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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    The Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Christiansen, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Annica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nursing under the skin: A netnographic study of metaphors and meanings in nursing tattoos2014In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 318-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to present themes in nursing motifs as depicted in tattoos and to describe how it reflects upon nursing in popular culture as well as within professional nursing culture. An archival and cross-sectional observational study was conducted online to search for images of nursing tattoos that were freely available, by utilizing the netnographic methodology. The 400 images were analyzed in a process that consisted of four analytical steps focusing on metaphors and meanings in the tattoos. The findings present four themes: angels of mercy and domination; hegemonic nursing technology; embodying the corps; and nurses within the belly of the monster. The tattoos serve as a mirror of popular culture and the professional culture of nurses and nursing practice within the context of body art. Body art policy statements have been included in nursing personnel dress code policies. Usually these policies prohibit tattoos that are sexist, symbolize sex or could contribute and reproduce racial oppression. The results show that the tattoos can be interpreted according to several layers of meanings in relation to such policies. We therefore stress that this is an area highly relevant for further analyses in nursing research.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Snellman, Ingrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    The meaningful encounter: Patient and next of kin stories about their experience of meaningful encounters in health care2013In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 363-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the meaningful encounters of patients and next of kin, seen from their perspective. Identifying the attributes within meaningful encounters is important for increased understanding of caring and to expand and develop earlier formulated knowledge about caring relationships. Caring theory about the caring relationship and provided a point of departure for the study. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaningful encounter in health care contexts narrated by patients and next of kin. A qualitative explorative design with a hermeneutic narrative approach was used to analyze and interpret the written narratives. Phases were: Naïve interpretation, structure analysis on two different levels a) analysis of narrative structure b) analysis of deep structure through metaphors and finally a dialectic interpretation. In the narratives the meaning of the meaningful encounter was sharing, a nourishing fellowship, common responsibility and coming together experienced as safety and warmth and gives, by extension, life changing moments, a healing force and dissipated insight. The meaningful encounter can be seen as a complex phenomenon that has different attributes. Understanding the meaningful encounter will enable nurses to plan and provide professional care, based on caring science focusing on patient and next of kin experience.

  • 3.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Emami, Azita
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lars E
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Sweden.
    Intersectional perspectives on family involvement in nursing home care: rethinking relatives' position as a betweenship2014In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 227-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to understand, in the context of intersectional theory, the roles of family members in nursing home care. The unique social locus at which each person sits is the result of the intersection of gender, status, ethnicity and class; it is situational, shifting with the context of every encounter. A content analysis of 15 qualitative interviews with relatives of nursing home residents in Sweden was used to gain a perspective on the relationships between relatives and residents, relatives and the nursing home as an institution, and relatives and the nursing home staff. We sought to understand these relationships in terms of gendered notions of the family and the residents, which are handed down from generation to generation and thus condition who and how relatives should be involved in care, and the ways in which relationships change as care moves from home to nursing home. It requires knowledge and awareness that the nursing home culture is based on intersectional power structures in order for relatives to be involved in nursing home care in alternative and individual ways.

  • 4.
    Kumpula, Esa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Swedish Red Cross Univ Coll, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Balancing security and care: Gender relations of nursing staff in forensic psychiatric care2021In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 29, no 4, article id e12478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study departs from the built-in tension of the dual goals of forensic psychiatric care in Sweden, which are to protect society as well as to care for patients. The majority of violence that takes place is perpetrated by men. Therefore, the views of nursing staff on violence as a gendered phenomenon have an impact on the care provision. There is a need for further knowledge of how norms of violence are intertwined with the construction of gender. The aim of this study was to use a gender perspective to demonstrate the views of nursing staff on security and care and the consequences for their relationships with patients. The study adopts an ethnographic approach, with data consisting of field notes from participatory observations and interviews with nursing staff at two maximum-security clinics. We show how the perceptions of nursing staff about gender relations are based on heteronormative thinking, which affects their practice. This implies that if gender is ignored in relation to the dual goals, there is a risk of perpetrating patterns of unequal conditions. Therefore, it is vital to make gender visible to counteract unequal conditions for nursing staff and address patients' individual care needs.

  • 5.
    Kumpula, Esa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Ekstrand, P.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Flemingsberg Stockholm, Sweden.
    Illuminating the gendered nature of health-promoting activities among nursing staff in forensic psychiatric care2020In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, no 2, article id e12332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people in Sweden are sentenced and handed over to forensic psychiatric care (FPC), the authorities have overall responsibility for their health recovery. How nursing staff construct gender through their relations in this context affects their understanding of health promotion activities. The aim of this study was to illuminate, using a gender perspective, the understanding of nursing staff with respect to health promotion activities for patients. Four focus group interviews were conducted with nursing staff in two FPC clinics in Sweden. The study has a qualitative inductive design with an ethnographic approach. This study sheds new light on FPC in which its dual goals of protecting society and providing care are viewed from a gender perspective. When relationships within the nursing staff group and the nurse–patient relationship are justified by the goal of protecting society, gender becomes invisible. This might cause patients' individual conditions and needs for certain types of activities to go unnoticed. One of the implications of ignoring gender relations in nursing staff health promotion activities is that it risks contributing to gender stereotypes which impact on the nurse–patient relationship and the quality of care.

  • 6.
    Wiklund, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindholm, Lisbet
    University of Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Lindström, Unni Å
    Hermeneutics and narration: a way to deal with qualitative data2002In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 114-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses a hermeneutic approach to the interpretation of narratives. It is based on the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation but modified and used within a caring science paradigm. The article begins with a presentation of the theoretical underpinnings of hermeneutic philosophy and narration, as well as Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation, before going on to describe the interpretationprocess as modified by the authors. The interpretationprocess which consists of several stages is exemplified and discussed using a single case from a larger study on suffering. The results of that study indicate that the struggle of suffering is perceived as a struggle formed between shame and dignity, and that nurses must engage in the process of preserving and restoring the dignity of their suffering patients. The authors suggest that Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation is useful when trying to understand narrative data if the researcher realises that the process of distanciation, although central in Ricoeur’s thinking, is not the goal of the process but rather it is a means to deal with the researcher’s pre-understandings. According to Ricoeur, distanciation is accomplished by putting the context aside and dealing with the text “as text” and thereby explaining its meaning. Explanation thus becomes the dialectic counterpart to understanding in the interpretationprocess. The researchers further argue that distanciation must be followed by reflection where the interpretations are linked back to the empirical context.

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