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  • 1.
    Aakko, Noora
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Öngörür, Gazal
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kraften av beröring: Beröring som komplementär metod för att minska stress på arbetsplatsen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknadens förändringar i form av högre arbetstakt, tillfälliga anställningar och krav på flexibla arbetsvillkor, gör att allt fler upplever stress i arbetslivet. Långvarig stress medför stora hälsorisker för individen. Eftersom många av dagens sjukskrivningar beror på stressrelaterade sjukdomar, såsom depression och utmattning är det viktigt att studera metoder för stresshantering på arbetsplatsen. Beröring i form av massage kan minska stress hos individer samt fungerar som ett komplement i behandlingen för stressrelaterade sjukdomar. Ett fältexperiment med 28 tjänstemän utfördes för att undersöka om en kortvarig massage på arbetstid kunde inverka positivt på den arbetsrelaterade stressen jämfört med en avslappningsövning och vanlig rast. Studien visade signifikant minskning av stressnivån efter massageinterventionen. Resultatet ger en antydan om att upplevelsen av stress går att reducera med hjälp av fysisk beröring. Stickprovets storlek samt förväntnings- effektens inverkan på resultatet diskuteras.

  • 2.
    Aasen, Linn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Thunberg, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    En utvärdering av arbetspsykologiska testet Shapes med test-retestmetod2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många rekryteringsmetoder som används i dag, som CV och referenstagning, har enligt studier låg validitet, däremot visar många studier att personlighet är stabilt över tid och därför är en mer valid prediktor för att kunna predicera arbetsprestation. Studiens syfte var att undersöka Shapes, ett internetbaserat personlighetstest, och dess arton kompetensdimensioner med test-retest utifrån tre frågeställningar. En datainsamling med 91 deltagare (29 män och 62 kvinnor) gjordes vid två tillfällen med tre veckors mellanrum. Deltagarna delades upp i kön- och åldersgrupper för att se skillnad över tid inom grupperna. Medelvärdesskillnader och korrelationer över tid jämfördes där resultatet visade att det fanns positiva samband mellan båda testtillfällena på samtliga dimensioner. Sju av de arton dimensionerna hade skillnader på medelvärde från testtillfälle ett och testtillfälle två. Detta skulle kunna bero på att Shapes inte är tillräckligt tillförlitligt för att mäta dessa dimensioner eller att dessa dimensioner inte är stabila över tid.  

  • 3.
    Abdul-Fattah, Doha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kamali, Parwa
    NÄR VARDAGEN FÖRÄNDRAS: - En litteraturstudie om vuxna personers upplevelser av att leva med diabetes typ 22017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases in Sweden. Living with type 2 diabetes affects the person’s daily life and life situation. Treatment of type 2 diabetes consists of the patients making lifestyle changes and self-care. Nurses have expressed a need for knowledge regarding how to support and educate patients with type 2 diabetes, in their self-care. Aim: To describe adult’s experiences of living with type 2 diabetes. Method: A qualitative literature study with descriptive approach. Results: The analysis resulted in two themes. The themes were loss of control over daily life, regain stability and hope in life. The persons experienced lack of knowledge about their disease, furthermore, they felt anxiety and anger. The persons experienced that they had difficulties adjusting their diet. After a certain period of illness, the people accepted and managed the disease and got support both from their families and from health care professionals. Conclusion: The care and education that patients with diabetes type 2 are offered need to be more individualized. This can ensure and help the patients with type 2 diabetes perform adequate self-care by their own preconditions, to maintain health and well-being.

  • 4.
    Abdulla, Hana
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    FYSISK INAKTIVITET OCH STILLASITTANDE BLAND BARN OCH UNGA I GRUNDSKOLAN2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children and youth inactivity and sedentary at school is increasing. This means that some of the students have a significant unhealthy lifestyle with physical inactivity, which in turn implies risks of suffering from various diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, all related to a sedentary lifestyle. To prevent illness, it is important that children and young people early get a positive attitude towards physical activity.

    The purpose of this study was to study the causes of child and adolescent physical inactivity in school, based on teachers 'and parents' perspectives.

    A qualitative research has been selected. To achieve the study objectives, the author has conducted seven semi-structured interviews, with an appropriate choice of five teachers and two parents with children in school. Data was analyzed with a manifest content analysis.

    The results show that teachers and parents felt that physical activity is a protective factor for children's health. There are several reasons for physical inactivity in students today, blah new technologies, various transportation facilities and family finances. Some measures that can reduce the physical inactivity, for example be to increase sports lesson 'time and by starting with children and young people's interest to make them feel joy in moving, which increases the interest in physical activity.

