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  • 1.
    Jonsson, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kimmo, Eriksson
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sjöstrand, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Limit shapes of stable configurations of a generalized Bulgarian solitaireIn: Order, ISSN 0167-8094, E-ISSN 1572-9273, ISSN 0167-8094Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bulgarian solitaire is played on n cards divided into several piles; a move consists of picking one card from each pile to form a new pile. In a recent generalization, -Bulgarian solitaire,  the number of cards you pick from a pile is some function  of the pile size, such that you pick cards from a pile of size h. Here we consider a special class of such functions. Let us call  well-behaved if  and if both  and  are non-decreasing functions of h. Well-behaved -Bulgarian solitaire has a geometric interpretation in terms of layers at certain levels being picked in each move. It also satisfies that if a stable configuration of n cards exists it is unique. Moreover, if piles are sorted in order of decreasing size () then a configuration is convex if and only if it is a stable configuration of some well-behaved  -Bulgarian solitaire. If sorted configurations are represented by Young diagrams and scaled down to have unit height and unit area, the stable configurations corresponding to an infinite sequence of well-behaved functions () may tend to a limit shape . We show that every convex  with certain properties can arise as the limit shape of some sequence of well-behaved . For the special case when  for , these limit shapes are triangular (in case ), or exponential (in case ), or interpolating between these shapes (in case ).

  • 2.
    Jonsson, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kimmo, Eriksson
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sjöstrand, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Sweden.
    Markov chains on graded posets: Compatibility of up-directed and down-directed transition probabilities2018In: Order, ISSN 0167-8094, E-ISSN 1572-9273, ISSN 0167-8094, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider two types of discrete-time Markov chains where thestate space is a graded poset and the transitionsare taken along the covering relations in the poset. The first type of Markov chain goes only in one direction, either up or down in the poset (an up chain or down chain). The second type toggles between two adjacent rank levels (an up-and-down chain). We introduce two compatibility concepts between the up-directed transition probabilities (an up rule) and the down-directed(a down rule), and we relate these to compatibility betweenup-and-down chains. This framework is used to prove a conjecture about a limit shape for a process on Young's lattice. Finally, we settle the questions whether the reverse of an up chain is a down chain for some down rule and whether there exists an up or down chain at all if the rank function is not bounded.

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