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  • 1.
    Chaudhary, Ramjee
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol, Ctr Environm Sci & Engn, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra, India.;Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, Singapore 117576, Singapore..
    Dikshit, Anil Kumar
    Mälardalen University. Indian Inst Technol, Ctr Environm Sci & Engn, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra, India.;Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Environm & Soc, Vasteras, Sweden.;Asian Inst Technol, Sch Environm Resources & Dev, Urban Environm Management, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand..
    Tong, Yen Wah
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, Singapore 117576, Singapore.;Natl Univ Singapore, Environm Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Carbon-dioxide biofixation and phycoremediation of municipal wastewater using Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 21, p. 20399-20406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pure cultures of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris ATCC 13482 and Scenedesmus obliquus FACHB 417 were grown in municipal wastewater in 7-L airlift bubble column photobioreactor supplied with 5% CO2/air (v/v). Batch experiments were conducted at 25 A degrees C with 14-h light/10-h dark cycle for a period of 10 days. The CO2 capture efficiencies for both the microalgae were monitored in terms of their respective biomass productivities, carbon contents, and CO2 consumption rates. In the present study, the initial concentration of ammonia (43.7 mg L-1) was decreased to 2.9 and 3.7 mg L-1 by C. vulgaris and S. obliquus, respectively. And, the initial concentration of phosphate (18.5 mg L-1) was decreased to 1.1 and 1.6 mg L-1 by C. vulgaris and S. obliquus, respectively. CO2 biofixation rates by C. vulgaris and S. obliquus, cultivated in municipal wastewater, were calculated to be 140.91 and 129.82 mg L-1 day(-1), respectively. The findings from the present study highlight the use of microalgae for wastewater treatment along with CO2 uptake and biomass utilization for pilot scale production of biodiesel, biogas, feed supplements for animals, etc., thus minimizing the production costs.

  • 2.
    Danish, Muhammad
    et al.
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Gu, Xiaogang
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Shuguang
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Degradation of chlorinated organic solvents in aqueous percarbonate system using zeolite supported nano zero valent iron (Z-nZVI) composite2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 13, p. 13298-13307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic solvents (COSs) are extensively detected in contaminated soil and groundwater that pose long-term threats to human life and environment. In order to degrade COSs effectively, a novel catalytic composite of natural zeolite-supported nano zero valent iron (Z-nZVI) was synthesized in this study. The performance of Z-nZVI-catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) in a heterogeneous Fenton-like system was investigated for the degradation of COSs such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE). The surface characteristics and morphology of the Z-nZVI composite were tested using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total pore volume, specific surface area, and pore size of the natural zeolite and the Z-nZVI composite were measured using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. SEM and TEM analysis showed significant elimination of aggregation and well dispersion of iron nano particles on the framework of natural zeolite. The BET N-2 measurement analysis indicated that the surface area of the Z-nZVI composite was 72.3 m(2)/g, much larger than that of the natural zeolite (0.61 m(2)/g). For the contaminant analysis, the samples were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed through gas chromatograph. The degradation of 1,1,1-TCA and TCE in the Z-nZVI-catalyzed percarbonate system were 48 and 39 % respectively, while strong augmentation was observed up to 83 and 99 %, respectively, by adding the reducing agent (RA), hydroxyl amine (NH2OH center dot HCl). Probe tests validated the presence of OH center dot and O-2(center dot-) which were responsible for 1,1,1-TCA and TCE degradation, whereas both free radicals were strengthened with the addition of RA. In conclusion, the Z-nZVI/SPC oxidation with reducing agent shows potential technique for degradation of groundwater contaminated by 1,1,1-TCA and TCE.

