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  • 1.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review2017In: Applied spectroscopy reviews (Softcover ed.), ISSN 0570-4928, E-ISSN 1520-569X, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 675-728Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass used in energy conversion processes is typically characterized by high variability, making its utilization challenging. Therefore, there is a need for a fast and non-destructive method to determine feedstock/product properties and directly monitor process reactors. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique together with advanced data analysis methods offers a possible solution. This review focuses on the introduction of the NIRS method and its recent applications to physical, thermochemical, biochemical and physiochemical biomass conversion processes represented mainly by pelleting, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, as well as biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel production. NIRS has been proven to be a reliable and inexpensive method with a great potential for use in process optimization, advanced control, or product quality assurance.

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