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  • 1.
    Russnes, Kjell M.
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Clin Canc Surg & Transplantat, N-03803 Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Inst Basic Med Sci, Sognsvannsveien 9, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Moller, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wilson, Kathryn M.
    Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Channing Labs, 181 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Carlsen, Monica
    Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Inst Basic Med Sci, Sognsvannsveien 9, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Blomhoff, Rune
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Clin Canc Surg & Transplantat, N-03803 Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Inst Basic Med Sci, Sognsvannsveien 9, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Smeland, Sigbjorn
    Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Inst Basic Med Sci, Sognsvannsveien 9, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gronberg, Henrik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mucci, Lorelei A.
    Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Channing Labs, 181 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Bälter, Katarina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. A case control study2016In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 16, article id 438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The total intake of dietary antioxidants may reduce prostate cancer risk but available data are sparse and the possible role of supplements unclear. We investigated the potential association between total and dietary antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in a Swedish population. Methods: We used FFQ data from 1499 cases and 1112 controls in the population based case-control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). The ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay was used to assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of diet and supplements. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of prostate cancer across quintiles of antioxidant intake from all foods, from fruit and vegetables only, and from dietary supplements using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Coffee comprised 62 % of the dietary antioxidant intake, tea 4 %, berries 4 %, chocolate 2 %, and boiled potatoes 2 %. In total 19 % and 13 % of the population took multivitamins and supplemental Vitamin C respectively, on a regular basis. Antioxidant intake from all foods and from fruits and vegetables separately measured by the FRAP assay was not associated with prostate cancer risk. For antioxidant intake from supplements we found a positive association with total, advanced, localized, high grade and low grade prostate cancer in those above median supplemental TAC intake of users compared to non-users (Adjusted ORs for total prostate cancer: 1. 37, 95 % CI 1.08-1.73, advanced: 1.51, 95 % CI 1.11-2.06, localized: 1.36. 95 % CI 1.06-1.76, high grade 1.60, 95 % CI 1.06-2.40, low grade 1.36, 95 % CI 1.03-1.81). A high intake of coffee (>= 6 cups/day) was associated with a possible risk reduction of fatal and significantly with reduced risk for high grade prostate cancer, adjusted OR: 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.22-0.90), whereas a high intake of chocolate was positively associated with risk of total, advanced, localized and low grade disease (adjusted OR for total: 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12-1.82, advanced: 1.40, 95 % CI 1.01-1.96, localized: 1.43, 95 % CI 1.08-1.88, low-grade: 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03-1.93). Conclusions: Total antioxidant intake from diet was not associated with prostate cancer risk. Supplement use may be associated with greater risk of disease.

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