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  • 1.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Alternative Pathways to a Fossil-Fuel Free Energy System in the Mälardalen region of Sweden2007In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 1226-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on alternative pathways to a fossil-fuel free regional energy system in the Mälardalen region of Sweden with a population of 3 million inhabitants. We describe and address how the region can be made independent of fossil fuels by integration of resource management, technology advances, and behaviour change in energy use. First we investigate the consumption pattern of the inhabitants. Then we study what resources are available, and how these can be used to fulfil the different demands. If we just use the resources in a pattern of business as usual today without changing the behaviour, the balance between demands and resources is difficult to reach. By combining a slightly different behaviour and a change of crops we can fulfil the needs and it might even be possible to have a surplus of resources. Some advanced technological solutions have also been proposed. For example, dedicated biomass energy plants such as Salix, straw, hemp and some cereals can be used for ethanol production and the residues can be gasified to produce dimethylether (DME), which is good as a replacement for diesel fuel. Still the fueldemand for transport is high, and the vehicle weight could be further reduced. For example, by going back to the car size we had only 10 years ago the weight would be 25-30% less, and fuelconsumption would be at least 15% lower. With diesel engines instead of Otto engines the fuel consumption could be reduced by 35%, and with hybrid technology additional 20% fuel reduction could be gained. Improved public transportation will also give a positive effect especially for those commuting between the larger cities and between the cities and the suburbs. The results of our calculations show that it would be possible to accomplish a fossil-free energy system in the Mälardalen region. The results of this study are important since it shows that an energy balance without fossil fuels could be possible for an area with a population in the order of 3 million people, which would also be valuable in studies of other areas in the world.

  • 2.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Techno-economic analysis of an integrated biorefinery system for poly-generation of power, heat, pellets and bioethanol2014In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethanol is an alternative to fossil fuels in the transportation sector. The use of pellet for heating is also an efficient way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This paper evaluates the techno-economic performance of a biorefinery system in which an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant is integrated with the production of bioethanol and pellet using straw as feedstock. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process is used for bioethanol production, and two different drying technologies are applied to dry hydrolysis solid residues. A sensitivity analysis is performed on critical parameters such as the bioethanol selling price and feedstock price. The bioethanol production cost is also calculated for two cases with either 10 year or 15 year payback times. The results show that the second case is currently a more feasible economic configuration and reduces production costs by 36.4%-77.3% compared to other types of poly-generation plants that are not integrated into existing CHP plants. 

  • 3.
    Johannes, Schmidt
    et al.
    Doctoral School Sustainable Development, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter Jordan StraBe 82,.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Schmid, Erwin
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, FeistmantelstraBe 4,.
    Potential of biomass-fired combined heat and power plants considering the spatial distribution of biomass supply and heat demand2010In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 970-985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined heat and power (CHP) plants fired by forest wood can significantly contribute to attaining the target of increasingthe share of renewable energy production. However, the spatial distribution of biomass supply and of heat demand limits thepotentials of CHP production. This article assesses CHP potentials using a mixed integer programming model that optimizeslocations of bioenergy plants. Investment costs of district heating infrastructure are modeled as a function of heat demanddensities, which can differ substantially. Gasification of biomass in a combined cycle process is assumed as productiontechnology. Some model parameters have a broad range according to a literature review. Monte-Carlo simulations havetherefore been performed to account for model parameter uncertainty in our analysis. The model is applied to assess CHPpotentials in Austria. Optimal locations of plants are clustered around big cities in the east of the country. At current powerprices, biomass-based CHP production allows producing around 3% of the total energy demand in Austria. Yet, the heatutilization decreases when CHP production increases due to limited heat demand that is suitable for district heating.Production potentials are most sensitive to biomass costs and power prices.

  • 4. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Schwab, Dagmar
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Schmid, Erwin
    Obersteiner, Michael
    Optimal location of wood gasification plants for methanol production with heat recovery2008In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1080-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second generation biofuels from wood gasification are thought to become competitive in the face of effective climate and energy security policies. Cost competitiveness crucially depends on the optimization of the entire supply chain-field-wheel involving optimal location, scaling and logistics. In this study, a linear mixed integer programming model has been developed to determine the optimal geographic locations and sizes of methanol plants and gas stations in Austria. Optimal locations and sizes are found by the minimization of costs with respect to biomass and methanol production and transport, investments for the production plants and the gas stations. Hence, the model covers competition in all levels of a biofuel production chain including supply of biomass, biofuel and heat, and demand for bio- and fossil fuels. The results show that Austria could be self-sufficient in the production of methanol for biofuels like M5, M10 or M20, using up to 8% of the arable land share. The plants are optimally located close to the potential supply of biomass (i.e. poplar) in Eastern Austria, and produce methanol around 0.4 is an element of(-1). Moreover, heat production could lower the methanol cost by 12%.