  • 3.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Repo, E.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Sillanpää, M.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Filter materials for metal removal from mine drainage-a review2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 15, p. 9109-9128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of filter materials, organic and inorganic, for removal of heavy metals in mine drainage have been reviewed. Bark, chitin, chitosan, commercial ion exchangers, dairy manure compost, lignite, peat, rice husks, vegetal compost, and yeast are examples of organic materials, while bio-carbons, calcareous shale, dolomite, fly ash, limestone, olivine, steel slag materials and zeolites are examples of inorganic materials. The majority of these filter materials have been investigated in laboratory studies, based on various experimental set-ups (batch and/or column tests) and different conditions. A few materials, for instance steel slag materials, have also been subjects to field investigations under real-life conditions. The results from these investigations show that steel slag materials have the potential to remove heavy metals under different conditions. Ion exchange has been suggested as the major metal removal mechanisms not only for steel slag but also for lignite. Other suggested removal mechanisms have also been identified. Adsorption has been suggested important for activated carbon, precipitation for chitosan and sulphate reduction for olivine. General findings indicate that the results with regard to metal removal vary due to experimental set ups, composition of mine drainage and properties of filter materials and the discrepancies between studies renders normalisation of data difficult. However, the literature reveals that Fe, Zn, Pb, Hg and Al are removed to a large extent. Further investigations, especially under real-life conditions, are however necessary in order to find suitable filter materials for treatment of mine drainage. 

  • 4.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Färm, C.
    An assessment of the potential toxicity of runoff from an urban roadscape during rain events2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. The potential negative impact of urban storm water on aquatic freshwater ecosystems has been demonstrated in various studies with different types of biological methods. There are a number of factors that influence the amount and bioavailability of contaminants in storm water even if it is derived from an area with a fairly homogenous land use such as a roadscape where a variation in toxicity during rain events might be expected. There are only a few previous investigations on the toxicity of highway runoff and they have not explored these issues extensively. The main objective of this study is therefore to characterize the potential toxicity of highway runoff during several rain events before if enters a detention pond in Vasteras, Sweden, using laboratory bioassays with test organisms representing various functional groups in an aquatic ecosystem. The results are to be used for developing a monitoring program, including biological methods. Materials and Methods. The storm water was sampled before the entrance to a detention pond, which receives run-off from a highway with approximately 20,000 vehicles a day. The drainage area, including the roadscape and vegetated areas, is 4.3 ha in size. Samples for toxicity tests were taken with an automatic sampler or manually during storm events. In total, the potential toxicity of 65 samples representing 15 different storm events was determined. The toxicity was assessed with 4 different test organisms; Vibrio fischeri using the Microtox (R) comparison test, Daphnia magna using Daphtoxkit-F (TM) agna, Thamnocephalus platyurus using the ThamnotoxkitF (TM) and Lemna minor, duckweed using SS 028313. Results and Discussion. Of the 65 samples, 58 samples were tested with DaphniatoxkitF (TM) agna, 57 samples with the Microtox (R) comparison test, 48 samples with ThamnotoxkitF (TM) and 20 samples with Lemna minor, duckweed. None of the storm water samples were toxic. No toxicity was detected with the Lemna minor test, but in 5 of the 23 samples tested in comparison to the control a growth stimulation of 22-46% was observed. This is in accordance with the chemical analysis of the storm water, which indicated rather large concentrations of tot-N and tot-P. In addition to the growth stimulation, morphological changes were observed in all the 5 samples from the winter event that was sampled. The lack of toxicity observed in our study might be due to a lower traffic intensity (20,000 vehicles/day) at the site and the trapping of pollutants in the vegetated areas of the roadscape, resulting in much smaller loads of pollutants in the storm water than in some previous studies. Conclusions. Ecotoxicological evaluations of storm water including run off from rain events from urban roadscape studies clearly reveal that toxicity may or may not be detected depending upon site, storm condition and the test organism chosen. However, storm water might not be as polluted as previously reported nor may the first flush be such a widespread phenomenon as we originally expected. In this study, there was also a good correlation between pollutant load measured and the lack of toxicity. The test organisms chosen in this study are commonly used in effluent control programs in Sweden and other countries, which makes it possible to compare the results with those from other effluents. In this study, only acute toxicity tests were used and further studies using chronic toxicity tests, assays for genotoxic compounds or in situ bioassays might reveal biological effects at this site. Furthermore, most of the samples were taken in spring, summer or fall and it is possible that winter conditions might alter the constituents in the storm water and, thus, the toxicity of the samples. Recommendations and Perspectives. Considering the complex nature of run off from urban roadscapes, it will be virtually impossible to evaluate properly the potential hazard of particular storm water and the efficiency of a particular treatment strategy from only physical and chemical characterizations of the effluent. Therefore, despite the lack of toxicity detected in this study, it is recommended that toxicity tests or other biological methods should be included in evaluations of the effects of runoff from roadscapes.

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