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  • 1. Andersson, P. A.
    et al.
    Vartanova, I.
    Västfjäll, D.
    Tinghög, G.
    Strimling, P.
    Wu, J.
    Hazin, I.
    Akotia, C. S.
    Aldashev, A.
    Andrighetto, Giulia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Anum, A.
    Arikan, G.
    Bagherian, F.
    Barrera, D.
    Basnight-Brown, D.
    Batkeyev, B.
    Berezina, E.
    Björnstjerna, M.
    Boski, P.
    Bovina, I.
    Huyen, B. T. T.
    Čekrlija, Đ.
    Choi, H. -S
    Contreras-Ibáñez, C. C.
    Costa-Lopes, R.
    de Barra, M.
    de Zoysa, P.
    Dorrough, A. R.
    Dvoryanchikov, N.
    Engelmann, J. B.
    Euh, H.
    Fang, X.
    Fiedler, S.
    Foster-Gimbel, O. A.
    Fülöp, M.
    Gardarsdottir, R. B.
    Gill, C. M. H. D.
    Glöckner, A.
    Graf, S.
    Grigoryan, A.
    Gritskov, V.
    Growiec, K.
    Halama, P.
    Hartanto, A.
    Hopthrow, T.
    Hřebíčková, M.
    Iliško, D.
    Imada, H.
    Kapoor, H.
    Kawakami, K.
    Khachatryan, N.
    Kharchenko, N.
    Kiyonari, T.
    Kohút, M.
    Leslie, L. M.
    Li, Y.
    Li, N. P.
    Li, Z.
    Liik, K.
    Maitner, A. T.
    Manhique, B.
    Manley, H.
    Medhioub, I.
    Mentser, S.
    Nejat, P.
    Nipassa, O.
    Nussinson, R.
    Onyedire, N. G.
    Onyishi, I. E.
    Panagiotopoulou, P.
    Perez-Floriano, L. R.
    Persson, M.
    Pirttilä-Backman, A. -M
    Pogosyan, M.
    Raver, J.
    Rodrigues, R. B.
    Romanò, S.
    Romero, P. P.
    Sakki, I.
    San Martin, A.
    Sherbaji, S.
    Shimizu, H.
    Simpson, B.
    Szabo, E.
    Takemura, K.
    Teixeira, M. L. M.
    Thanomkul, N.
    Tiliouine, H.
    Travaglino, G. A.
    Tsirbas, Y.
    Widodo, S.
    Zein, R.
    Zirganou-Kazolea, L.
    Eriksson, K.
    Anger and disgust shape judgments of social sanctions across cultures, especially in high individual autonomy societies2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 5591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When someone violates a social norm, others may think that some sanction would be appropriate. We examine how the experience of emotions like anger and disgust relate to the judged appropriateness of sanctions, in a pre-registered analysis of data from a large-scale study in 56 societies. Across the world, we find that individuals who experience anger and disgust over a norm violation are more likely to endorse confrontation, ostracism and, to a smaller extent, gossip. Moreover, we find that the experience of anger is consistently the strongest predictor of judgments of confrontation, compared to other emotions. Although the link between state-based emotions and judgments may seem universal, its strength varies across countries. Aligned with theoretical predictions, this link is stronger in societies, and among individuals, that place higher value on individual autonomy. Thus, autonomy values may increase the role that emotions play in guiding judgments of social sanctions.

  • 2.
    Asadi, M.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Poursalim, F.
    Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gharehbaghi, A.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Accurate detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with certified-GAN and neural architecture search2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel machine learning framework for detecting PxAF, a pathological characteristic of electrocardiogram (ECG) that can lead to fatal conditions such as heart attack. To enhance the learning process, the framework involves a generative adversarial network (GAN) along with a neural architecture search (NAS) in the data preparation and classifier optimization phases. The GAN is innovatively invoked to overcome the class imbalance of the training data by producing the synthetic ECG for PxAF class in a certified manner. The effect of the certified GAN is statistically validated. Instead of using a general-purpose classifier, the NAS automatically designs a highly accurate convolutional neural network architecture customized for the PxAF classification task. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed framework exhibits a high value of 99.0% which not only enhances state-of-the-art by up to 5.1%, but also improves the classification performance of the two widely-accepted baseline methods, ResNet-18, and Auto-Sklearn, by [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text].

