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  • 1.
    Ali, Mona
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Make Every Mother Count: Maternal mortality in Malawi, India and United Kingdom2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is to examine and compare the maternal mortality in three different countries; Malawi, India and United Kingdom, as well as highlighting the attributing factors and preventive steps that would reduce the maternal mortality in these countries. Methods and material: The studied design that was chosen is an ecological study which means to study the relationship between aggregated health data and exposing factors, for example a geographical area and time period. The reason of choosing this study can be seen in the relationship and the factors that contribute to maternal mortality in Malawi, India and the United Kingdom. In order to attain the objective of the thesis a variety of sources were utilized to find data, statistics and scientific articles concerning maternal mortality in all three countries.Results and conclusion: Maternal mortality is the highest in Malawi and India, while it is very low in the United Kingdom when compared with these two countries. The result shows among other things that the maternal mortality is mainly caused by direct causes both in Malawi and India and in the United Kingdom the maternal mortality is mainly from indirect causes. It is also shown that the maternal mortality in these countries have been changed over the years. It is also shown that preventive steps such as family planning, skilled attendance, obstetric emergency care and antenatal care can significantly reduce the maternal mortality rate.

  • 2. Altman, D.
    et al.
    Ragnar, Inga
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Eksrom, A.
    Tydén, T.
    Olsson, S-E.
    Anal sphincter lacerations and upright delivery postures: a risk analysis from a randomized controlled trial.2007In: International Urogynecology Journal, ISSN 0937-3462, E-ISSN 1433-3023, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 141-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate obstetric sphincter lacerations after a kneeling or sitting position at second stage of labor in a multivariate risk analysis model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-one primiparous women with normal pregnancies and spontaneous labor were randomized, 138 to a kneeling position and 133 to a sitting position. Medical data were retrieved from delivery charts and partograms. Risk factors were tested in a multivariate logistic regression model in a stepwise manner. RESULTS: The trial was completed by 106 subjects in the kneeling group and 112 subjects in the sitting group. There were no significant differences with regard to duration of second stage of labor or pre-trial maternal characteristics between the two groups. Obstetrical sphincter tears did not differ significantly between the two groups but an intact perineum was more common in the kneeling group (p<0.03) and episiotomy (mediolateral) was more common in the sitting group (p<0.05). Three grade IV sphincter lacerations occurred in the sitting group compared to none in the kneeling group (NS). Multivariate risk analysis indicated that prolonged duration of second stage of labor and episiotomy were associated with an increased risk of third- or fourth-degree sphincter tears (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Delivery posture, maternal age, fetal weight, use of oxytocin, and use of epidural analgesia did not increase the risk of obstetrical anal sphincter lacerations in the two upright postures. CONCLUSION: Obstetrical anal sphincter lacerations did not differ significantly between a kneeling or sitting upright delivery posture. Episiotomy was more common after a sitting delivery posture, which may be associated with an increased risk of anal sphincter lacerations. Upright delivery postures may be encouraged in healthy women with normal, full-term pregnancy.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjärås, Gunilla
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A longitudinal assessment of inter-sectoral participation in a community-based diabetes prevention programme2005In: Social Sciences & Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 2407-2422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the development of inter-sectoral participation in the three intervention municipalities of Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme (SDPP) case studies with a longitudinal assessment were conducted using the spidergram method, document analysis and group discussions. At three time points, the members of the local steering committees assessed the extent of participation from narrow to wide inter-sectoral participation in five key areas: planning, resources, leadership, network and implementation. Wide participation of various interest groups was recognised in planning and implementing activities whereas local resources, the representation of the leadership and the extent of the network were perceived as more restricted. Expert involvement varied during the programme period but was not regarded as exerting control over the local programmes. Participation within the local steering committees decreased, with a stronger focus on the project co-ordinator and other local partners in latter years. The extent of partner engagement increased due to focusing on activities approaching multi-sector collaboration and institutionalisation. Overall, communication and shared responsibility appeared critical in influencing both the development and perception of participation. In conclusion, to understand the dynamic process of participation at different times, areas and levels, the development and use of evaluation designs combining different methods and information sources throughout the lifespan of a project are recommended. 