    The conclusion of this work is that children's movement is important for their health. Children and youth in elementary school in need of physical activity so that they feel good. Both schools and parents have a responsibility to promote children's physical activity so that they can preserve their health, before improving their learning ability, have more energy and to manage the school in a good way.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Jonsson, Eleonor
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Samband mellan genetiska faktorer och korsbandsruptur - en litteraturöversikt.2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med främre korsbandsruptur utgör en stor patientgrupp för en idrottsverksam sjukgymnast. Skadan är även vanlig hos hundar . Då hund och människa har likartad knäanatomi var det intressant att inkludera båda i samma studie. Alla bakomliggande faktorer till främre korsbandsruptur är inte helt utredda i dagsläget och detta gör det svårt att optimera preventiva åtgärder. En faktor som börjat utredas på senare år är den genetiska, dock inte i någon större utbredning. Syftet med denna uppsats var att sammanställa det aktuella kunskapsläget gällande ett eventuellt samband mellan genetiska faktorer och korsbandsruptur hos människa och hund. Detta studerades i en litteraturstudie, där data framför allt samlades in via vårdvetenskapliga och medicinska databaser. De 15 inkluderade artiklarna analyserades systematiskt genom hela processen och bevisvärde samt evidensstyrka värderades. Resultatet visar att det finns tydliga tecken på ett samband mellan genetiska faktorer och korsbandsruptur för människor. För hundar finns inte något tydligt samband. De granskade studierna visade ej signifikanta samband. Då det saknas studier med högt bevisvärde hos både människa och hund kan inte en stark slutsats dras. Därför behövs vidare forskning för att kunna bekräfta eller utesluta sambandet mellan genetiska faktorer och korsbandsruptur.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Pia-Marie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kron, Viktoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "Det känns som att man blir betraktad som en andra klassens medborgare”: Hur patienter med allvarlig psykisk ohälsa erfar den somatiska vården och psykiatrisjuksköterskans erfarenheter av ansvar för fysisk hälsa i psykiatrisk vård2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning talar om förutfattade meningar, okunskap, rädsla m.m. hos somatisk vårdpersonal och om patienter som känner sig avskrivna från den somatiska vården med att det är den psykiska ohälsan som är orsak till de fysiska symtomen. Psykiatrins vårdpersonal upplever problem med att vårda den fysiska hälsan hos patienten, då deras specialitet är den psykiska hälsan.  Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva hur patienter med allvarlig psykisk ohälsa erfar den somatiska vården och psykiatrisjuksköterskans erfarenheter av ansvar relaterat till psykiatripatienternas fysiska hälsa. Studien bygger på nio semistrukturerade intervjuer, varav fem intervjuer med patienter och fyra intervjuer med psykiatrisjuksköterskor. Intervjuerna har analyserats utifrån en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visar att patienterna känner sig sedda som sin psykiska sjukdom och upplever sig inte vara lika mycket värda som övriga patienter i den somatiska sjukvården. Psykiatrisjuksköterskorna erfar att det finns många svårigheter både teoretiskt och praktiskt för dem att ta hand om patienternas fysiska hälsa. Slutsatsen är att fördomar upplevs som tyngande för patienterna och orsakar med tiden mer psykisk ohälsa och större risker för deras fysiska hälsa. För sjuksköterskan är det en konst att skilja på vilket som tillhör psykiatriska vårdens ansvar och vad som är ämnat för den somatiska vården.

  • 7.
    Abusagr, Leila
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Bozic, Milica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Könsskillnader utifrån sexual economics theory och sexual double standards2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sexual economics theory (SET) innebär att kvinnor kan använda sin sexualitet som resurs mot mäns materiella och emotionella resurser. Sexual double standards (SDS) innebär att män och kvinnor uppmanar män men avråder kvinnor från casual sex. Ökad medvetenhet kan leda till att skillnader mellan råd till män respektive kvinnor undviks, vilket minskar SDS och främjar jämställdhet. Studien undersökte om SET har fäste i ett samhälle som anses jämställt. Ett tillgänglighetsurval på 125 kvinnor och 75 män gjordes vid en högskola i Mellansverige. Enkätundersökningen berörde råd om casual sex, aspekter som söks i en partner samt påståenden relaterade till SET. Män uppvisade SDS eftersom de uppmanade andra män mer än de uppmanade kvinnor till casual sex. Däremot visade kvinnor tendens till omvänd SDS gällande casual sex, vilket tyder på ojämställdhet i Sverige. I framtida studier rekommenderas specificering av person som får råd, då mätningen blir mer reliabel och resultat kan generaliseras.

  • 8.
    Adlerteg, Veronica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Nackfunktion efter främre cervikal fusion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Agnew, L.
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Johnston, V.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Ludvigsson, M. L.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Rehab Väst, County Council of Östergötland, Sweden.
    Peterson, G.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Overmeer, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, G.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peolsson, A.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Factors associated with work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grade II-III: A cross-sectional analysis2015In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 47, no 6, 546-551 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to self-perceived work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grades II-III. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Patients: A total of 166 working age patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Methods: A comprehensive survey collected data on work ability (using the Work Ability Index); demographic, psychosocial, personal, work- and condition-related factors. Forward, stepwise regression modelling was used to assess the factors related to work ability. Results: The proportion of patients in each work ability category were as follows: poor (12.7%); moderate (39.8%); good (38.5%); excellent (9%). Seven factors explained 65% (adjusted R2= 0.65, p < 0.01) of the variance in work ability. In descending order of strength of association, these factors are: greater neck disability due to pain; reduced self-rated health status and health-related quality of life; increased frequency of concentration problems; poor workplace satisfaction; lower self-efficacy for performing daily tasks; and greater work-related stress. Conclusion: Condition-specific and psychosocial factors are associated with self-perceived work ability of individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.

  • 10.
    Agnsjö, Elin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ivanov, My
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Anorexia Nervosa: Kvinnors upplevelse av sjukdomsförloppet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    AN är en sjukdom som drabbar många unga kvinnor idag. Sjukdomen innebär ett långt förlopp och karakteriseras av biologiska, psykiska och sociala besvär. Syftet med studien är att lyfta fram före detta AN  patienters upplevelse av sjukdomsförloppet och de bidragande faktorerna till återhämtningen. 11 semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes och analyserades och resultatet tyder på att deltagarna delar likande livshistorier om både insjuknandet och faktorer till återhämtning. Delar av resultatet tyder på att deltagarna hittat motivation i relationer för bli fri från ätstörningen. Vidare forskningen inom detta område borde belysa och fördjupas i den attityd mot att sjukdomen är kronisk och även undersöka individers upplevda likgiltighet mot att kunna leva ett liv helt utan AN, då resonemanget att det inte går att bli helt återställd ofta uttrycks.

  • 11.
    Ahl, Therese
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kinesiska universitetsstudenters uppfattningar om sexualundervisning för ungdomar i Kina2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality and reproduction are two central parts of human life and they are integrated into our personalities. It is therefore important to create a good foundation for sexual health and wellbeing from an early age. To see adolescents as “ready to act-individuals” and to make them more involved in open dialog discussions contributes to extended possibilities for creating and sustaining a healthy lifestyle. The school is therefore considered as an important arena for health promoting and preventive actions where most adolescents can be reached. An obligated nine years school based education was implemented in China 1986, and school based Sex education became obligated in 2002.

