototypen fungerade testade jag den på sju yrkesverksamma mekaniker. Användningstestet byggde på två scenarion med tillhörande uppgifter där syftet var att få återkoppling på prototypens design och hitta förbättringspunkter.

    Slutsats

    Användningstesterna fokuserade framförallt på prototypens informationsdesign men berörde även prototypens grafiska design och gav vägledning om interaktionsdesignen var på rätt väg. Med hjälp av användningstesterna kunde jag analysera resultatet för att se vad som borde förbättras.

     

    Eftersom mekaniker inte har fått vara med och kravställa designen fick de interagera med en produkt som inte var optimal för deras behov. Mekanikerna är vana vid strukturen i nuvarande Verkstadshandboken i Scania Multi. Den nya strukturen tar hänsyn till fordonets funktionalitet på ett sätt som inte presenteras i dagens system.

     

    Det var fyra avsnitt där mekanikernas återkoppling på prototypens design var extra tydlig:

    -       Det var svårt att se knappar och klickbara länkar.

    -       Designen uppfattades som rörig.

    -       När man väl hade förstått informationsdesignen var det lätt att se att den skulle kunna vara till stor hjälp vid exempelvis felsökning.

    -       Uppdelningen av informationen upplevdes positivt när man hade vant sig vid de olika vyerna.

  • 43.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ergül, Caroline
    Reducering av produktionstryck i A-linan: Förflyttning av produkt2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindgren, Peder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Managing Transfer Projects in an Offshore Strategy: Swedish and Chinese Perspectives2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring concerns the relocation or a transfer of a company’s business activities to another country. When a company decides to offshore their business to another location it involves the transfer of products and knowledge which are both key activities in transfer projects. In today’s globalization it is difficult for companies to stay competitive in the marketplace. For this reason it is becoming more common that companies offshore parts of their business and opening affiliates abroad for the production of goods or services. It is challenging to transfer a product from one site to one other since the receiving site might not have been involved in the product development process from the beginning and therefore have limited associations to the product. The transfer of competence and knowledge but also different ways of working are some of the factors that needs to be successfully managed. This makes it especially challenging when considering cultural and geographical together with the temporal distance between the sites. It is difficult for companies to maintain a sourcing strategy that is cohesive and many companies therefor fails to manage a successful relationship with their offshore partners. The purpose with this study was to present a framework that would support the transfer process when aiming for parallel production. This was to include the features needed to be developed in order to manage the most important factors in the transfer process.

    In order to answer the research questions a case study with a qualitative research method was performed. Interviews in Sweden and China including 34 respondents were performed in order to identify the transfer process. The approach was a qualitative interview with a guided conversation with the emphasis on the authors asking questions and listening, and the respondent answering. The respondents was seen as meaning makers rather than passive channels for retrieving the data needed. The purpose was to derive interpretations rather than facts or laws. Each interview was conducted between three people including the two authors and one respondent.

    The findings indicate that the organization needs to improve their knowledge transfer process. The organization also needs to develop similar processes for the activities involved in the transfer process in order to perceive the same quality. The analysis of the qualitative findings resulted in a framework including six important factors for a successful transfer project. Following factors should be taken in consideration by the company to achieve a successful transfer project: identification of knowledge carriers, set up a transfer core-team, empowering knowledge sharing, the use of a personalized strategy, the development of similar processes and improve the common perception of quality.

  • 45.
    Afsar, Atahan
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Istanbul.
    Ulubilge, Tunca
    Sabanci University, Istanbul.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A biological plausible recurrent model of V1 hypercolumns2011In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 12(Suppl 1), no P48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lock-Based Resource Sharing in Real-Time Multiprocessor Platforms2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are typically resource constrained, i.e., resources such as processors, I/O devices, shared buffers or shared memory can be limited for tasks in the system. Therefore, techniques that enable an efficient usage of such resources are of great importance.

    In the industry, typically large and complex software systems are divided into smaller parts (applications) where each part is developed independently. Migration towards multiprocessor platforms has become inevitable from an industrial perspective. Due to such migration and to efficient use of system resources, these applications eventually may be integrated on a shared multiprocessor platform. In order to facilitate the integration phase of the applications on a shared platform, the timing and resource requirements of each application can be provided in an interface when the application is developed. The system integrator can benefit from such provided information in the interface of each application to ease the integration process. In this thesis, we have provided the resource and timing requirements of each application in their interfaces for applications that may need several processors to be allocated on when they are developed.