  • 4. Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Bjärås, Gunilla
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    J Health Communication,
    12.
    Local media monitoring in process evaluation. Experiences from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme.2007In: J Health Communication, Vol. 12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andersson, P
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Men of low socio-economic and educational level possess pronounced deficient knowledge about the risk factors related to coronary heart disease2001In: Journal of Cardiovascular Risk, ISSN 1350-6277, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine whether certain background factors such as gender, education and social status were associated with an individual's knowledge of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors.

    Design: A questionnaire survey.

    Methods: A questionnaire survey designed to evaluate participants' general knowledge about the risk factors for CHD was used. A total of 1011 50-year-old individuals (457 men and 554 women) from 34 Health Care Centers participated in the study.

    Results: Knowledge about CHD risk factors was significantly poorer in men than in women. Low education and low socio-economic status were other factors related to poor knowledge of CHD risk factors.

    Conclusion: This study showed that men with low educational level and low socio-economic status had inadequate information about the risk factors involved in CHD.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Predicting Health Behaviour - Population-Based Studies of Knowledge and Behaviour Related to Cardiovascular Diseases.2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Leppert, J.
    Lags in behavioral change: A population based comparison of cardiovascular risk behavior in Poland and Sweden .2004In: 13th National Conference of Healthy Cities Association, Health and Welfare Division of the Municipality of Wroclaw City ., 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, RL.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Krysa, M.
    Municipality of Wroclaw City, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Sidorowicz, W.
    Municipality of Wroclaw City, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Öhrvik, J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lags in behavioral change:: A population based comparison of cardiovascular risk behavior in Poland and Sweden2006In: Central European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1210-7778, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 82-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One thousand and twenty Polish men and women and 1,011 Swedish men and women aged 50 and recruited through primary health care took part in a survey relating to their knowledge of health-related behaviour, attitudes to health-related behaviour and self-reported risk behaviour. The results reveal that Poles know as much about cardiovascular risk factors as Swedes, but that Swedes feel that it is more important to change their dietary habits and to influence factors in the working environment to avoid the risk of developing CVD than did Poles. Swedes also displayed less risk behaviour than Poles and more Swedes than Poles had successfully stopped smoking. These findings suggest that differences in stages of health-related behavior that have previously been observed at an individual level may sometimes also be discerned at a national level.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, RL.
    Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Öhrvik, J.
    Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors among obese individuals2006In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 275-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important biological risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The main aim of this study was to answer the question whether obese individuals differ from individuals with normal weight with regard to knowledge about risk factors for CVD. A further aim was to replicate previous findings that obese individuals are at higher risk of developing other biological risk factors for CVD. METHOD: Normal weights, BMI<25 kg/m(2) (n=385), and obese, BMI> or =30 kg/m(2) (n=159), individuals were identified from a screening program conducted among 50-year-old inhabitants of the County of Västmanland, Sweden. Participants answered questions regarding their gender, level of education, and items relating to knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors. Total cholesterol and blood glucose levels, height, weight and blood pressure were measured. RESULTS: Obese individuals did not differ significantly from individuals with a normal weight regarding knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors when education was controlled for. Obesity and low level of education are associated with other risk factors for CVD such as high blood pressure and high serum cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Obese individuals are at an increased risk of developing other risk factors for CVD but are just as knowledgeable about risk factors for CVD as normal weighting individuals.

  • 10.
    Asp, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The woven fabric: - a metaphor of nursing care: the major subject in nursing education2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Society's future needs regarding health care present challenges to traditional nursing education. Today, the ambition is to create a nursing role that is appropriate to people's health care needs rather than the needs of the health care system. In nursing education, the major subject - nursing care - is central. Accordingly, there is a need for a consistent and clear articulation of this subject as well as the nursing profession. The aim of the present study was to interpret and describe the major subject, its content and structure in the nursing programme at Malardalen University. With a hermeneutic approach an interpretation and application emerged as a metaphor of nursing care - the woven fabric. In this structure concepts function as bridges linking theory and practice, whereby it is possible to integrate different aspects of knowledge in order to think, feel and act nursing care.

