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  • 1.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    An integrative review combined with a semantic review to explore the meaning of Swedish terms compatible with occupation, activity, doing and task2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to explore the intended meaning of the terms "occupation", "activity", "doing", and "task" used in international occupational therapy literature and from this perspective explore which Swedish terms best capture these meanings. A literature review of occupational therapy-related journals was performed to gain a basic understanding of the term occupation and related terms. In addition, a semantic review was used: English and Swedish dictionaries were reviewed to explore the semantic meaning of the English terms "occupation", "activity", "doing", and "task", and the Swedish terms "aktivitet", "syssla/sysselsättning", "görande", and "uppgift". A comparison was also performed by searching for parallels between the results of the literature review, the semantic definitions of the English and Swedish terms and the comprehensive meaning of the Swedish terms aktivitet and syssla/sysselsättning. An overarching idea of the concept of occupation was found in the literature review and for the purposes of this study we have identified this as Occupation for survival. From this overarching idea, three themes were identified: The feature of occupation, Impact of occupation and Occupation an occupational therapy concept. Each theme could be subdivided into sub-themes. The Swedish term aktivitet was found to have more power, strength, and spirit connected to the synonyms found in the semantic analysis than to those connected with the Swedish term syssla/sysselsättning. According to the findings in this study we found that the term "aktivitet" is the best comparable term in Swedish to the English term "occupation".

  • 2.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Occupation as described by occupational therapy students in Sweden: A follow-up study2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the second in a series of studies carried out in Sweden concerning the dimensions of the concept occupation. The specific aim of this study was to explore new and confirm previously found dimensions of the concept of occupation in the context of occupational therapy. Occupational therapy students, a few weeks from their completion of studies, were asked to write down spontaneously what they personally considered to be occupation. Forty-two women and three men, aged between 25 and 33 years, participated. Grounded theory with the constant comparative method was used to analyse the data. A coding scheme of 40 codes was used to compare new data with previously found data concerning the concept of occupation as described by occupational therapy students. Six new codes concerning occupation expanded the dimensions of the concept. Five of those were found within the doing and context dimensions. These codes defined occupation as something that depends on who is performing the occupation and where the occupation is performed. Thus, occupation is not a permanent state but also very much depends on subjective experience. Additional studies with experienced occupational therapists have been planned to further expand these findings and aim to give a stronger foundation to the concept of occupation built on empirical grounds.

  • 3.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ.
    Grann, Martin
    Karolinska Inst.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Mentally disordered offenders' daily occupations after one year of forensic care2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 302-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons detained as mentally disordered offenders need support for transition from care to community life. Few systematic studies have been completed on the outcomes of standard forensic care. The aim was to investigate the target group's life conditions and daily occupations one year aftercare. In a follow-up design occupational performance (OP) and social participation (SP) were investigated at two time points. After informed consent 36 consecutively recruited participants reported OP using the Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Self-Efficacy Scale, Importance scale, and Allen Cognitive Level Screen. SP was measured with the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, and Interview Schedule for Social Interaction. After one year 24 participants were still incarcerated, 11 were conditionally released, and one participant was discharged. The group were generally more satisfied and engaged in daily occupations than at admission. The study's attrition rate, 51%, is discussed. The conclusion and the clinical implications indicate that the target group need early, goal directed interventions in OP and SP for alterations in daily occupations. Furthermore, to increase the knowledge base concerning mentally disordered offenders, studies with research designs that have the potential to uncover changes in daily occupation and other measures for this target group are necessary.

  • 4.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stålenheim, G
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sjödén, P-O
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mentally Disordered Offenders’ Abilities in Occupational Performance and Social Participation2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major aim was to describe occupational performance (OP) and social participation (SP) of mentally disordered offenders (MDO), and to compare professionals' and MDOs' appraisals of these abilities. Also, diagnostic groups and groups with/without substance related disorders were compared with regard to OP and SP. Self-report instruments (Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Self-Efficacy Scale, Importance scale, Interview Schedule for Social Interaction), observations (Allen Cognitive Level Screen), and register data (Psychosocial and Environment Problems - Axis IV; Global Assessment of Functioning Scale - Axis V; Assessment Concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments) were utilized. Demographic and register data were collected from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. Seventy-four out of 161 incarcerated subjects (46%), selected consecutively after informed consent during a period of 16 months, were interviewed on their hospital wards. The MDOs reported some disability in performing occupations and participating in community life. However, they were satisfied with their performance and participation, implying limited awareness of their disabilities. The professionals judged the MDOs as having problems with social participation, and major, longstanding disablements in several areas. Subjects with schizophrenia scored lower in some OP and SP variables than did subjects with personality disorders and other mental disorders. The results suggest that a large proportion of MDOs need support to enable their community living.