  • 5.
    Leung, Dennis Y. C.
    et al.
    Univ Hong Kong.
    Yang, Hongxing
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Novel studies on hydrogen, fuel cell and battery energy systems2011In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ji, X.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A new modification on RK EOS for gaseous CO2 and gaseous mixtures of CO2 and H2O2006In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 135-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To develop an equation of state with simple structure and reasonable accuracy for engineering application, Redlich-Kwong equation of state was modified for gaseous CO2 and CO2-H2O mixtures. In the new modification, parameter a of gaseous CO2 was regressed as a function of temperature and pressure from recent reliable experimental data in the range: 220-750 K and 0.1-400 MPa. Moreover, a new mixing rule was proposed for gaseous CO2-H2O mixtures. To verify the accuracy of the new modification, densities were calculated and compared with experimental data. The average error is 1.68% for gaseous CO2 and 0.93% for gaseous mixtures of CO2 and H2O. Other thermodynamic properties, such as enthalpy and heat capacities of CO2 and excess enthalpy of gaseous CO2-H2O mixtures, were also calculated; results fit experimental data well, except for the critical region.

  • 7.
    Mousavi Takami, Kourosh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Mahmoudi, Kourosh
    A novel study on the power transformer losses in relation to CO2 capturing technology2008In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1151-1163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformers are complex devices consisting of an iron core around which are wrapped various coils of insulated wires, inside a tank filled with insulating oil, along with connectors, bushings and various other small components. Overloading causes excess heat in a transformer, the negative effects of which are degradation of the kraft paper insulation around the wires (leading to internal failures of the coils), excessive tank pressure or degradation of the insulating oil (either of which can cause catastrophic failures, even explosions), and leaking gaskets and seals. (Since the copper used in the windings is already soft (annealed) and is not under tension, overheating of the conductors is generally not a concern.) Thermal cycling contributes to mechanical damage by loosening connections. Because of hysteresis in the transformer core, overloading generates harmonics and these can cause mechanical vibration of the transformer, contributing to physical damage. Overloading also assumes that faults near the transformer, when they occur, will be greater than normal, so there is the increased likelihood of damage to the transformer from fault currents; such damage can be manifested by coil failures, bushing flashovers, blown gaskets and seals, connector failures, oil explosions and fires, and physical displacement of internal components due to electromechanical torques. In addition, the world consumes millions of barrels of oils to cover the electrical losses, which then produces green house gases. With the introduction of new method for loss reduction, authors found a new method that is presented in this paper. In this paper we assess the impact of losses on final cost of transformer and green house gases. It is proved that losses cost is equal to the capital investment of the transformer. Emissions of CO2 in the electrical network is 0.4 kg CO2 kWh-1, which is (11 500 billion kilowatts hours of electricity produced) around 46 billion tons of transformer losses. This can be reduced to 23 billion ton using loss management. It is obvious that to cover losses generation of extra electricity is needed. Extra production leads to more CO2 emission. Installation of CO2 capturing device utilities at least can prevent more pollution emissions. For these reasons, a CO2 capturing condenser applicable in power station is presented here. It was simulated using COMSOL software. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 8.
    Naqvi, Salman Raza
    et al.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol NUST, Sch Chem & Mat Engn, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of rice husk: Influence of commercial and synthesized microporous zeolites on deoxygenation of biomass pyrolysis vapors2018In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 1352-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on utilization of abundant rice residue for valuable bioenergy products is still not explored completely. A simple, robust, cheap, and one-step fast pyrolysis reactor is still a key demand for production of bioenergy products, ie, high quality bio-oil and biochar. Bio-oil extracted from fast pyrolysis does not have adequate quality (eg, acidic and highly oxygenated). Catalytic fast pyrolysis using zeolites in the fast pyrolysis process effectively reduces the oxygen content (no H-2 required). In this paper, the zeolites with different pore sizes and shapes (small pore, SAPO-34 (0.56) and ferrierite (30); medium pore, ZSM-5 (30), MCM-22 (30), and ITQ-2 (30); and large pore zeolite, mordenite (30)) were tested in a drop-type fixed-bed pyrolyzer. Catalytic deoxygenation is conducted at 450 degrees C at the catalyst/biomass ratio of 0.1. Zeolite catalysts, its pore size and shape, could influence largely on deoxygenation. It was found that the small pore zeolites did not produce aromatics as compared to higher amount of aromatics formed in case of medium pore zeolites. ZSM-5 and ITQ-2 zeolites were especially efficient for the higher deoxygenation of biomass pyrolysis vapors due to better pore dimension and higher acidity.