  • 11.
    Bentling, Sonia
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Demokrati. Även det ett kulturbegrepp ?2006Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bentling, Sonia
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Internationalisation in Higer Education. Political goals, cultures of profession and education .Education Widens Democracy- or?.2006In: Internationalisation in Higer Education. Political goals, cultures of profession and education . NFPF/NERA 34 congress., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    A Swedish study on temps: Insecure psychological contract, but willing to stay2008In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 43, no 3-4, p. 44-44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14. Björkman, Gunilla
    et al.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Rosander, Reine
    Högskoleutbildning i medicinsk bildvetenskap: Nytt utbildningsprogram ersätter tidigare radiolog- och fysiologlinjer2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 97, no 40, p. 4488-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Blom, H.
    et al.
    Haglund, B.J.A.
    Sjögren, K.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Tranquist, J.
    Sätt Bergslagen i rörelse –: Kommunenkäten 2001. Teknisk rapport med resultat.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Blomgren, KB.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Sundström, A.
    Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Steineck, G.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiholm, B-E.
    Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Interviewer Variability: Quality aspects in a case-control study.2006In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality assurance and quality control are important for the reliability of case-control studies. Here we describe the procedures used in a previously published study, with emphasis on interviewer variability. To evaluate risk factors for acute pancreatitis, information including previous diagnoses and medication was collected from medical records and by telephone interviews from 462 cases and 1781 controls. Quality assurance procedures included education and training of interviewers and data validity checks. Quality control included a classification test, annual test interviews, expert case validation, and database validation. We found pronounced variations between interviewers. The maximal number of interviews per day varied from 3 to 9. The adjusted average (95% CI) number of diagnoses captured per interview of cases was 4.1 (3.8-4.3) and of controls 3.5 (3.4-3.7) (excluding one deviating interviewer). For drugs, the average (95% CI) number per interview was 3.9 (3.7-4.1) for cases and 3.3 (3.2-3.4) for controls (excluding one deviating interviewer). One of the fourteen interviewers deviated significantly from the others, and more so for controls than for cases. This interviewer's data ;were excluded. Nonetheless, data concerning controls more frequently needed correction and supplementation than for cases. Erroneous coding of diagnoses and medication was also more frequent among controls. Thus, a system for quality control of coding practices is crucial. Variability in interviewers' ability to ascertain information is a possible source of bias in interview-based case-control studies when "blinding" cannot be achieved.

  • 17. Borgstedt-Risberg, M
    et al.
    Holmberg, T
    Nettelbladt, P
    Noorlind Brage, H
    Wenemark,
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Östgötens psykiska hälsa: Kommunrapport om självskattad psykisk hälsa.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bristell, Linn
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Hälsofrämjande genom medarbetarsamtal –: Fokusgruppsintervjuer i kommunal verksamhet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The majority of the adult population is present in working life and the workplace is therefore an important setting in the efforts to improve public health. In the organizations’ day-to-day work to improve the work environment it is possible to use performance appraisal that aims to increase the understanding for the organization’s commissions and to increase the employees’ participation. Aim: To study directors and coworkers experiences about how work environment and lifestyle are discussed and managed during performance appraisal. Method: Four focus groups where performed with directors and co-workers from different units at proAros. Result: Objectives, strategies, development, and a united direction in the organization were discussed as important for performance appraisals. Leadership, support and encouragement, participation, the own responsibility and how objectives, demands are adjusted to the existing situation were factors that were experienced to influence performance appraisal. Concerning the work environment was the comfort in the team and how the cooperation worked the foremost subjects that were discussed. Concerning lifestyle were the organisation’s health work, the responsibility for your own health and the balance between working life and leisure time discussed. Conclusion: The physical work environment is still important for the employees’ health as the units of proAros to a great extent consist of human services with a high workload. The question of how to find a balance is important for the work related health and therefore should the awareness of it be enlarged. The health promoting work should therefore also be integrated in performance appraisals.

