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  • 1.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Eriksson, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste2014In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 1391-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295. ±. 2.9, 317. ±. 1.9 and 304. ±. 2.8. N. ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113. ±. 1.3, 134. ±. 1.1 and 130. ±. 2.3. N. ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process.

  • 2.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Pell, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Svensson, K.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1246-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100 kg N ha-1 year-1. The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, μSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, μPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (μPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes.

  • 3.
    Ribe, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays2014In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 1871-1876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox (R) toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna immobility test showed a moderately high toxic effect of the ash leachates. Overall, the results from this study showed an ecotoxic effect of the solid MSW bottom ash and the corresponding ash leachates. The material may therefore pose an environmental risk if used in construction applications. However, as the testing of the solid ash was rather limited and the ash leachate showed an unusually high leaching of Cr, further assessments are required in order to conclusively characterize the bottom ash studied herein as hazardous according to the H14 criterion.

  • 4.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    Karlskoga Energi & Miljö AB.
    Berglind, Rune
    FOI CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ecotoxicological assessment and evaluation of a pine bark biosorbent treatment of five landfillleachates2012In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 1886-1894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When selecting a landfill leachate treatment method the contaminant composition of theleachate should be considered in order to obtain the most cost-effective treatment option. In this studythe filter material pine bark was evaluated as a treatment for five landfill leachates originating fromdifferent cells of the same landfill in Sweden. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake,or release, of metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during a leaching test using the pine barkfilter material with the five different landfill leachates. Furthermore the change of toxicity aftertreatment was studied using a battery of aquatic bioassays assessing luminescent bacteria (Vibriofischeri) acute toxicity (30-min Microtox®), immobility of the crustacean Daphnia magna, growthinhibition of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the aquatic plant Lemna minor; andgenotoxicity with the bacterial Umu-C assay. The results from the toxicity tests and the chemicalanalysis were analyzed in a Principal Component Analysis and the toxicity of the samples before andafter treatment was evaluated in a toxicity classification. The pine bark filter material reduced theconcentrations of metal contaminants from the landfill leachates in the study, with some exceptions forCu and Cd. The Zn uptake of the filter was high for heavily contaminated leachates (≥73%), althoughsome desorption of zinc occurred in less contaminated waters. Some of the leachates may requirefurther treatment due to discharge into a natural recipient in order to reduce the risk of possiblebiological effects. The difference in pH changes between the different leachates was probably due tovariations in buffering capacity, affected by physicochemical properties of the leachate. The greatestdesorption of phenol during filtration occurred in leachates with high conductivity or elevated levels ofmetals or salts. Generally, the toxicity classification of the leachates implies that although filtertreatment with pine bark removes metal contaminants from the leachates effectively, it does not alterleachate toxicity noticeably. The leachates with the highest conductivity, pH and metal concentrationsare most strongly correlated with an increased toxic response in the score plots of both untreated andtreated leachates. This is in line with the toxicity classification of the leachate samples. The results fromthis study highlight the importance of evaluating treatment efficiency from the perspective of potentialrecipient effects, rather than in terms of residual concentrations of individual contaminants whentreating waters with a complex contamination matrix, such as landfill leachates.

  • 5.
    Song, Han
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Modeling and optimization of a regional waste-to-energy system: A case study in central Sweden2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 1315-1316Article in journal (Other academic)
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