     

    The study aimed to examine Chinese university student’s perceptions of Sexeducation for adolescents (10-19 years) in China and needs for changes and ongoing tendencies of development. Qualitative studies were conducted with three Chinese university students and contact was taken with a key person in China whom translated material for this study alone.

     

    The result showed various constructions of school based Sexeducation in China and that its implementation and construction needs more support. It also showed a need for the development of influence and participation in the school based Sexeducation. A need for creating an improved communication between teachers and students was also expressed and a more salutogenic approach needs to be developed.

     

    Through collaboration with other countries, for example Sweden, can today’s open-minded process of change benefit even more.

     

  • 12.
    Ahl, Therese
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sexual behavior among Chinese male and female medical university students in Chongqing, China2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality is one of the most fundamental values of life as it affects our behaviors, thoughts and emotions. Young people are an especially essential group for promoting sexual health as it is during adolescents the base for our sexuality is created. The aim of this study was to examine Chinese male and female medical university student’s knowledge and ideas of sexual behavior at Chongqing Medical University in Chongqing, China. An explorative quantitative survey study was conducted at place in Chongqing. The survey study’s result showed that ideas of sexual behavior were seem to be permissive and love-based, and also bi- and homosexuality to be mainly acceptable. The Internet, books and friends were seemed as important sources for knowledge whereas few believed to have received adequate knowledge from school. It was also seemed to be a major lack of knowledge regarding STD’s and how to protect yourself as “safe periods” was believed to be an important contraceptive method. The relationship between contraception and the protection against STD seems to be obscure.

  • 13.
    Ahlbäck, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hälsofrämjande arbete med levnadsvanor i landstinget Västmanland: - Upplevelser av att delta i "Kom i form gruppen"2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy lifestyles are an important condition for creating a positive health and dietary habits, physical activity and stress are factors that affect health. As a result of recent changes in society people's lifestyles have changes through unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and stress has increased. Changing lifestyles have affected public health, and to invest in these areas in public health work can provide significant health benefits. Västmanland County Council operates a project to promote healthy behavior. The project includes "Kom i form gruppen" which is a group that focuses on nutrition, physical activity and stress. The aim was to investigate participants' experiences of participation in "Kom i form gruppen" and if the participation has affected their lifestyles. To answer the purpose, a qualitative approach with interviews used. The result shows that the content of the meetings has not identified any new knowledge. Participation has provided awareness and motivation and appreciation of food habits have been affected varied between participants. The participants' exercise habits have been affected by regular exercise occasions and everyday physical activity. Effect of stress has not been made, but they try to think about to rush less. Lack of time and stress, however, perceived as an impediment to healthy living.

  • 14.
    Ahlenius, Mikaela
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Änglabarn: Föräldrars upplevelser av att förlora ett barn i sjukdom2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: When a parent loses its child life will change drastically and assume other conditions. The loss of a child affects the whole human existence, the grief can be very intense as well as in-depth and find expression both on an emotional, physical, mental and spiritual level. Aim: The aim is to describe parents’ experiences of losing a child to illness. Method: Graneheim and Lundmans manifest content analysis method was used to the method based on qualitative raw material in forms of three Swedish autobiographies. Results: The analysis resulted in three categories "interactions in existential chaos", "the unimaginable has happened" and "to live with the grief". The categories describe different stages in the loss of a child, from the contact with health professionals to fighting their way through and live with the grief following the death of their child. Conclusion: The interaction parent’s get from health professionals have big impact on the experience of losing their child. It is not possible to escape from the grief that manifests when you lose a child, the grief has to be processed during a long time but this is necessary for the ability to get through the grief and to finally get on with life.

  • 15.
    Ahlgren, Asa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Broman, Lisbet
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Disability pension despite vocational rehabilitation?: A study from six social insurance offices of a county2005In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 28, no 1, 33-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many long-term sick-listed individuals move from vocational rehabilitation to pension, rather than reaching the goal of return to work. There is thus reason to consider whether rehabilitation resources are being used optimally. Individuals receiving disability pensions are consuming financial and personnel resources at the insurance offices and also consume a large amount of health care. The general objective of the study was to evaluate the proportion of individuals granted vocational rehabilitation but then obtaining temporary or permanent disability pensions. All persons receiving any kind of rehabilitation and attending one of six local national insurance offices in a county in Sweden in 1998 and 1999 were studied. A 2-year follow-up was carried out to assess changes in status among those who had received temporary disability pensions. Of all individuals receiving rehabilitation, 46.2% ended up with a disability pension allowance. In addition, a large portion of the temporary disability pensions was transformed to permanent disability pensions within 2 years. For clients with a temporary disability pension, the rate of resuming work was close to nil. Among rehabilitation measures, investigation showed the lowest figures of work resumption while job training showed the best outcome in this respect. The study concluded that a large portion of the financial and personnel resources allocated by the national insurance offices to rehabilitation resulted in disability pensions.