  • 19.
    Brunnström, G
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Sörensen, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Alsterstad, K.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Sjöstrand, J.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Quality of light and quality of life: - the effect of lighting adaption among people with low vision.2004In: Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians, ISSN 0275-5408, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 274-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The study has investigated the effect of lighting on the daily activities (ADL) of the visually impaired in their homes by comparison before and after light adjustments were made in the kitchen, hall and bathroom. It has also investigated the additional effects on the quality of life after providing task lighting in the living room. METHOD: A total of 56 people were consecutively recruited from those receiving lighting adaptation help by the Low Vision Clinic in Göteborg. Ten persons did not complete the study. After medical examinations, lighting standards and psychosocial factors were charted. After lighting improvements were carried out in the kitchen, hall and bathroom, the subjects were randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and a comparison group. The task lighting in the living room was also improved for those included in the intervention group. Follow-up interviews to determine ADL and quality of life were performed 6 months after lighting adaptation. RESULTS: A marked effect on quality of life of the lighting in the living room was found for the intervention group. The effect on ADL of the basic lighting adaptation in kitchen, hall and bathroom for both groups was significant for tasks carried out on the working surface in the kitchen. Other activities in the kitchen and in the bathroom tended to improve but changes were not significant. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that it is possible to increase quality of life by improving the lighting conditions.

  • 20. Carlsson, S.
    et al.
    Eriksson, L.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Haglund, BJA.
    Evaluation Issues on implementation of a Swedish National Tobacco Policy year 2002-2004.2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Att utbilda framtidens sjuksköterska2000In: JönköpingspostenArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Cernerud, Lars
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Child and Adolescent Public Health.2006In: Abstract 1.7. Maastricht, XXVIII ASPHER Annual Conference. September 17, 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. FOLKHÄLSOVETENSKAP.
    Investerar verkligen Vasaloppsåkare i sin hälsa?2007In: LÄKARTIDNINGEN, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 104, no 11, p. 877-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Cernerud, Lars
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Lessons learnt2004In: BRIMHEALTH: Baltic rim partnership for public health 1993-2003, Göteborg: Nordiska högsk. för folkhälsovetenskap , 2004, p. 77-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. FOLKHÄLSOVETENSKAP.
    Meeting emerging changes in public health perspective: Key Note Speech2004In: Caltanisetta: XXVI ASPHER Annual Conference, 2004: Key note speech, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    NHV - en nordisk högskola i takt med tiden2004In: NHV - en nordisk högskola för folkhälsovetenskap, Nordiska högskolan för folkhälsovetenskap , 2004, p. 71-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    SALUTOGENIC EFFECTS OF MUSIC2007In: 29 th ASPHER Annual Conference 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. FOLKHÄLSOVETENSKAP.
    Slutreplik: Vi är eniga om att fysisk aktivitet är hälsofrämjande2007In: LÄKARTIDNINGEN, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 104, no 14-15, p. 1164-1165Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Keller, Christina
    Modeller för kvalitetsbedömning av högskoleutbildningar i folkhälsovetenskap2000In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 77, p. 122-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    OLSSON, HENNY
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Humour seen from a public health perspective2004In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, ISSN 1403-4948, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 396-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humour is to be regarded as a salutogenic factor. As with other such factors there are reasons to believe that humour is a part of the individual's personality with the possibility of being strengthened by influences from the family, school, and workplace. The use of humour in population-based health promotive intervention strategies is a field lacking evidence-based knowledge.

  • 31.
    Cernerud, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Wramner, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Samarbete med företagshälsovården kan förbättra skolans miljö2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 103, no 44, p. 3387-3388Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odberg Pettersson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bugalho, A.
    Maputo Central Hospital, Mozambique.
    Cunha, M.M.
    Maputo Central Hospital, Mozambique.
    Dgedge, C.
    Maputo Central Hospital, Mozambique.
    Johansson, E.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergstrom, S.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The challenge of improving perinatal care in settings with limited resources: Observations of midwifery practices in Mozambique2006In: African Journal of Reproductive Health, ISSN 1118-4841, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 47-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to observe and analyse midwifery care routines related to asphyxia and hypothermia during the perinatal period and to investigate the effect of an in-service education program. A direct non-participant pre- and post-intervention observation study of midwifery a performance during childbirth was conducted at a labour ward in Maputo. The observed groups consisted of 702 and 616 midwifery-attended deliveries. Examination was also conducted of the partographs (702 vs. 616). The quality of midwifery care related to prevention and early detection of asphyxia and hypothermia was found to be inadequate and the intervention had no significant effect upon the midwives' performances. This could be attributed to the quality of the intervention itself or to failure of implementing managerial decisions such as transfer of partograph documentation from obstetricians to midwives. Change in professional performance does not automatically follow awareness of evidence-based midwifery practices, but requires behavioural change, which may be more difficult to achieve.