  • 3.
    Bationo, C. S.
    et al.
    INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Institute of Public Health Sciences, ISSPAM, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France; CNRS, IRD, MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France; Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Gaudart, J.
    INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Institute of Public Health Sciences, ISSPAM, APHM, Hop Timone, BioSTIC, Biostatistic & ICT, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France; Malaria Research and Training Center—Ogobara K. Doumbo (MRTC-OKD), FMOS-FAPH, Mali-NIAID-ICER, Université des Sciences, des Techniques et des Technologies de Bamako, Bamako, Mali.
    Dieng, S.
    INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Institute of Public Health Sciences, ISSPAM, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France.
    Cissoko, M.
    INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Institute of Public Health Sciences, ISSPAM, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France; Malaria Research and Training Center—Ogobara K. Doumbo (MRTC-OKD), FMOS-FAPH, Mali-NIAID-ICER, Université des Sciences, des Techniques et des Technologies de Bamako, Bamako, Mali.
    Taconet, P.
    CNRS, IRD, MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France; Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Ouedraogo, B.
    Direction des Systèmes d’information en Santé, Ministère de la Santé du Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
    Somé, A.
    Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Zongo, I.
    Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Soma, D. D.
    CNRS, IRD, MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France; Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Santé, Université Nazi Boni, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Tougri, G.
    Programme National de Lutte Contre le Paludisme, Ministère de la Santé du Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
    Dabiré, R. K.
    Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Koffi, A.
    Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Cote d'Ivoire.
    Pennetier, C.
    CNRS, IRD, MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France; Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Cote d'Ivoire.
    Moiroux, N.
    CNRS, IRD, MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France; Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Spatio-temporal analysis and prediction of malaria cases using remote sensing meteorological data in Diébougou health district, Burkina Faso, 2016–20172021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 20027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria control and prevention programs are more efficient and cost-effective when they target hotspots or select the best periods of year to implement interventions. This study aimed to identify the spatial distribution of malaria hotspots at the village level in Diébougou health district, Burkina Faso, and to model the temporal dynamics of malaria cases as a function of meteorological conditions and of the distance between villages and health centres (HCs). Case data for 27 villages were collected in 13 HCs. Meteorological data were obtained through remote sensing. Two synthetic meteorological indicators (SMIs) were created to summarize meteorological variables. Spatial hotspots were detected using the Kulldorf scanning method. A General Additive Model was used to determine the time lag between cases and SMIs and to evaluate the effect of SMIs and distance to HC on the temporal evolution of malaria cases. The multivariate model was fitted with data from the epidemic year to predict the number of cases in the following outbreak. Overall, the incidence rate in the area was 429.13 cases per 1000 person-year with important spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Four spatial hotspots, involving 7 of the 27 villages, were detected, for an incidence rate of 854.02 cases per 1000 person-year. The hotspot with the highest risk (relative risk = 4.06) consisted of a single village, with an incidence rate of 1750.75 cases per 1000 person-years. The multivariate analysis found greater variability in incidence between HCs than between villages linked to the same HC. The time lag that generated the better predictions of cases was 9 weeks for SMI1 (positively correlated with precipitation variables) and 16 weeks for SMI2 (positively correlated with temperature variables. The prediction followed the overall pattern of the time series of reported cases and predicted the onset of the following outbreak with a precision of less than 3 weeks. This analysis of malaria cases in Diébougou health district, Burkina Faso, provides a powerful prospective method for identifying and predicting high-risk areas and high-transmission periods that could be targeted in future malaria control and prevention campaigns.

  • 4.
    Borneskog, C.
    et al.
    Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom; 2 Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stenhammar, C.
    Uppsala University, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tydén, T.
    Uppsala University, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Iliadis, S. I.
    Uppsala University, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Changes in sexual behavior among high-school students over a 40-year period2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 13963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual behavior, contraceptive use, risk factors as well as sources of sex information among first-year high-school students in Sweden. Secondly, to assess differences between genders and study programs as well as changes over a 40-year period. A repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted in two cities. A questionnaire comprising 77 items was used. The study population consisted of 415 students (63.4% females). The median age of sexual intercourse was 15 years. In total, 37% had had sexual intercourse, compared to 56.3% in 2009 and 45% in 1999 (p < 0.001), and the proportion of students who had their first sexual intercourse was not influenced by gender. More students in vocational programs (46.3%), compared to theoretical (33.3%), had experience of at least one sexual intercourse (p = 0.019). The same extend of contraception use at first and latest intercourse was reported, compared to previous studies. Forty-nine percent were mostly informed about sex from the internet, while in previous years, magazines, family and youth clinics were the main information sources. Comparing over time, students were in general less sexually experienced and less engaged in non-penetrative sex and physical intimacy. These findings call for a new approach, when designing sex and relationship education and health-care counseling in adolescents.

