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  • 1.
    Alayón, C.
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Säfsten, K.
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Conceptual sustainable production principles in practice: Do they reflect what companies do?2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 141, 693-701 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common understanding of sustainable production principles and the identification of sustainable manufacturing practices among practitioners are key starting points in studying how manufacturers are making their operations more sustainable. However, there is a lack of insight in the literature connecting conceptual sustainable production principles, and the practices reflecting these principles. Using semi-structured interviews founded on the sustainable production principles posed by the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, this paper presents an outlook of how companies in different industries carry out manufacturing practices related to the sustainability production principles. Results showed that the majority of sustainable manufacturing practices remain strongly centered on the environmental dimension of sustainability, with the greatest number of practices emanating from principles concerning energy and material conservation, and waste management. Similarly, reactive sustainable manufacturing practices prevailed over proactive sustainable manufacturing practices, as most of the practices aimed to comply with regulatory and market pressures. Quality and environmental management systems were acknowledged as important tools for putting sustainable production principles into practice; while Swedish environmental and social regulations were found to drive sustainable manufacturing practices. This study connects sustainable production principles with sustainable manufacturing practices and opens the way for further studies on a global or sector-specific scale.

  • 2.
    Djuric Ilic, D.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Trygg, L.
    Linköping University.
    Broman, G.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology,.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating - Part I: An evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 69, 176-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well. In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced. Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%. 

  • 3.
    Djuric Ilic, D.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Trygg, L.
    Linköping University.
    Broman, G.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating - Part II: An evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 69, 188-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied. Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. 

  • 4.
    Djuric Ilic, D.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Trygg, L.
    Linköping University.
    Broman, G.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden .
    Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - An opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 64, no 1, 552-561 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass. 

  • 5.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Is the Swedish environmental technology sector 'green'?2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 19, no 8, 827-835 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental technology (ET) sector delivers environmentally preferably products. Little is known about whether companies in the ET sector set environmental objectives relating to their own production processes. This paper presents results from an online survey on environmental work in enterprises listed by the Swedish Environmental Technology Council (Swentec). The survey found that depending on the specific subsector, only between 21% and 45% of companies provide information about their environmental work on their website. This paper proposes environmental aspects of production and products as bases for corporate greening and for de fining‘green’and‘green-green’business and identifies three main motivations for the companies within ET sector to operate as ‘green-green’businesses:‘competitiveadvantage’, ‘environmental responsibility’ and ‘environmental leadership’.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Glenn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Lean and green product development: two sides of the same coin?2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, 104-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares and contrasts the lean product development (LPD) and green product development (GPD) concepts through a systematic literature review including 102 journal publications. The review resulted in 14 findings that were organised according to four dimensions: general, process, people and tools/techniques. A number of similarities between the concepts were found. For example, implementation of both concepts calls for a systems perspective where the dimensions of process-people- tools/techniques are linked holistically. Differences between the LPD and GPD concepts lie in: their goal and focus, value construct, process structure, performance metrics, and tools/techniques used. The findings do not unambiguously support that "green thinking is thinking lean" and consequently it cannot be argued that LPD and GPD are two sides of the same coin, meaning that LPD automatically leads to greener products or that GPD ensures improvements and efficiency in the product development process. However, it is reasonable to conclude that LPD and GPD belong to the same "currency". That is, the concepts share a number of similarities that indicate a synergistic relationship. This synergistic relationship has been accentuated by a nine propositions where the potential for cross-field learning is shown.

  • 7.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Mont, Oksana
    Lund University.
    Arnold Tucker, Ursula Tischner, New Business for Old Europe. Product-Service Development, Competitiveness and Sustainability2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 17, 1559-1560 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Miljögiraff, Environmental Consultants, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wendin, Marcus
    Miljögiraff, Environmental Consultants, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Cecilia
    Volvo Group, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnus, Wiktorsson
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Waste flow mapping to improve sustainability of waste management: A case study approach2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, no 1, 304-315 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative, resource-efficient solutions and effective waste management systems capture value in business and contribute to sustainability. However, due to scattered waste management responsibilities in the vehicle industry and the orientation of operations management and lean tools, which mostly focus on lead-time and labour-time improvements, the requirement of a collaborative method to include material waste efficiency in operational development is identified. The main purpose of this research is to study how operations management and environmental management can be integrated on an operational level and include the waste management supply chain. Based on a literature review of environmental and operational improvement tools and principles, the gaps and needs in current practice were identified. A large case study implementing a waste flow mapping (WFM) method on a set of manufacturing sites revealed potentials in terms of reducing material losses and inefficiencies in the handling of materials and waste. Finally, the integrated WFM method was analysed with respect to the gaps and needs identified in the existing body of tools for operational and environmental improvement. The method combines lean manufacturing tools, such as value stream mapping with cleaner production and material flow cost accounting strategies. The empirical data showed that the WFM method is adequate for current state analysis of waste material efficiency potentials, especially when multiple organisations are involved. However, further development and specific methods are needed such as, for example, logistics inefficiencies, root cause analysis, implementation guidelines for best practice and systems for performance monitoring of actors.