  • 5.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Needs and problems related to occupational therapy as perceived by adult Swedes with long-term pain2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 9, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro universitet.
    Occupation as described by academically skilled occupational therapists in Sweden: A Delphi study.2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to continue the process of exploring and understanding the concept of occupation in a Swedish occupational therapy context and from an expert perspective. Thirteen eligible occupational therapists active in Sweden, all academically skilled and who had published articles concerning the concept of occupation or activity, were invited to take part in the study. Eight were willing to participate representing different parts of Sweden. A three-round Delphi study was conducted in which the participants reflected on 46 statements derived from a core category and five categories concerning the concept of occupation, extracted from previous studies in this project. The participants gave 124 comments on 44 of the 46 statements. Results revealed new statements, mainly concerning the intentional aspect of occupation and occupation in a structural hierarchy. Comments also contributed with rephrased statements promoting clarity. A total of 54 statements were then ranked on a four-point Likert scale of which 47 reached consensus among participants. Seven statements were not supported to a level of consensus. Four of them dealt with how and if values and individual judgements influence what are viewed as occupations. To continue the developing process, studies in occupational therapy praxis have to be performed.

  • 7.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occupation as described by novice occupational therapy students in Sweden: the first step in a theory generative process grounded in empirical data.2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A core assumption in occupational therapy is that occupation enhances health. This study is one of a series of planned studies carried out in Sweden, with the overall aim to develop a theory, based on empirical grounds, concerning the dimensions of occupation that may be useful in occupational therapy. The specific aim for this study is to examine the dimensions of occupation as generally understood among novice occupational therapy students. Grounded Theory was the chosen method. Data were collected among occupational therapy students. The students wrote down spontaneously what they considered to be included in activity. A preliminary core category "The what, why, and how of occupation" and five other categories emerged from the analysis: (1) The doing and context of occupation; (2) Motive for occupation; (3) Time and place for occupation; (4) Type of participation; and (5) Outcome of occupation. Relationships between the categories were established between the Motive for occupation and Outcome of occupation, which constitute a kind of prerequisite for occupation. The three remaining categories: The doing and context of occupation, Time and place for occupation, and Type of participation established a form for occupation. In conclusion, the study results illuminated the richness of the concept of occupation and support the core assumption in occupational therapy that occupation enhances health.

  • 8.
    Nordgren, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Heart failure clients' encounters with professionals and self-rated ability to return to work2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 115-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: People with heart failure are sick listed for long periods and disability pension is common. Healthcare professionals need knowledge about factors that can enhance their return to work processes.

    AIMS: This study focus on people on sick leave due to heart failure and their encounters with healthcare professionals/social insurance officers. Specifically, it aimed to investigate associations between: (1) encounters and socio-demographic factors and, (2) encounters and self-rated ability to return to work.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on registry data and a postal questionnaire to people on sick leave due to heart failure (n = 590). Bivariate correlation analyses and logistic regression analyses were used.

    RESULTS: Gender, income, and age were strongly associated with encounters with both social insurance officers and healthcare professionals. Self-rated ability to return to work was associated with the encounters 'Made reasonable demands', 'Gave clear and adequate information/advice' and 'Did not keep our agreements'.

    CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: To enhance clients' abilities to return to work demands should be reasonable, information and advice need to be clear, and agreements should be kept. These results can be used by healthcare professionals as occupational therapists involved in vocational rehabilitation for people on sick leave due to heart failure.

  • 9.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Krumlinde Sundholm, Lena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cultural validity of the children's assessment of participation and enjoyment/preferences for activities of children: CAPE/PAC2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 428-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate whether the activity items of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment/Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC) were relevant for Swedish children. Subjects: A total of 337 typically developed children aged 6–17 years old. Methods: The CAPE/PAC was translated into Swedish in accordance with accepted translation procedures. By means of 14 group interviews with children with and without disabilities aged 6–15 years old and parents, available leisure activities were listed. These were matched to the items in the CAPE/PAC. Sixteen new potential activities were added and tested on 337 typical developed children from different regions of Sweden. A cutoff level of activities performed by >10% was set to identify relevant activities. Differences between the original and a proposed Swedish version were analysed using paired-samples t-tests of standardized mean scores. Results: Three new activity items were included, for 10 items new activity examples were added, and three not relevant items were excluded. In the Swedish version the outcome of standardized mean diversity score was significantly higher compared with the outcome of the original version. Conclusions:When using instruments in new contexts, it is not enough simply to translate; validation of the item relevance to the new context is essential.

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