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  • 1.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afza, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    10 Years of research on debugging concurrent and multicore software: a systematic mapping study2017Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 49-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Debugging – the process of identifying, localizing and fixing bugs – is a key activity in software development. Due to issues such as non-determinism and difficulties of reproducing failures, debugging concurrent software is significantly more challenging than debugging sequential software. A number of methods, models and tools for debugging concurrent and multicore software have been proposed, but the body of work partially lacks a common terminology and a more recent view of the problems to solve. This suggests the need for a classification, and an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the area. 

    This paper presents the results of a systematic mapping study in the field of debugging of concurrent and multicore software in the last decade (2005– 2014). The study is guided by two objectives: (1) to summarize the recent publication trends and (2) to clarify current research gaps in the field.

    Through a multi-stage selection process, we identified 145 relevant papers. Based on these, we summarize the publication trend in the field by showing distribution of publications with respect to year , publication venues , representation of academia and industry , and active research institutes . We also identify research gaps in the field based on attributes such as types of concurrency bugs, types of debugging processes , types of research  and research contributions.

    The main observations from the study are that during the years 2005–2014: (1) there is no focal conference or venue to publish papers in this area, hence a large variety of conferences and journal venues (90) are used to publish relevant papers in this area; (2) in terms of publication contribution, academia was more active in this area than industry; (3) most publications in the field address the data race bug; (4) bug identification is the most common stage of debugging addressed by articles in the period; (5) there are six types of research approaches found, with solution proposals being the most common one; and (6) the published papers essentially focus on four different types of contributions, with ”methods” being the type most common one.

    We can further conclude that there is still quite a number of aspects that are not sufficiently covered in the field, most notably including (1) exploring correction  and fixing bugs  in terms of debugging process; (2) order violation, suspension  and starvation  in terms of concurrency bugs; (3) validation and evaluation research  in the matter of research type; (4) metric  in terms of research contribution. It is clear that the concurrent, parallel and multicore software community needs broader studies in debugging.This systematic mapping study can help direct such efforts.

  • 2.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Bahria Univ, Pakistan.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Prediction of faults-slip-through in large software projects: An empirical evaluation2013Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 51-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software test process. Therefore, determination of which software test phases to focus improvement work on has considerable industrial interest. We evaluate a number of prediction techniques for predicting the number of faults slipping through to unit, function, integration, and system test phases of a large industrial project. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different test phases by striving toward finding the faults in the right phase. The results show that a range of techniques are found to be useful in predicting the number of faults slipping through to the four test phases; however, the group of search-based techniques (genetic programming, gene expression programming, artificial immune recognition system, and particle swarm optimization-based artificial neural network) consistently give better predictions, having a representation at all of the test phases. Human predictions are consistently better at two of the four test phases. We conclude that the human predictions regarding the number of faults slipping through to various test phases can be well supported by the use of search-based techniques. A combination of human and an automated search mechanism (such as any of the search-based techniques) has the potential to provide improved prediction results.

  • 3.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Feljan, Juraj
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Architecture optimization: Speed or accuracy? Both!2018Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 661-684Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are becoming more and more complex, thus demanding innovative means to tame their challenging development. Among others, early architecture optimization represents a crucial activity in the development of embedded systems to maximise the usage of their limited resources and to respect their real-time requirements. Typically, architecture optimization seeks good architecture candidates based on model-based analysis. Leveraging abstractions and estimates, this analysis usually produces approximations useful for comparing architecture candidates. Nonetheless, approximations do not provide enough accuracy in estimating crucial extra-functional properties. In this article, we provide an architecture optimization framework that profits from both the speed of model-based predictions and the accuracy of execution-based measurements. Model-based optimization rapidly finds a good architecture candidate, which is refined through optimization based on monitored executions of automatically generated code. Moreover, the framework enables the developer to leverage her optimization experience. More specifically, the developer can use runtime monitoring of generated code execution to manually adjust task allocation at modelling level, and commit the changes without halting execution. In the article, our architecture optimization mechanism is first described from a general point of view and then exploited for optimizing the allocation of software tasks to the processing cores of a multicore embedded system; we target extra-functional properties that can be concretely represented and automatically compared for different architectural alternatives (such as memory consumption, energy consumption, or responsetime).

  • 4.
    Flemström, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pasqualina, Potena
    RISE.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE.
    Similarity-Based Prioritization of Test Case Automation2018Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 1421-1449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of efficient software testing procedures is driven by an ever increasing system complexity as well as global competition. In the particular case of manual test cases at the system integration level, where thousands of test cases may be executed before release, time must be well spent in order to test the system as completely and as efficiently as possible. Automating a subset of the manual test cases, i.e, translating the manual instructions to automatically executable code, is one way of decreasing the test effort. It is further common that test cases exhibit similarities, which can be exploited through reuse when automating a test suite. In this paper, we investigate the potential for reducing test effort by ordering the test cases before such automation, given that we can reuse already automated parts of test cases. In our analysis, we investigate several approaches for prioritization in a case study at a large Swedish vehicular manufacturer. The study analyzes the effects with respect to test effort, on four projects with a total of 3919 integration test cases constituting 35,180 test steps, written in natural language. The results show that for the four projects considered, the difference in expected manual effort between the best and the worst order found is on average 12 percentage points. The results also show that our proposed prioritization method is nearly as good as more resource demanding meta-heuristic approaches at a fraction of the computational time. Based on our results, we conclude that the order of automation is important when the set of test cases contain similar steps (instructions) that cannot be removed, but are possible to reuse. More precisely, the order is important with respect to how quickly the manual test execution effort decreases for a set of test cases that are being automated.

  • 5.
    Kienle, Holger
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kraft, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    System-specific static code analyses: a case study in the complex embedded systems domain2012Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 337-367Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are exploring the approach to utilize system-specific static analyses of code with the goal to improve software quality forspecific software systems. Specialized analyses, tailored for a particular system, make it possible to take advantage of system/domainknowledge that is not available to more generic analyses. Furthermore, analyses can be selected and/or developed in order to best meet the challenges and specific issues of the system at hand. As a result, such analyses can be used as a complement to more generic code analysistools because they are likely to have a better impact on (business) concerns such as improving certain software quality attributes and reducing certain classes of failures. We present a case study of a large, industrial embedded system, giving examples of what kinds of analyses could be realized and demonstrate the feasibility of implementing such analyses. We synthesize lessons learned based on our case study and provide recommendations on how to realize system-specific analyses and how to get them adopted by industry.

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