  • 9.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    Swerea IVF AB, Sweden.
    Magnus, Wiktorsson
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Swerea IVF AB, Sweden.
    Lean and green integration into production system models – experiences from Swedish industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, 180-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on integration of operations management, specifically production system models with environmental management and related issues such as quality and safety. Based on knowledge concerning lean-based improvement programmes for company-specific production systems (XPS) and integration between formal management systems, such as ISO 9001 and 14001, industrial practices from integrating management systems with the XPS were studied. A literature-based comparison between formal management systems and XPS is made, indicating integration potentials. The empirical research is an analysis of five vehicle and automotive companies in which various efforts have been made to integrate their management systems with their XPS. The results show that although conscious steps have been taken since the introduction of ISO 14001 in integrating environmental management into everyday operations, there are still obstacles to overcome. To fully include sustainability aspects, the characteristics of the improvement systems have to be adapted and extended. One barrier to extended integration is the lack of integration strategy. There is further a lack of sustainability metrics and adaptation of improvement methods to push companies' operational performance. In addition, organisational issues still arise concerning the responsibility and ownership of environmental management in relation to operations. Based on these results it is concluded that processes for integration are recommended; however, each organisation needs to consider its operations, corporate culture and business opportunities of its environmental management. Still, incorporating environmental management systems into XPS is seen as an effective way of establishing company commonality in continuous improvement, resulting in holistic understanding and improved organisation performance.

  • 10.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Kurdve, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jönsson, Christina
    Swerea IVF, Sweden.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Material efficiency in manufacturing: swedish evidence on potential, barriers and strategies2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 127, 438-450 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved material efficiency is a key to improve the circular economy and capturing value in industry. Material efficiency reduces the generation of industrial waste, the extraction and consumption of resources, and energy demands and carbon emissions. However, material efficiency in the manufacturing sector, as a means of improving the recyclability, reusability, reduction and prevention of industrial waste, is little understood. This study aims to investigate, on a micro-level, further material efficiency improvement opportunities, barriers and strategies in selected manufacturing companies in Sweden, focusing on increasing waste segregation into high quality circulated raw material. Improvement opportunities at large global manufacturing companies are investigated; barriers hindering material efficiency improvement are identified and categorized at two levels; and strategies that have been deployed at manufacturing companies are reviewed. Empirical findings reveal (1) further potential for improving material efficiency through higher segregation of residual material from mixed and low quality fractions (on average, 26% of the content of combustible waste, in weight, was plastics; 8% and 6% were paper and cardboard, respectively); (2) the most influential barriers are within budgetary, information, management, employee, engineering, and communication clusters; (3) a lack of actual material efficiency strategy implementation in the manufacturing companies. According to our analysis, the majority of barriers are internal and originate within the manufacturing companies, therefore they can be managed (and eradicated if possible) with sufficient resources in terms of man hours, education and investment, better operational and environmental (waste) management, better internal communication and information sharing, and deployment of material efficiency strategies.

  • 11.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping Univ.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    An energy efficiency program for Swedish industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 18, no 13, 1339-1346 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy programs such as energy audit programs and long-term agreements (LTAs) are one of the most common means of promoting energy efficiency in industry. As a result of the European Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive from 2006, the Swedish Government Bill proposed a national energy program towards industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using more than 500 MWh energy annually. The aim of this paper is to present the structure and design of the program, adopted in 2010, the logics in brief behind the structure, as well as an ex-ante evaluation of the program's cost-effectiveness. The paper is aimed towards the part of the program involving industry, i.e. not the part involving companies within service and sales etc. The proposed design primarily includes a subsidized energy audit with some minor LTA-elements, such as the need to report results from the energy audit, to present a plan over which measures to conduct, and after three years present which measures that were implemented. The ex-ante evaluation of the program shows a cost-effectiveness of 0.25-0.50 Eurocents/kWh, yielding savings of about 700-1 400 GWh annually.

