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  • 1. Dalgren, Kristin Elgh
    et al.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Duker, Anders
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Anaerobic Bioremediation of a Soil With Mixed Contaminants: Explosives Degradation and Influence on Heavy Metal Distribution, Monitored as Changes in Concentration and Toxicity2009In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 202, no 1-4, p. 301-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two soils with explosives and metals were evaluated for the degradation efficiency of explosives by native microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. The commercially available method DaramendA (R), amended with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was compared with a horse-manure-amended compost and a treatment with ZVI alone. In a moderately contaminated soil, DaramendA (R) and ZVI treatment gave significantly higher removal rates compared to compost and control treatments (Tukey's test, P < 0.05). The largest overall decrease in ecotoxicity, measured with bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), was achieved with ZVI treatment. In a more contaminated soil, no degradation of contaminants and no decline in soil toxicity could be distinguished after the same time period. Problems with establishment of anaerobic conditions during parts of the remediation process and low microbial activity due to acute toxicity of contaminants are plausible explanations. Redistribution that could potentially lead to mobilization of the co-contaminant Pb was not observed in either of the soils during the biological treatments.

  • 2.
    Danish, M.
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China .
    Gu, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China .
    Lu, S.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China .
    Zhang, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China .
    Fu, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China .
    Xue, Y.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China .
    Miao, Z.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China .
    Ahmad, A.
    Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Engineering and Technology, Multan, Pakistan.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Qureshi, A. S.
    University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    The Effect of Chelating Agents on Enhancement of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and Trichloroethylene Degradation by Z-nZVI-Catalyzed Percarbonate Process2016In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 227, no 9, article id 301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study primarily focused on the performance of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation involving redox reactions in zeolite-supported nanozerovalent iron composite (Z-nZVI)-catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) system in aqueous solution with five different chelating agents (CAs) including oxalic acid (OA), citric acid monohydrate (CAM), glutamic acid (GA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and L-ascorbic acid (ASC). The experimental results showed that the addition of OA achieved almost 100 % degradation of 1,1,1-TCA and TCE. The addition of CAM and GA also significantly increased the contaminant degradation, while excessive addition of them inhibited the degradation. In contrast, EDTA and ASC showed negative impacts on 1,1,1-TCA and TCE degradation, which might be due to the strong reactivity with iron and OH● scavenging characteristics. The efficiency with CA addition on 1,1,1-TCA and TCE degradation decreased in the order of OA &gt; CAM &gt; GA &gt; no CAs &gt; EDTA &gt; ASC. The extensive investigations using probe compound tests and scavenger tests revealed that both contaminants degraded primarily by OH● and O2 –● in chelated Z-nZVI-catalyzed SPC system. The significant improvement in 1,1,1-TCA and TCE degradation efficiency was accredited due to the (i) increase in concentration of Fe2+ and (ii) continuous generation of OH● radicals and maintenance of its quantity, ensuring more stability in the aqueous solution. Finally, the complete mineralization of 1,1,1-TCA and TCE in the OA-chelated, Z-nZVI-catalyzed SPC system was confirmed without any chlorinated intermediate by-products detected, demonstrating a great potential of this technique in the application of groundwater remediation.

  • 3.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro Univ.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Sakab AB.
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    Eurofins Environm Sweden AB.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Eurofins Environm Sweden AB.
    Bioremediation of a Soil Industrially Contaminated by Wood Preservatives-Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Monitoring of Coupled Arsenic Translocation2011In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 214, no 1-4, p. 275-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two commercially available aerobic bioremediation methods (DaramendA (R) and BioSan) were utilized to study the aerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the effect of the simultaneously present arsenic. The soil was collected at an old wood preservation site, and the initial PAH(16)-concentration was 46 mg/kg, with mainly high molecular weight congeners. The As concentration was 105 mg/kg with low availability as assessed with sequential extraction. To enhance the availability of PAH, the effect of a nonionic surfactant was evaluated. Degradation of both low and high molecular weight PAH was observed; however, after 30 weeks, the degradation was generally low and no treatment was significantly better than the others. The treatments had, on the other hand, an effect on As remobilization, with increased As concentration in the available fraction after treatment. This may be due to both the microbial activity and the presence of anoxic microsites in the soil. The overall efficiency of the biological treatment was further evaluated using the standardized ecotoxicity test utilizing Vibrio fischeri (MicrotoxA (R)). The toxicity test demonstrated that the bioremediation led to an increase in toxicity, especially in treatments receiving surfactant. The surfactant implied an increase in contaminant availability but also a decrease in surface tension, which might have contributed to the overall toxicity increase.

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