  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Caroline
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Aktivitetsledares uppfattningarom ordinerad fysisk aktivitet (OFA)Aktivitetsledares uppfattningarom ordinerad fysisk aktivitet (OFA)2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Physical inactivity is a public health problem and lead to bad health in the population. Healthcare in Västmanland has started the process of prescribing physical activity (OFA) to improvehealth. Sport is an important participant in prescribed physical activity and the sportseducational association, SISU Idrottsutbildarna, is organizing activity leadership training.They educate activity leaders in accepting patient’s prescribed physical activity. The aim ofthe thesis was to study the experiences of Activity Leaders in Västmanland have about theactivity leaders training and the perceptions they have about prescribed physical activity. Toanswer the thesis, six qualitative interviews carried out and analyzed with the help ofconcentration of the contents. The Activity Leaders’ experiences of the education aregenerally positive and their perceptions of prescribed physical activity vary. They believe thatthe activity leadership training can be improved and they are critical of that works are notstarted in a desirable manner and that health care does not prescribe group activities in agreater extent. Activity Leaders feel that the exchange of experiences, greater disseminationof information and health care employees' attitudes to OFA are important elements to improvethe process of prescribed physical activity. Activity Leaders welcomed the future with regardto prescribed physical activity, but that the current economic situation and the lack ofsubsidies will delay the work. Because the work of prescribed physical activity are not yethappened makes it difficult for the Activity Leaders to actively work with prescribed physicalactivity.Physical inactivity is a public health problem and lead to bad health in the population. Healthcare in Västmanland has started the process of prescribing physical activity (OFA) to improvehealth. Sport is an important participant in prescribed physical activity and the sportseducational association, SISU Idrottsutbildarna, is organizing activity leadership training.They educate activity leaders in accepting patient’s prescribed physical activity. The aim ofthe thesis was to study the experiences of Activity Leaders in Västmanland have about theactivity leaders training and the perceptions they have about prescribed physical activity. Toanswer the thesis, six qualitative interviews carried out and analyzed with the help ofconcentration of the contents. The Activity Leaders’ experiences of the education aregenerally positive and their perceptions of prescribed physical activity vary. They believe thatthe activity leadership training can be improved and they are critical of that works are notstarted in a desirable manner and that health care does not prescribe group activities in agreater extent. Activity Leaders feel that the exchange of experiences, greater disseminationof information and health care employees' attitudes to OFA are important elements to improvethe process of prescribed physical activity. Activity Leaders welcomed the future with regardto prescribed physical activity, but that the current economic situation and the lack ofsubsidies will delay the work. Because the work of prescribed physical activity are not yethappened makes it difficult for the Activity Leaders to actively work with prescribed physicalactivity.

  • 17.
    Ahlgren, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bergroth, Alf
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekholm, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekholm, Kristina Schüldt
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Selection of clients for vocational rehabilitation at six local social insurance offices: a combined register and questionnaire study on rehabilitation measures and attitudes among social insurance officers.2008In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, no 3, 178-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences between local social insurance offices with regard to their selection of clients for vocational rehabilitation. A further aim was to determine whether social insurance officers from different local insurance offices have uniform attitudes regarding professional practice in their application of the insurance system. METHODS: A register-based investigation of 815 vocational rehabilitees served by 6 local social insurance offices in a Swedish county. The study was supplemented with a questionnaire to 30 officers about attitudes to social insurance. RESULTS: The office with the lowest rate of sick-listing periods exceeding one year, and a high frequency of employment training, showed the highest degree of work resumption and the lowest pension rate after vocational rehabilitation. There were wide differences in attitude among the local social insurance officers regarding professional practice in their application of the system. CONCLUSION: Intra-county differences occur in handling people on sick-leave who undergo vocational rehabilitation. The local social insurance offices with the highest and lowest outcome rates of work resumption and disability pension, respectively, select clients for vocational rehabilitation from different categories of cases. Social insurance officers from different local offices differ in their attitudes towards the social insurance system and its clients.

  • 18.
    Ahlin, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Medarbetares personlighet och deras attityd till olika typer av ledarskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med fokus på förändring, flexibilitet och personlig utveckling har det agila

    ledarskapet utvecklats och växt fram. En ledarskapsstil och arbetssätt som

    blir allt vanligare bland organisationer där många företag påstår sig på

    något sätt arbeta med agila metoder. Denna studie undersökte sambandet

    mellan medarbetares personlighet och attityd till olika ledarskapsstilar,

    med fokus på den agila. En webbaserad enkätundersökning gjordes med

    129 deltagare, 83 kvinnor, 45 män och en utan kön. Enkäten innehöll

    personlighetstestet Big Five Inventory samt tre vinjetter kring

    transformativt-, transaktionellt- och agilt ledarskap. Resultatet visade att

    deltagare med höga värden på extraversion och öppenhet och låga värden

    på neuroticism tenderade ha mer positiv attityd till den agila

    ledarskapsstilen. Män var mer positiv inställda till transaktionellt ledarskap

    än kvinnor. Avslutningsvis diskuteras generaliserbarheten i resultatet

    utifrån de tillgänglighetsurval som studien hade samt att de resultat som

    redovisas kan vara till hjälp för organisationer i exempelvis rekrytering

    och utveckling av ledarskapskompetenser.

  • 19.
    Ahlm, Isabelle
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Mansor, Roa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelser av empati hos läkare i läkar-patientmötet: Intervjuer med bröstcancerpatienter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien handlade om bröstcancerpatienters upplevelser av empati hos läkare i läkar-patientmötet.  Fokus låg på att undersöka i hur stor utsträckning läkarens empatiska förmåga bidrar till upplevelsen av god vård. Metoden var av kvalitativ ansats där semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes med 12 bröstcancerdrabbade kvinnor. Resultatet gav kategorier tillhörande studiens tre frågeställningar. Frågeställningen om vad som utgör en empatisk läkare belystes av kategorierna (1) sätta sig in i den andres situation, (2) både känsla och handling, (3) kunskap, (4) informativ och (5) god lyssnare. Frågeställningen om icke-empatisk läkare belystes av kategorierna (1) dålig information, (2) opersonlig och (3) dålig förmåga att skapa god behandlingsallians. Frågeställningen om god vård belystes av (1) kontinuitet hos läkare, (2) bli sedd som individ och (3) mer tid hos läkare. I fall av brist på empati upplevde patienterna mindre grad av tillfredställande. God vård och empati är beroende av varandra, den ena kan inte existera utan den andre.

