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  • 1.
    Bygde, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Holsti, Niklas
    Tidorum Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
    Improved Precision in Polyhedral Analysis with Wrapping2017In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 133, p. 74-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract interpretation using convex polyhedra is a common and powerful program analysis technique to discover linear relationships among variables in a program. However, the classical way of performing polyhedral analysis does not model the fact that values typically are stored as xed-size binary strings and usually have wrap-around semantics in the case of over ows. In resource-constrained embedded systems, where 8- or 16-bit processors are used, wrapping behaviour may even be used intentionally to save instructions and execution time. Thus, to analyse such systems accurately and correctly, the wrapping has to be modelled. We present an approach to polyhedral analysis which derives polyhedra that are bounded in all dimensions. Our approach is based on a previously suggested wrapping technique by Simon and King, combined with limited widening, a suitable placement of widening points and size-induced restrictions on unbounded variables. With this method, we can derive fully bounded polyhedra in every step of the analysis. We have implemented our method and Simon and King's method compared them. Our experiments show that for a suite of benchmark programs it gives at least as precise result as Simon and King's method. In some cases we obtain a significantly improved result.

  • 2.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A resource-efficient event algebra2010In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 75, no 12, p. 1215-1234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Events play many roles in computer systems, ranging from hardware interrupts, over event-based software architecture, to monitoring and managing of complex systems. In many applications, however, individual event occurrences are not the main point of concern, but rather the occurrences of certain event patterns. Such event patterns can be defined by means of an event algebra, i.e., expressions representing the patterns of interest are built from simple events and operators such as disjunction, sequence, etc. We propose a novel event algebra with intuitive operators (a claim which is supported by a number of algebraic properties). We also present an efficient detection algorithm that correctly detects any expression with bounded memory, which makes this algebra particularly suitable for resource-constrained applications such as embedded systems.

  • 3.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    et al.
    Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, Italia.
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, Italia.
    Decoupling Web Application Concerns through Weaving Operations2008In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 62-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's Web applications require instruments and techniques able to face their complexity which has noticeably increased at the expense of productivity and quality factors. A number of design methodologies have been proposed in the process of trying to provide developers with languages and tools to abstract and capture Web applications under orthogonal views, like data, navigation and presentation. While the different modeling language constructs can be unified in a common metamodel, consistency among the distinct concerns is guaranteed by less formal relations. Usually, they are based on name conventions and/or ad hoc tool support that could affect reuse and maintenance ratings of specifications. In order to define rigorous and explicit correspondences between the artifacts produced during a system development, this paper proposes the exploitation of dedicated weaving models. The approach aims at providing structural mappings that do not interfere with the definition of the views on either side achieving a clear separation between them and their connections. Furthermore, following the "everything is a model" principle, this work can enable the use of general-purpose theories and tools. For example, model transformations can be applied to evaluate the given specifications or to derive alternative descriptions like Webile or WebML.

  • 4.
    Dastani, Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Hojjat, Hossein
    Rochester Inst Technol, Rochester, USA..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Fundamentals of Software Engineering (extended versions of selected papers of FSEN 2015) Preface2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 160, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Dastani, Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Fundamentals of Software Engineering (extended versions of selected papers of FSEN 2017) Preface2019In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 182, p. 86-87Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    de Berardinis, J.
    et al.
    The University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, United Kingdom.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jafari, A.
    Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Actor-based macroscopic modeling and simulation for smart urban planning2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 168, p. 142-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. Computational models like Tangramob offer an agent-based framework for simulating the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, simulations can be computationally expensive to perform due to their iterative nature and the microscopic representation of traffic. To address this issue, we designed a simplified model architecture of Tangramob in Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) and we developed a tool-chain for the generation runnable instances of this model starting from the same input files of Tangramob. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how the mobility initiatives under study affect the traveling experience of commuters, in a short time and without the need to use the simulator during this first experimental step. Then, once a subset of these initiatives is identified according to user's criteria, it is reasonable to simulate them with Tangramob in order to get more detailed results. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. The correlation between the results demonstrates the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 7.
    Jafari, Ali
    et al.
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hermanns, Holger
    Univ Saarland, Saarbrucken, Germany..
    Cimini, Matteo
    Indiana Univ, Bloomington, IN, USA..
    PTRebeca: Modeling and analysis of distributed and asynchronous systems2016In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 128, p. 22-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed systems exhibit probabilistic and non-deterministic behaviors and may have time constraints. Probabilistic Timed Rebeca (PTRebeca) is introduced as a timed and probabilistic actor-based language for modeling distributed real-time systems with asynchronous message passing. The semantics of PTRebeca is a Timed Markov Decision Process. In this paper, we provide SOS rules for PTRebeca, introduce a new tool-set and describe the corresponding mappings. The tool-set automatically generates a Markov Automaton from a PTRebeca model in the form of the input language of the Interactive Markov Chain Analyzer (IMCA). The IMCA can be used as a back-end model checker for performance analysis of PTRebeca models against expected reachability and probabilistic reachability properties. Comparing to the existing tool-set, proposed in the conference paper, we now have the ability of analyzing significantly larger models, and we also can add different rewards to the model. We show the applicability of our approach and efficiency of our tool by analyzing a Network on Chip architecture as a real-world case study. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Khamespanah, E.
    et al.
    School of Electrical an Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Khosravi, R.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An efficient TCTL model checking algorithm and a reduction technique for verification of timed actor models2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 153, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NP-hard time complexity of model checking algorithms for TCTL properties in dense time is one of the obstacles against using model checking for the analysis of real-time systems. Alternatively, a polynomial time algorithm is suggested for model checking of discrete time models against TCTL≤,≥ properties (i.e. TCTL properties without U=c modalities). The algorithm performs model checking against a given formula Φ for a state space with V states and E transitions in O(V(V+E)⋅|Φ|). In this work, we improve the model checking algorithm of TCTL≤,≥ properties, obtaining time complexity of O((Vlg⁡V+E)⋅|Φ|). We tackle the model checking of discrete timed actors as an application of the proposed algorithms. We show how the result of the fine-grained semantics of discrete timed actors can be model checked efficiently against TCTL≤,≥ properties using the proposed algorithm. This is illustrated using the timed actor modeling language Timed Rebeca. In addition to introducing a new efficient model checking algorithm, we propose a reduction technique which safely eliminates instantaneous transitions of transition systems (i.e. transition with zero time duration). We show that the reduction can be applied on-the-fly during the generation of the original timed transition system without a significant cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the reduction technique via a set of case studies selected from various application domains. Besides, while TCTL≤,≥ can be model checked in polynomial time, model checking of TCTL properties with U=c modalities is an NP-complete problem. Using the proposed reduction technique, we provide an efficient algorithm for model checking of complete TCTL properties over the reduced transition systems.