    Although many scheduling techniques have been studied for multiprocessor systems, these techniques are usually based on the assumption that tasks are independent, i.e. do not share resources other than the processors. This assumption is typically not true. In this thesis, we provide an extension to such systems to handle sharing of resources other than processor among tasks. Two traditional approaches exist for multiprocessor systems to schedule tasks on processors. A recent scheduling approach for multiprocessors has combined the two traditional approaches and achieved a hybrid more efficient approach compared to the two previous one. Due to the complex nature of this scheduling approach the conventional approaches for resource sharing could not be used straight forwardly. In this thesis, we have modified resource sharing approaches such that they can be used in such hybrid scheduling systems. A second concern is that enabling resource sharing in the systems can cause unpredictable delays and variations in response time of tasks which can degrade system performance. Therefore, it is of great significance to improve the resource handling techniques to reduce the effect of imposed delays caused by resource sharing in a multiprocessor platform. In this thesis we have proposed alternative techniques for resource handling that can improve system performance for special setups.

  • 47.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Resource Sharing under Server-based Multiprocessor SchedulingIn: 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'12), Work-in-Progress (WiP) sessionConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate a mechanism for handling resource sharing among tasks under a server-based scheduling technique in multiprocessor platforms, which combines partitioned and global scheduling to benefit a better scheduling method compared to conventional techniques.

  • 48.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, R. J.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Flexible spin-lock model for resource sharing in multiprocessor real-time systems2014In: Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Embedded Syst., SIES, 2014, 41-51 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various approaches can be utilized upon resource locking for mutually exclusive resource access in multiprocessor platforms. So far two conventional approaches exist for dealing with tasks that are blocked on a global resource in a multi-processor platform. Either the blocked task performs a busy wait, i.e. spins, at the highest priority level until the resource is released, or it is suspended. Although both approaches provide mutually exclusive access to resources, they can introduce long blocking delays to tasks, which may be unacceptable for many industrial applications. In this paper, we propose a general spin-based model for resource sharing in multiprocessor platforms in which the priority of the blocked tasks during spinning can be selected arbitrarily. Moreover, we provide the analysis for two selected spin-lock priorities and we show by means of a general comparison as well as specific examples that these solutions may provide a better performance for higher priority tasks.

  • 49.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Resource Sharing Under Global Scheduling with Partial Processor Bandwidth2015In: 2015 10th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, 195-206 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource efficient approaches are of great importance for resource constrained embedded systems. In this paper, we present an approach targeting systems where tasks of a critical application are partitioned on a multi-core platform and by using resource reservation techniques, the remaining bandwidth capacity on each core is utilized for one or a set of non-critical application(s). To provide a resource efficient solution and to exploit the potential parallelism of the extra applications on the multi-core processor, global scheduling is used to schedule the tasks of the non-critical applications. Recently a specific instantiation of such a system has been studied where tasks do not share resources other than the processor. In this paper, we enable semaphore-based resource sharing among tasks within critical and non-critical applications using a suspension-based synchronization protocol. Tasks of non-critical applications have partial access to the processor bandwidth. The paper provides the systems schedulability analysis where blocking due to resource sharing is bounded. Further, we perform experimental evaluations under balanced and unbalanced allocation of tasks of a critical application to cores.

  • 50.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. 0000-0002-1351-9245.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Resource sharing in a hybrid partitioned/global scheduling framework for multiprocessors2015In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For resource-constrained embedded real-time systems, resource-efficient approaches are very important. Such an approach is presented in this paper, targeting systems where a critical application is partitioned on a multi-core platform and the remaining capacity on each core is provided to a noncritical application using resource reservation techniques. To exploit the potential parallelism of the non-critical application, global scheduling is used for its constituent tasks. Previously, we enabled intra-application resource sharing for such a framework, i.e. each application has its own dedicated set of resources. In this paper, we enable inter-application resource sharing, in particular between the critical application and the non-critical application. This effectively enables resource sharing in a hybrid partitioned/global scheduling framework on multiprocessors. For resource sharing, we use a spin-based synchronization protocol. We derive blocking bounds and extend existing schedulability analysis for such a system.

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