  • 20.
    Ahlsten, Catharina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Eser-Persson, Ceklin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att möta barn som misstänks vara utsatt för misshandel samt deras föräldrar på barnakutmottagningen2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Ahlzén, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Konflikten mellan arbetsliv och familjeliv: En kvalitativ studie om småbarnsföräldrars upplevelser av psykisk hälsa och balans i tillvaron2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's career choices and ambitions impose different demands on the individuals than in the past. In a labour market that demands flexibility and responsibility, the individuals are expected to be able to work almost anytime and from anywhere. These factors have contributed to an imbalance between work and family life that can trigger various forms of illness. In this study, I investigate how parents of young children perceive their mental health in relation to the balance between work and family life. This is achieved through a study that employs qualitative methods and data collection based on six individual semi-structured interviews, where the material is then analysed based on a manifest content analysis. The results show that today’s parents are well aware of the imbalance between their work and family life, and that this negatively affects their health in several ways, ranging from stress and anxiety to sleep problems and personal conflicts. To address this imbalance the parents creates routines, shared responsibilities at home, and allow personal time for leisure, in an attempt to create a form of control over this imbalance. The conclusion of this study is that parent’s experience that they have to have routines at work and family life, where the parents have lower demands on their own health.

  • 22.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Third Eye: An Intelligent Assisting Aid for Visual Impairment Elderly2016In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2016 MTF, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Visually impaired older persons need support in daily activities, e.g. moving around inside the house; making and eating food and taking medicine independently. A system that simulates the environment based on both dynamic and static objects, identify obstacles, navigates and translates sensory information in voice would be valuable to support their daily activities. Today several sensors and camera-based systems are popular as ambient-assisted living tools for older adults. However, intelligent assisting aid (IAA) to support older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment is limited. The proposed system ‘Third Eye’ focuses on the advanced research and development of an IAA to support older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment. The main goal in this system is to provide a usable, feasible and cost-effective solution for older persons to support their daily activities using intelligent sensor based system. Method The system consists of the following five phases to meet several central challenges in developing IAA in such domain. • User-perspective, focuses on user-driven technical development, investigating needs of potential users. The study will have a participatory design with focus group interviews of lead users. • Sensor-based system, focuses on the identification obstacles based on ultrasounds and/or radio frequencies embedded in white-cane or weaker. • Camera-based system, focuses on image based information translation into voice embedded in white-cane or weaker or glasses. • System of systems, focuses on integration of above systems where knowledge is engineered and suitable representations are learned and reasoning for decisions are made [9]. • Experimental, focuses on usability and feasibility of the IAA, with idiographic and group studies Results The initial results have shown the necessity of the proposed AAI systems for older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment. However, more extension work e.g., process and analyze the information and synthesize it with existing literature for developing the system is ongoing.

  • 23.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Class, gender and ethnicity in relation to health care – A study on social disparities in the Swedish health care.2011In: Reconsidering social identification: race, gender, class and caste. / [ed] Janmohamed A. (Ed.), Routledge, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Invandrade kvinnors hälsa och arbetsvillkor i Sverige2011In: Perspektiv på kvinnors hälsa i arbetslivet / [ed] Sandmark H., Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 135-142 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Livssmärta - utanförskap och problem med barn.2003In: Flyktingskapet i ett långsiktigt integrationsperspektiv. / [ed] Franzen E. ., Tullinge: FOU Södertörn , 2003, 195-264 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Midwives’ views on factors that contribute to health care inequalities among immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative study.2012In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, article nr: 47- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of midwives on the factors that contribute to health care inequality among immigrants. Methods: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with ten midwives. These were transcribed and related categories identified through content analysis. Results: The interview data were divided into three main categories and seven subcategories. The category "Communication" was divided into subcategories "The meeting", "Cultural diversity and language barriers" and "Trust and confidence". The category "Potential barriers to the use of health care services" contained two subcategories, "Seeking health care" and "Receiving equal treatment". Finally, the category "Transcultural health care" had subcategories "Education on transcultural health care" and "The concept". Conclusions: This study suggests that midwives believe that health care inequality among immigrants can be the result of miscommunication which may arise due to a shortage of meeting time, language barriers, different systems of cultural beliefs and practices and limited patient-caregiver trust. Midwives emphasized that education level, country of origin and length of stay in Sweden play a role when an immigrant seeks health care. Immigrants face more difficulties when seeking health care and in receiving adequate levels of care. However, different views among the midwives were also observed. Some midwives were sensitive to individual and intra-group differences, while some others viewed immigrants as a group of "others". Midwives' beliefs about subgroup-specific health services vs. integrating immigrants' health care into mainstream health care services should be investigated further. Patients' perspective should also be considered.

  • 27.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Patienters uppfattning om Vård på lika villkor2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, 189-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find out the patients’ perceptions of the care and welfare services is important in order to develop the quality of care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patients’ perspectives on care on equal terms and on their ideas about methods for a more equitable care. To achieve the purpose, qualitative methods were used in form of conducting interviews with patients’ and representatives of patient organizations. The results show that patients’ perceive that in order to achieve a more equitable care continuity, time during consultations, availability, communication and encounter should evolve and become better.

  • 28.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Promoting Equity in Primary Health Care2015In: Primary Health Care, ISSN 2167-1079, Vol. 5, no 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equity in access to primary health care services is a central objective of the Swedish health care system. Yet, several reports have illustrated that disparities still exist in the primary health sector, and have increased since the beginning of the 1990s. This commentary analyzes and explains the reasons for continuing inequality in access to and utilization of primary health care services in a welfare system. Social and structural factors, communication, macro-sociological aspects and health care providers’ attitudes and perceptions are discussed as substantial contributors to inequality in access to and utilization of primary health care services. In conclusion, some intervention strategies for promoting more equitable primary health care are suggested.