  • 9.
    Perez-Mora, Nicolas
    et al.
    Univ Illes Balears, Palma De Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain..
    Bava, Federico
    Danmarks Tekniske Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Andersen, Martin
    Högsk Dalarna Falun Dalarna, Falun, Sweden..
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna Univ Coll, Borlänge, Sweden..
    Lennermo, Gunnar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nielsen, Christian
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Furbo, Simon
    Danmarks Tekniske Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Martinez-Moll, Victor
    Univ Illes Balears, Palma De Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain..
    Solar district heating and cooling: A review2018In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1419-1441Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both district heating and solar collector systems have been known and implemented for many years. However, the combination of the two, with solar collectors supplying heat to the district heating network, is relatively new, and no comprehensive review of scientific publications on this topic could be found. Thus, this paper summarizes the literature available on solar district heating and presents the state of the art and real experiences in this field. Given the lack of a generally accepted convention on the classification of solar district heating systems, this paper distinguishes centralized and decentralized solar district heating as well as block heating. For the different technologies, the paper describes commonly adopted control strategies, system configurations, types of installation, and integration. Real-world examples are also given to provide a more detailed insight into how solar thermal technology can be integrated with district heating. Solar thermal technology combined with thermally driven chillers to provide cooling for cooling networks is also included in this paper. In order for a technology to spread successfully, not only technical but also economic issues need to be tackled. Hence, the paper identifies and describes different types of ownership and financing schemes currently used in this field.

  • 10.
    Sandberg, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Sand, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Long time investigation of the effect of fouling on the super-heaters in a circulating fluidised biomass boiler2006In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 30, no 13, p. 1037-1053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present investigation involves measurements and theories on the mechanisms of the forming of deposit layers on super-heater tubes in a biomass-fired CFD boiler. The deposit layer thickness and the soot-blowing frequency effect on the super-heaters heat transfer are the main subject of the study that has been conducted over a 3-year period. The measurements show a deposit growth rate on the super-heaters of approximately 4 g m−2 h−1. The distribution of the deposit material varies significantly between the windward and the leeward side of the tubes, with the thickest layers on the windward side. Further down stream of the first super-heater, the fouling problem on the super-heater and re-heater tubes are not so severe. A theoretical model shows that a deposit layer of 20 mm will decrease the heat transfer rate of the first super-heater by nearly 40%. The soot-blowing system shows a strong positive effect on the heat transfer rate of the super-heater a few hours after a soot-blowing sequence has been completed. However in the long run, the varied soot-blowing frequency does not have a significant influence on the deposit layer growth rate.

  • 11.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Case study of energy systems with gas turbine cogeneration technology for an eco-industrial park2008In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1128-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-industrial parks (EIP) are clusters of industry corporations that collaborate with reusing waste and energy-efficient use of resources with no or minor impact on the environment. This paper presents a case study that examines the feasibility of using gas turbine technology in one industrial park, located in the Dongguan city of the Guangdong province in China. A model of a gas turbine-based combined heat and power (CHP) plant with a heat recovery steam generator for absorption cooling was developed and simulated. A steam-injected gas turbine has been selected in the system to increase electricity production and to generate steam. The study includes performance analysis of the cogeneration plant in terms of thermal efficiency, cost estimation, and greenhouse gas emission. The gas turbine-based cogeneration system has been compared with a baseline reference case that is defined as if all the energy to the industrial park is supplied from the local electricity grid. The results show that the gas turbine-based cogeneration system can reach a total efficiency of 58% and reduce CO2 emissions with 12 700 tons per year. A sensitivity analysis on the costs of the system has also been made based on fuel costs and the interest rate, which shows that the investigated system is economically profitable at natural gas prices below 4.4 RMB m-3 with fixed electricity prices and at electricity prices above 736 RMB MWh-1 with fixed natural gas prices. The sensitivity analysis based on the interest rate showed that the proposed system is economically feasible with interest rates up to 16%.

  • 12.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Chou, S.K.
    National University Singapor (NUS).
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Special issue Recent Progress in Sustainable energy systems2013In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 37, no 15, p. 1937-2028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guest editors for special issue from the International Conference on Applied Energy in Souzhou, July 2012. The papers covers different areas of Applied energy and with special focus on Sustainable energy systems

  • 13.
    Zhang, Q.
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing, China .
    Mclellan, B. C.
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An integrated scenario analysis for future zero-carbon energy system2015In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 993-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated scenario analysis methodology has been proposed for zero-carbon energy system in perspectives of social-economy, environment and technology. By using the methodology, service demands in all sectors were estimated based on social-economic data, and then the best technology and energy mixes were obtained to meet the service demands. The methodology was applied to Japan toward zero-carbon energy system out to the year of 2100, and three different scenarios of nuclear power development are considered in light of the Fukushima accident: (i) no further introduction of nuclear, (ii) fixed portion and (iii) no limit of nuclear. The results show that, zero-carbon energy scenario can be attained in the year 2100 when electricity will supply 75% of total energy consumption, and three power generation scenarios were proposed, 30% renewable and 70% gas-carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Scenario 1, respective one-third nuclear, renewable and gas-CCS in Scenario 2, and 60% nuclear power, 20% renewable and 10% gas-CCS in Scenario 3. Finally, Scenario 2 is rated as the most balanced scenario by putting emphasis on the availability of diversified power source, considering the inter-comparison of the three scenarios from the four aspects of cost, CO<inf>2</inf> emission, risk and diversity. 

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