  • 12.
    Wennersten, R
    et al.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Sun, Qie
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The future potential for Carbon Capture and Storage in climate change mitigation–an overview from perspectives of technology, economy and risk2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 103, 724-736 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the recent IPCC reports, the effects from anthropogenic climate change effects are becoming more serious and actions more urgent. The global mean concentration of CO2, the most important Greenhouse Gas (GHG), in the atmosphere is now close to 400 ppm. The most comprehensive research efforts concerning safe levels propose that we should strive to keep the atmospheric concentration of CO2 below 350 ppm. This is also a more transparent global goal than using effects in the components of the climate system. Most scenarios show that the combustion of fossil fuels will increase in the future, while the development of renewables is still too marginal to stop this growth. The possibility that countries will leave fossil resources underground does not seem realistic. The only options in the short run to halt emissions of CO2 are the large-scale application of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in combination with increased energy efficiency. In the long run, we have to radically transform our societal metabolism towards greater resource efficiency, where renewables can play a more important role. The main barriers for implementation of CCS on a large scale are not technical, but economic and social. As long as the costs for emitting CO2 are much lower than implementing CCS technology, there will not be a market-driven development of CCS. A major challenge for CCS will be to achieve wide public acceptance, since this will also affect the future political attitude to it. This will require an open communication about safety aspects early in the planning phase, where it can be shown that safety issues can be handled, even in the event of major leaks of CO2. To assume a low probability of accidents is not a feasible way forward in the communication process. The future concerning CO2 emissions will be determined very much by actions of the biggest emitters. The developed countries have already emitted a large amount of CO2 and must now take a step forward to show that they are willing to invest in CCS technology. At this stage, it is reasonable to expect developed countries to take a leading role in developing the CCS technology on a large-scale. It is highly probable that developing countries like China will follow this path in the near future, since they have a clear ambition to take a lead in climate change mitigation in the long run and to avoid blame for a deteriorating environment.

  • 13.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    Shandong University, China.
    Sun, Qie
    Shandong University, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The Future Potential for Carbon Capture and Storage in Climate Change Mitigation: An overview from perspectives of technology, economy and risk2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 103, 724-736 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the recent IPCC reports, the effects from anthropogenic climate change effects are becoming more serious and actions more urgent. The global mean concentration of CO2, the most important Greenhouse Gas (GHG), in the atmosphere is now close to 400 ppm. The most comprehensive research efforts concerning safe levels propose that we should strive to keep the atmospheric concentration of CO2below 350 ppm. This is also a more transparent global goal than using effects in the components of the climate system. Most scenarios show that the combustion of fossil fuels will increase in the future, while the development of renewables is still too marginal to stop this growth. The possibility that countries will leave fossil resources underground does not seem realistic. The only options in the short run to halt emissions of CO2 are the large-scale application of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in combination with increased energy efficiency. In the long run, we have to radically transform our societal metabolism towards greater resource efficiency, where renewables can play a more important role. The main barriers for implementation of CCS on a large scale are not technical, but economic and social. As long as the costs for emitting CO2 are much lower than implementing CCS technology, there will not be a market-driven development of CCS. A major challenge for CCS will be to achieve wide public acceptance, since this will also affect the future political attitude to it. This will require an open communication about safety aspects early in the planning phase, where it can be shown that safety issues can be handled, even in the event of major leaks of CO2. To assume a low probability of accidents is not a feasible way forward in the communication process. The future concerning CO2 emissions will be determined very much by actions of the biggest emitters. The developed countries have already emitted a large amount of CO2 and must now take a step forward to show that they are willing to invest in CCS technology. At this stage, it is reasonable to expect developed countries to take a leading role in developing the CCS technology on a large-scale. It is highly probable that developing countries like China will follow this path in the near future, since they have a clear ambition to take a lead in climate change mitigation in the long run and to avoid blame for a deteriorating environment.

  • 14.
    Zhang, X.X.
    et al.
    Beijing Forestry University, China.
    Liu, J.G.
    South University of Science & Technology of China (SUSTC), China.
    Tang, Y.
    South University of Science & Technology of China, China.
    Zhao, X.
    Hohai University, China.
    Yang, H.
    University of Basel, Suisse.
    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Van Vliet, M.T.H
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 161, 1171-1179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China, coal-fired power plants play an important role in the energy supply. Here we assessed water consumption of coal-fired power plants (CPPs) in China using four cooling technologies: closed-cycle cooling, once-through cooling, air cooling, and seawater cooling. The results show that water consumption of CPPs was 3.5 km(3), accounting for 11% of total industrial water consumption in China. Eighty-four percent of this water consumption was from plants with closed-cycle cooling. China's average water intensity of CPPs was 1.15 l/kWh, while the intensity for closed-cycle cooling was 3-10 times higher than that for other cooling technologies. About 75% of water consumption of CPPs was from regions with absolute or chronic water scarcity. The results imply that the development of CPPs needs to explicitly consider their impacts on regional water resources. 

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