  • 29.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Social determinants of health for female Iranian immigrants in Sweden.2012In: The Iranian community in Sweden – Multidisciplinary perspectives. / [ed] Hosseini-Kaladjani H., Tumba: The Multicultural Centre , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Vad sker med personalens inställning till Vård på lika villkor när verksamheterna deltar i Lärandeprojektet?2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, 176-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equity in health and providing care on equal terms is one of the most important aspects of a welfare society. Several reports indicate that the health care services are not equal. The purpose of this study was to study health care providers’ perceptions on equitable care and their ideas about methods to achieve a more equitable care. An web survey was sent to health care providers whose unit were involved in the project "Care on equal terms" before and after the project period. The results show that health care providers perceived that the factors that influence clients’/ patients’ access to care on equal terms consists of: structural / organizational factors in the health care organization or in the society and clients’/ patients’ social situation.

  • 31.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Blev det ett genombrott?: Utvärdering av det nationella lärandeprojektet – Vård på lika villkor2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvården i Sverige är i dag inte jämlik, har brister i tillgänglighet och erbjuds inte på likvärdiga villkor trots Hälso- och sjukvårdslagens mål om en god hälsa och en vård på lika villkor för hela befolkningen.

    För att bryta den pågående trenden och öka jämlikheten gjordes en överenskommelse mellan regeringen och SKL om lärandeprojektet Vård på lika villkor (under åren 2011–2014). Syftet med projektets har varit att inom socioekonomiskt resurssvaga bostadsområden öka jämlikheten i första linjens vård. Detta genom att testa, utveckla och identifiera effektiva arbetssätt och metoder vid sju primärvårdsverksamheter från fem landsting i Sverige.

    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, fick av SKL i uppdrag att svara för forskarstöd och att genomföra en utvärdering av de metoder och arbetssätt som utvecklades och testades i lärandeprojektet.

    Resultatet från den genomförda utvärderingen som belyser den genomförda processen, mål- och resultat samt hälsoekonomiska aspekter beskrivs närmare i denna rapport.

  • 32.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Temaledare: Vård på lika villkor – Vad kan vi lära av Lärandeprojektet?2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, 103-106 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Bildt, C
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Wamala, S
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Work-related health factors among female immigrants in Sweden2007In: WORK – A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 28, no 2, 135-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related health has been a focus of research since the rate of sickness-related absences began to increase in Sweden. The incidence of sickness-related absences and early retirement is higher among female immigrants than among others in the total population. This study is based on a questionnaire survey which was conducted in a municipality in Sweden. The study population consisted of 2 429 native and immigrant female employees. The aim was to study work-related health factors for female immigrants. The results of this study show that about 20% of female immigrants who participate in the survey have temporary employment while the proportion is 8% for native women. The perception of ethnic discrimination among female immigrants was three times as much as among native females. The results also show that 69% of female immigrants report having received no opportunity to discuss their wages with managers, in comparison to 63% of native females. About 40% of female immigrants and 35% of native women report that they do not get opportunities to upgrade their skills. Female immigrants over the age of 50 experience gender and ethnic discrimination and lack of access to skills training programs more often than younger immigrants. They also participate in health-care activities more often.

  • 34.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Karlsen, S.
    University College London.
    Practitioner and client explanations for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups in Sweden: A qualitative study2013In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 15, no 1, 188-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five 'migrant' health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: "Communication issues", "Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations" and "Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination". Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of 'migrant' clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and 'migrant' patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.

  • 35.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Client/patient perceptions of achieving equity in primary health care: a mixed methods study2015In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, no 1, 1-12 p., 196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Introduction: To provide health care on equal terms has become a challenge for the health system. As the front line in health services, primary care has a key role to play in developing equitable health care, responsive to the needs of different population groups. Reducing inequalities in care has been a central and recurring theme in Swedish health reforms. The aim of this study is to describe and assess client/patient experiences and perceptions of care in four primary health care units (PHCUs) involved in Sweden's national Care on Equal Terms project. Methods: Mixed Method Research (MMR) was chosen to describe and assess client/patient experiences and perceptions of health care with regard to equity. There was a focus group discussion, and individual interviews with 21 clients/patients and three representatives of patient associations. Data from the Swedish National Patient Survey (NPS), conducted in 2011 and followed up in 2013, were also used. Results: The interview data were divided into two main categories and three subcategories. The first category "Perception of equitable health care" had two subcategories, namely "Health care providers' perceptions" and "Fairness and participation". The second category "To achieve more equitable health care" had four subcategories: "Encounter", "Access", "Interpreters and bilingual/diverse health care providers" and "Time pressure and continuity". Results from the NPS showed that two of the PHCUs improved in some aspects of patient perceived quality of care (PPQC) while two were not so successful. Conclusions: Clients/patients perceived health care providers' perceptions of their ethnic origin and mental health status as important for equitable health care. Discriminatory perceptions may lead to those in need of care refraining from seeking it. More equitable care means longer consultations, better accessibility in terms of longer opening hours, and ways of communicating other than just via voice mail. It also involves continuity in care and access to an interpreter if needed. Employing bilingual/diverse kinds of health providers is a way of providing more equitable primary health care.

  • 36.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Practice and Policy in Promoting Health and Equity –experiences from a national project in primary health care in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Swedish Health Care Law requires the health system to provide good care on equal terms to all. However, several reports from different governmental agencies have revealed that health care is uneven in quality, lacking in accessibility, and not offered on equal terms to all people. Recent public health reports show that inequalities in health in the population have increased. To provide health care on equal terms has become a challenge for health care.

    In order to apply methods for developing practice and policy in promoting health and equity the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions developed and implemented a national project entitled Care on Equal Terms. The project began in 2011 and was completed in 2014 at seven Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) in five regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of this project.

    Methods: Based on a program theoretical approach an evaluation design was developed which included process, results and economical evaluation. In the data collection and analysis mixed methods were applied.