  • 33. Christina, Keller
    et al.
    LARS, CERNERUD
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Acceptance of e-learning environments in public health education: A comparative study in Sweden, Norway and lithuania2007In: XXXIX ASPHER Annual Conference in Valencia 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Theme: Research

    Authors:

    PhD Candidate, Christina Keller, MSc , Department of Informatics, Jönköping International Business School, PO Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden

    Associate Professor, Lars Cernerud, MD, MPH, PhD, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences, Mälardalen University, PO Box 883, SE-721 23 Västerås, Sweden

    Title: Acceptance of e-learning environments in public health education: a comparative study in Sweden, Norway and Lithuania

    Objectives: The objectives of the research study were to explore factors influencing acceptance of e-learning environments among academic staff and students in public health education.

    Introduction: A cross-cultural study was performed at public health departments at three European universities: in Sweden, Norway and Lithuania. At all three universities, e-learning environments were used in public health courses and programs to provide distance learning in a blended learning environment. Before and between lectures and seminars on campus, the e-learning environment was used for storage and retrieval of course material, group work and posting of assignments. The degrees of acceptance of the e-learning environment were estimated by performing interviews with academic staff and distributing a students’ survey questionnaire.

    Results: The findings of the study revealed substantial differences in degrees of acceptance between the universities. The lowest degree of acceptance was found at the Swedish university, due to an organizational culture depicting teaching face-to-face on campus as an indispensable part of public health education. The highest degree of acceptance were found at the Lithuanian university, where the e-learning environment was considered as a means of better communication with students and an important tool for collaboration with other educational institutions. At the Norwegian university, the acceptance of the e-learning environment initially was hampered by the notion of “academic freedom”, which was brought up as an excuse for academic staff to resist organizational change. However, the resistance gradually failed and the acceptance of the e-learning environment increased.

    Conclusions and discussion: The considerable differences between the three European universities could be explained by differences in organizational culture and national culture. At the two Scandinavian universities, there was skepticism of change inherent in the organizational culture. At the Lithuanian university, the organizational culture portrayed innovations to be something positive.

    Keywords: E-learning, Public Health Education, organisational culture, national culture

  • 34.
    Dahlberg, Karin
    et al.
    Växjo universitet, IVOSA.
    Summer Meranius, Martina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    The relevance of Merlarleau-Ponty`s philosophy for the understanding of health and health science methodology.2008In: 5th central and Eastern European Conference on Phenomenology.: "Corporeity and affectivity" in celebration of Merlau-Ponty`s 100th birthday., 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Edlund, Margareta
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Development of the concept dignity.2005In: The Sixth International Interdisciplinary Conference Advances In Qualitative Methods, february 17–20. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada., 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Edlund, Margareta
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Värdighet – ett grundbegrepp i vårdvetenskapen2004In: Nordic College of Caring Science’ (NCCS) konferens, 25-27mars., 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37. Ekenvall, L.
    et al.
    Kjellberg, K.
    Wennerstein, M.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av SASSAM som metod för bedömning av arbetsförmåga och rehabiliteringsbehov i svensk företagshälsovård2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lived experiences of the time preceding burnout2005In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper reports a study to illuminate the complex interaction between person and their life world during the burnout development period. BACKGROUND: Burnout is a construct describing the psychological state resulting from ineffective strategies for coping with enduring stress in both client and non-client work. Role conflict and role ambiguity, or long-term stress and frustration caused by strain in daily life, promote or exacerbate burnout, indicating that the person's entire life world is involved. There is still a lack of description of lived experiences of the time preceding manifest burnout. METHOD: Data were collected from interviews with eight people suffering from burnout and analysed using a phenomenological method. FINDINGS: The essential meaning of the phenomenon of burnout is understood as being trapped with stimulating challenges as a self-nourishing drive on one side and with responsibilities and demands on the other. This essence can be illuminated by its eight constituents: inner incentive, feeling responsible, threatened self-image, cutting off, bodily manifestations, psychological manifestations, fatigue and reaching the bottom line. CONCLUSIONS: The lived experiences of the time preceding manifest burnout are an ambiguous struggle. Cutting off is understood as a mean to shelter the threatened self-image in a state of vulnerability and weakened strength. Accordingly, a better understanding of how to reach behind the defence of 'cutting off' and thus help to open up for consolation and self-acceptance is an essential skill for nurses, health care professionals and others encountering the burnout sufferers. Furthermore this study illuminates early signs of burnout and an important issue is how to strengthen the individuals' ability to shelter their need for recovery and restitution.