  • 9.
    Seceleanu, Cristina Cerschi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Johansson, M.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Suryadevara, J.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Ellevseth, S. -E
    ABB Corporate Research, Norway.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analyzing a wind turbine system: From simulation to formal verification2017In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 133, p. 216-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial systems are hybrid by nature, most often being made of a discrete controller that senses and regulates the execution of a plant characterized by continuous dynamics. Examples of such systems include wind turbines that convert wind energy into electrical energy. Designing industrial control systems is challenging, due to the mixed nature of requirements (functional, timing, etc.) as well as due to the complexity stemming from the interaction of the controller with the plant. Model-based techniques help in tackling the design challenges, whereas methods such as simulation with tools like MATLAB/Simulink can be employed for analysis. Although practical, these methods alone cannot ensure full predictability, due to the fact that they cannot guarantee system properties for all possible executions of the system model. In order to ensure that the system will behave as expected under any operational circumstance, formal verification and validation procedures need to be added to the actual development process. In this paper, we propose an extension of the iFEST (industrial Framework for Embedded Systems Tools) process and platform for embedded systems design with model-based testing using MaTeLo, and model checking time-dependent requirements with the UPPAAL tool, as means of increasing the confidence in the system's behavior. To show the feasibility of the techniques on industrially-sized systems, we analyze a wind turbine industrial prototype model against functional and timing requirements. We capture the execution semantics of the plant and controller components of the wind turbine via logical clocks and constraints expressed in the clock constraint specification language (CCSL) of UML MARTE, after which we construct real-time models amenable to model checking, by mapping the timed behavior (expressed in CCSL) of the real-time components of the wind turbine, onto timed automata. Our work is a first application on an industrial wind turbine system of complementary methods for formal analysis, that is, model-based testing, and model checking a mathematically tractable system abstraction based on data obtained by simulating the system with MATLAB/Simulink. We also discuss relevant modeling and verification challenges encountered during our experiences with the wind turbine system.

  • 10.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Tran, H.
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Zdun, U.
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Supporting automated containment checking of software behavioural models using model transformations and model checking2019In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 174, p. 38-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are extensively used in many areas of software engineering to represent the behaviour of software systems at different levels of abstraction. Because of the involvement of different stakeholders in constructing these models and their independent evolution, inconsistencies might occur between the models. It is thus crucial to detect these inconsistencies at early phases of the software development process, and especially as soon as refined models deviate from their abstract counterparts. In this article, we introduce a containment checking approach to verify whether a certain low-level behaviour model, typically created by refining and enhancing a high-level model, still is consistent with the specification provided in its high-level counterpart. We interpret the containment checking problem as a model checking problem, which has not received special treatment in the literature so far. Because the containment checking is based on model checking, it requires both formal consistency constraints and specifications of these models. Unfortunately, creating formal consistency constraints and specifications is currently done manually, and therefore, labour-intensive and error prone. To alleviate this issue, we define and develop a fully automated transformation of behaviour models into formal specifications and properties. The generated formal specifications and properties can directly be used by existing model checkers for detecting any discrepancy between the input models and yield corresponding counterexamples. Moreover, our approach can provide the developers more informative and comprehensive feedback regarding the inconsistency issues, and therefore, help them to efficiently identify and resolve the problems. The evaluation of various scenarios from industrial case studies demonstrates that the proposed approach efficiently translates the behaviour models into formal specifications and properties. 

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