    Results: According to the process evaluation, seven different strategies were applied in the process to develop primary health care on equal terms. One of the key observations was that in order to achieve health on more equal terms, health care needs to be provided on unequal terms, i. e. more needs to be done to reach those who need more assistance to access health services. Health promotion was one of the applied strategies and it was the most common strategy at some of the health care centers with the aim of developing patients' knowledge, awareness and understanding about health, care and self-care. The results evaluation showed that the PHCUs staff identified structural and organizational factors in health care as important factors for developing health promotion and equity in access. The health economic evaluation showed that the costs for implementing the activities for an improved equity were limited. Yet the majority of the PHCUs thought that the detailed regulation of their financing and reporting requirements were a limitation in their work for improved equity. Four of five county councils have recently introduced a primary care provider payment system (ACG) which may not be supportive of efforts to improve equity in access.

    Conclusions: It is possible to develop and maintain practices that can contribute to more equitable care and increase health care personnel’s awareness about practice and policy in promoting health and equity.

  • 37.
    Akkurt, Nizamettin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Huuhka, Taru
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    RISK FÖR UTSATTHET HOS BARN OCH UNGDOMARMED FUNKTIONSNEDSÄTTNING2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study review was to examine risk for vulnerability of children and youth with disabilities and in which kind of environments. Three themes were discovered during the study and these were body functioning, activity and participation and surrounding factors. Earlier studies showed the different kinds of risks that children with disabilities could be vulnerable for and in what extent. The risks varied from physical, psychological and sexual abuse to bullying and less participation in various school- and out-of-school activities. The study was a systematic review which means to search, examine and compile existing literature of the topic at hand. The results showed that children with disabilities are at increased risk for different types of vulnerability in comparison to children without disabilities. It also showed that children with disabilities participate less in activities at school and out of school than children without disabilities and that home- and school environments did propose a risk for vulnerability. Girls with disabilities were overrepresented in the risk category of sexual abuse. Conclusions that could be drawn from this review were that socioeconomic factors had a relation with children with disabilities being or not being vulnerable.

  • 38.
    Alaa Josef, Dilan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Rahman, Sivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Upplevd arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse: Skiljer sig upplevelsen beroende på kön och ålder?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att kvinnor upplever högre arbetstillfredsställelse än män samt att äldre medarbetare är mer motiverade till arbete än yngre. Syftet med denna undersökning var att undersöka om det fanns några skillnader mellan anställdas upplevda arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse beroende på deras kön och ålder. Deltagare var 97 anställda från tre olika arbetsplatser som utgjordes av en grundskola, ett industriföretag samt en bilfirma i södra Sverige. 53 av deltagarna var män och 44 kvinnor. Åldersgrupperna bestod av 48 yngre (18-40 år) och 49 äldre (41-65 år) deltagare. Arbetsmotivation mättes med Basic Psychological Needs Scales och bestod av delskalorna autonomi, kompetens och samhörighet. Arbetstillfredsställelse mättes med Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire och i form av inre, yttre samt generell tillfredsställelse. Resultatet visade signifikanta skillnader mellan åldersgrupperna gällande både arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse men inga signifikanta skillnader mellan män och kvinnor.

  • 39.
    Alayed, Abdulrahman S.
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet Högskola, Sweden.
    Lööf, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Sophiahemmet Högskola, Sweden.
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Sophiahemmet Högskola, Sweden.
    Saudi Arabian ICU safety and nurses' attitudes2014In: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, ISSN 0952-6862, E-ISSN 1758-6542, Vol. 27, no 7, 581-593 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Albinsson, Angelica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sundkvist, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att ha det modigaste modet: En fenomenografisk intervjustudie om vårdkultur utifrån distriktssköterskors uppfattningar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Aldén, Anna
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Sweden.
    Gonzalez, Lorena
    University of Kalmar, Sweden.
    Persson, Anna
    Ellco Food, Sweden.
    Christensson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Ellco Food, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Olov
    ProLiff AB, Sweden.
    Ohlson, Sten
    University of Kalmar, Sweden.
    Porcine platelet lysate as a supplement for animal cell culture2007In: Cytotechnology (Dordrecht), ISSN 0920-9069, E-ISSN 1573-0778, Vol. 55, no 1, 3-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel supplementation of cell growth media based on a porcine platelet lysate was developed for culture of animal-derived cells. The platelet lysate was produced from porcine blood and contained lysate of platelets and plasma components. It showed satisfactory microbiological integrity and it carried only low amount of endotoxins (<10 EU/mL). The porcine platelet lysate supported well proliferation of Vero (African green monkey transformed kidney epithelial cells), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and hybridoma cells comparable to fetal bovine serum (FBS). Platelet lysate shows promise as a viable choice over FBS as it can be produced in large quantities, high lot-to-lot consistency and with an attractive price structure. Furthermore it is a strong alternative to FBS for ethical reasons. It is expected that it can be used as a general supplementation for most animal cells for research studies on the proliferation of cells and their expression of products.

  • 42.
    Alex, Thelin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att leva med dialys: En litteraturstudie om patienters förluster och begränsningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a large group of patients in Sweden that are treated due to their chronic renal failure.  Adequate kidney function is life essential and therefore dialysis will be initiated to compensate the kidneys deficiency among those patients. Haemodialysis is conducted at a dialysis clinic and patients go there for treatment 3 times a week in an average. Problem: For the individuals bound to dialysis it is likely that the treatment could lead to an obligate to adjust one’s life for the treatment. This adjustment could potentially create suffering due to limitations in life of the patient. Aim: The purpose was to create an overviewing understanding of patients’ experiences towards everyday life when treated with dialysis. Result: Patients undergoing dialysis experience that they are depending on other people. Patients expressed that they were restricted to a life where everything was experienced only through a patient perspective. Conclusions: Nursing recourses must be gathered against patient self-efficacy deficiency and motivation so that patient participates in care. Understanding patient’s experiences helps to identify self-efficacy deficiency. 