  • 39.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Homosociala relationer bland män i vårdyrken -: formandet av yrkesidentitet som sjuksköterska.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Tarzan and Jane in theoretical Jungle - An ethnographic study of different representations of masculinities in Nursing Practice.: Presentation av paper.2004In: NFPS''s kongress. Reykjavik, Island, 11-13 mars 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 41.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Sewdish Male Population.: Prevalence, Distress and Quality of Life.2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Urinläckage ger försämrad livskvalité hos män.: Poster2004In: Nationella Forskarskolan, Stockholm. Mälardalens Högskola, Västerås., 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 43.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Henningsohn, L.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Steineck, G.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Self-assessed health, sadness and happiness in relation to the total burden of symptoms from the lower urinary tract2005In: BJU International, Vol. 95, no 6, p. 810-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on self-assessed health, sadness and happiness of men. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 504 men (aged 40-80 years) in the rural community of Surahammar, Sweden, who a year earlier had reported stress incontinence, urgency or postvoid dribbling in answer to a postal questionnaire, and 504 age-matched control men from the same community. The occurrence of 12 specific LUTS was rated using the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score. Health, sadness and happiness were measured by three questions from the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 health survey questionnaire. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were returned by 74.2% of men (748/1008). A low score for health was reported by 34% of men with one to four LUTS, by 67% with five to eight, and by 75% with nine or more LUTS. The total LUTS burden correlated with lower scores for happiness and with higher scores for sadness. For each of the 12 specific LUTS, men with the symptom had lower scores for health and happiness, and higher scores for sadness, than men without the symptom. Comparing men with the symptom of 'other incontinence' to men with no 'other incontinence', the relative risk (95% confidence interval) of impaired health was 2.2 (1.8-2.8), while that of a high score for happiness was 0.5 (0.3-0.7) and that of greater sadness was 2.3 (1.7-3.3). Social status, marital status, education, smoking, physical activity and urinary tract infection all affected the impact of LUTS. CONCLUSIONS: The total burden of LUTS is related to self-assessed health, sadness and happiness.

  • 44.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Henningsohn, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Walker-Engström, M-L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden .
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden .
    Impact on quality of life of different lower urinary tract symptoms in men measured by means of the SF 36 questionnaire2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 485-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how different lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) affect the quality of life (QOL) in men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 1008 men aged 40-80 years living in the community of Surahammar, Sweden who had answered a questionnaire concerning stress incontinence, urgency and post-micturition dribbling 12 months earlier. The occurrence and severity/frequency of 12 specific LUTS were assessed using the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score questionnaire. QOL was evaluated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. RESULTS: Post-micturition dribbling was the most frequently reported symptom (71%) and stress incontinence the least common (11%). Men who experienced urge, stress or "other incontinence" had lower mean scores for all of the eight dimensions measured by the SF-36 than men without such symptoms. Furthermore, men who experienced a moderate/severe degree of weak stream or nocturia reported a poorer QOL for all dimensions compared to men with a mild level of the same symptoms. QOL was found to decrease with increasing age. Men aged 66-80 years with "other incontinence" reported lower mean SF-36 scores for physical functioning, role physical, role emotional, social functioning and body pain than 40-65-year-old men. CONCLUSIONS: LUTS in men affect QOL dimensions differently. Storage symptoms appear to reduce QOL more than voiding and post-micturition symptoms. Urinary incontinence affected all eight of the dimensions evaluated. Elderly men with LUTS reported a lower QOL than younger men.