  • 43.
    Ali, Mona
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Make Every Mother Count: Maternal mortality in Malawi, India and United Kingdom2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is to examine and compare the maternal mortality in three different countries; Malawi, India and United Kingdom, as well as highlighting the attributing factors and preventive steps that would reduce the maternal mortality in these countries. Methods and material: The studied design that was chosen is an ecological study which means to study the relationship between aggregated health data and exposing factors, for example a geographical area and time period. The reason of choosing this study can be seen in the relationship and the factors that contribute to maternal mortality in Malawi, India and the United Kingdom. In order to attain the objective of the thesis a variety of sources were utilized to find data, statistics and scientific articles concerning maternal mortality in all three countries.Results and conclusion: Maternal mortality is the highest in Malawi and India, while it is very low in the United Kingdom when compared with these two countries. The result shows among other things that the maternal mortality is mainly caused by direct causes both in Malawi and India and in the United Kingdom the maternal mortality is mainly from indirect causes. It is also shown that the maternal mortality in these countries have been changed over the years. It is also shown that preventive steps such as family planning, skilled attendance, obstetric emergency care and antenatal care can significantly reduce the maternal mortality rate.

  • 44.
    Ali, Munira
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Tjernberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Delaktighet i vården: när det talas olika verbala språk2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Participation, caring relation and communication are three key concepts in

    health care. These are three factors that can affect the patients’ health process and their need

    to feel safe. Aim: To show nurse’s opportunities and obstacles to creating participation in the

    care relationship with patients when the same verbal language is not spoken. Method: The

    study was based on a qualitative analysis by Evans (2002) literature study that reflects the

    nurse's perspective. Result: What was considered to be presumptions for participation could

    be interpreter’s presence for the creation of participation in the caring relation. As a nurse to

    have knowledge of different cultures could be an advantage for participation in caring

    relation. What was considered to be obstacles to participation could be overcome by the use

    of nurses or relatives as interpreters. Language barrier and the lack of understanding of

    different cultures could make it difficult to create an individualized care. Conclusion: When

    a care relationship consists of good communication and interaction between nurses and

    patients it creates the conditions for participation. It is therefore important to access the

    resources that are necessary and enforce appropriate strategies.

  • 45.
    Ali, Warsan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Davidsson, Gisella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Att leva med två kulturer: Upplevelser hos andra generationens invandrare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Andra generationens invandrare slits enligt tidigare studier mellan två kulturella världar och ställs därav inför utmaningen att skapa en fungerande helhet mellan världarna. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vad upplevelsen av att tillhöra två kulturer kan betyda för självbilden hos andra generationens invandrare. Deltagarna var 10 kvinnor och fem män. Vi utgick ifrån ett hermeneutiskt perspektiv och intervjuerna transkriberades och tematiserades utifrån fokus på meningen. I resultatet redovisades tre huvudteman och 12 underteman. Resultatet för första huvudtemat visade att omgivningen har en inverkan på känslan av tillhörighet. För andra huvudtemat visade det sig att ha två kulturer bidrog med ett flertal faktorer som påverkade deltagarna. Sista huvudtemat visade att språket var en viktig del av självuppfattningen. Samtliga av dessa huvudteman kan tänkas ha påverkat självbilden både negativt och positivt. Resultatet visar bl.a. att omgivningen har en inverkan på självbilden och att deltagarna påverkades av hur de vill bli sedda.

  • 46.
    Aliyar, Hannah
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Anställdas upplevelser av förändringar i kommunal vård och omsrog2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Alkenius, Amanda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Johansson, Josefin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "Åldern tar ut sin rätt": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om äldre och fysisk aktivitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The older population is increasing in numbers. Several biopsychosocial factors are assumed to impact the older population’s physical activity level. The physiotherapist works with health promotion for older people primarily by promoting physical activity.

    Aim:

    From a biopsychosocial perspective describe factors that the older population living at home perceive as relevant to their physical activity level. Further to describe how the older population perceive that a physiotherapist can support their physical activity.

    Method:

    A qualitative, semi-structured interview study with an inductive approach was used. A purposive, convenience sampling resulted in five participants ≥80 years. The material was interpreted with qualitative content analysis and sorted into categories and subcategories.

    Result:

    Seven categories emerged for factors influencing the participant’s physical activity level: thoughts and feelings, tiredness/ weakness, bodily limitation, aging, physical environment, everyday demands and social environment. Four categories described how a physiotherapist can support the physical activity of the participants: motivate to physical activity, perform physical activity with a physiotherapist, give suggestions on physical activity and help to improve the physical functional capacity.

    Conclusion:

    The participant’s stories about factors influencing their physical activity level can be linked to the biopsychosocial paradigm. The participants had some difficulties describing how they perceived that a physiotherapist can support their physical activity, but several suggestions emerged. Future research should mainly focus on older people’s perception of how a physiotherapist can support physical activity.

  • 48.
    Alm, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Andersson, Louise
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sjuk och farlig?: Empati för och attityder till gärningsmän med psykisk störning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Almgren, Ylva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Tio kvinnors förmåga att berömma sig själva ur ett generationsperspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Expectations relating to childcare among French and Swedish families2007In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 10, no 1, 17-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how policy and values interrelate concerning expectations of childcare based on 80 interviews with 40 families with young children from France and Sweden, respectively. Upbringing, learning and socialization are important expectations among French parents. The results presented here are in line with educational goals that may have been influenced by policy. The findings suggest that France may, in terms of expectations on childcare, still belong to the conservative cluster as categorized by Esping-Andersen (1990), although family policy may differ from that of, for example, Germany and Italy in the same cluster. Swedish parents stress the importance of the individual child as well as pedagogy, thus, indicating compatibility between a parental wish for the individual development of the child and an emphasis on collective care in Swedish family policy.

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