  • 45.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Leppert, J.
    Var 4:e man i Surahammar har urininkontinens. Urinvägsinfektion hos män kan leda till urininkontinens: Poster2004In: Nationella Forskarskolan, Stockholm Mälardalens Högskola, Västerås., 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 46.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Walker-Engström, M.L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Henningsohn, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lööf, L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prevalence of distress and symptom severity from the lower urinary tract in men: a population-based study with the DAN-PSS questionnaire2004In: Family Practie, ISSN 0263-2136, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 617-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common and costly public health issue. The prevalence varies greatly in published reports. The distress caused by each symptom is important to assess the primary care required before therapeutic decisions or a referral to an urologist are made. OBJECTIVES: LUTS are highly prevalent in men, but less is known regarding the distress caused by each symptom. The aim of this study was to examine symptom severity and different levels of distress using the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS) questionnaire in men affected by symptoms from the lower urinary tract. METHODS: The study included all men aged 41-81 years (n=504) that, 12 months earlier in a population-based survey, had reported stress incontinence, urgency or post-micturition dribbling in a postal questionnaire. The DAN-PSS questionnaire was used to measure severity and distress from LUTS. RESULTS: In total, 311 (80%) of the 387 responders who reported at least one symptom experienced some level of distress. The most distressing symptom overall was urinary incontinence. Nine of 10 men with storage symptoms (stress, urge and 'other' urinary incontinence) reported distress even if the symptom occurred only seldom. Moreover, two-thirds of the men with the most frequent symptom, post-micturition dribbling, characterized their symptom as moderate or severe; the most distressing voiding symptom was weak stream. In general, LUTS were well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Urge incontinence was the most distressing LUTS even when occurring only seldom. The DAN-PSS questionnaire may be a potentially useful tool for health professionals to identify patients with pronounced distress from LUTS to offer therapeutic and nursing care on the relevant level.

  • 47.
    Enlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Sevofluran-sedering. Seminarium2006In: Svensk Förening för Anestesi & Intensivvård, Årsmöte, Örebro. 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 48.
    Enlund, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Jansson, P.
    AEP and Entropy responses to marked changes in sevoflurane concentration - a ceiling effect?2006In: International Anesthesia Research Society 80th Clinical and Scientific congress, San Francisco, USA Anesth Analg 2006;102:Suppl:S160., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Enlund, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Kietzmann, D.
    Bouillon, T.
    Züchner, K.
    Meineke, I.
    Population Pharmacokinetics of Sevoflurane in Conjuction with the AnaConDa®.: Towards Target Controlled Infusion of Volatiles into Semi-open Breathing Systems.2006In: American Society of Anesthesiologists, Annual meeting, Chicago ,USA. Anesthesiology, 2006;105:A1569., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Ericson, Pernilla
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Relationen-i nöd och lust: En intervjustudie av familjerådgivare om parrelationen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har i vårt samhälle idag en hög skilsmässostatistik. Individerna i parrelationer har problem att fungera tillsammans på ett tillfredställande sätt. Denna studie baseras på intervjuer med familjerådgivare som hanterar par som har problem i relationen. I undersökningen har jag valt att försöka svara på vad som familjerådgivaren anser kunna skapa höga förväntningar på relationen samt hur dessa förväntningar påverkar relationen. Den belyser även de aspekter som är viktiga för att en relation skall fungera och vad familjerådgivaren kan göra för par som har problem i relationen. Som teoretisk utgångspunkt till undersökningen har Giddens teori om den rena relationen använts. Resultatet visar att par som söker hjälp hos familjerådgivarna har svårt att få tid till att arbeta och underhålla sin relation. Slitningar som barn och ekonomiska bekymmer är vanliga. Undersökningen visar även att jämställdhet är att eftersträva för att relationen skall hålla en god balans. Den mans och kvinnoroll som finns i samhället påverkar också mannens och kvinnans förväntningar på varandra. Resultatet visar att par framför allt har svårigheter att kommunicera med varandra.

    Nyckelord: relationer, ”rena relationer”, problem, kommunikation, familjerådgivare.

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