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  • 5.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cownden, Daniel
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social learning may lead to population level conformity without individual level frequency bias2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 17341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A requirement of culture, whether animal or human, is some degree of conformity of behavior within populations. Researchers of gene-culture coevolution have suggested that population level conformity may result from frequency-biased social learning: individuals sampling multiple role models and preferentially adopting the majority behavior in the sample. When learning from a single role model, frequency-bias is not possible. We show why a population-level trend, either conformist or anticonformist, may nonetheless be almost inevitable in a population of individuals that learn through social enhancement, that is, using observations of others' behavior to update their own probability of using a behavior in the future. The exact specification of individuals' updating rule determines the direction of the trend. These results offer a new interpretation of previous findings from simulations of social enhancement in combination with reinforcement learning, and demonstrate how results of dynamical models may strongly depend on seemingly innocuous choices of model specifications, and how important it is to obtain empirical data on which to base such choices.

  • 6.
    Lindner, Philip
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Ctr Dependence Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Flodin, Par
    Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Ctr Aging & Demog Res, Umea, Sweden..
    Peter, Larm
    Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Budhiraja, Meenal
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Savic-Berglund, Ivanka
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Neurol Clin, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Eastern Finland, Niuvanniemi Hosp, Dept Forens Psychiat, Kuopio, Finland..
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Montreal, Dept Psychiat, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Amygdala-orbitofrontal structural and functional connectivity in females with anxiety disorders, with and without a history of conduct disorder2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans. The uncinate fasciculus was reconstructed using tractography and manual dissection, and structural measures extracted. Correlations of resting-state activity between amygdala and OFC seeds were computed. The CD + AD and AD groups showed similarly reduced structural integrity of the left uncinate compared to ND, even after adjusting for IQ, psychiatric comorbidity, and childhood maltreatment. Uncinate integrity was associated with harm avoidance traits among AD-only women, and with the interaction of poor anger control and anxiety symptoms among CD + AD women. Groups did not differ in functional connectivity. Reduced uncinate integrity observed in CD + AD and AD-only women may reflect deficient emotion regulation in response to threat, common to both disorders, while other neural mechanisms determine the behavioral response.

  • 7.
    Pasin, G. L.
    et al.
    Department of Social and Political Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Szekely, A.
    Collegio Carlo Alberto, Turin, Italy.
    Eriksson, K.
    Center for Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guido, A.
    Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council of Italy, Rome, Italy.
    di Sorrentino, E. P.
    Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council of Italy, Rome, Italy.
    Andrighetto, Giulia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council of Italy, Rome, Italy.
    Evidence from 43 countries that disease leaves cultures unchanged in the short-term2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 6502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Did cultures change shortly after, and in response to, the COVID-19 outbreak? If so, then in what way? We study these questions for a set of macro-cultural dimensions: collectivism/individualism, duty/joy, traditionalism/autonomy, and pro-fertility/individual-choice norms. We also study specific perceptions and norms like perceived threats to society (e.g. immigration) and hygiene norms. We draw on Evolutionary Modernization Theory, Parasite Stress Theory, and the Behavioural Immune System, and existing evidence, to make an overarching prediction: the COVID-19 pandemic should increase collectivism, duty, traditionalism, conformity (i.e. pro-fertility), and outgroup prejudice. We derive specific hypotheses from this prediction and use survey data from 29,761 respondents, in 55 cities and 43 countries, collected before (April–December 2019) and recently after the emergence of COVID-19 (April–June 2020) to test them. We exploit variation in disease intensity across regions to test potential mechanisms behind any changes. The macro-cultural dimensions remained stable. In contrast, specific perceptions and norms related to the pandemic changed: norms of hygiene substantially increased as did perceived threats related to disease. Taken together, our findings imply that macro-cultural dimensions are primarily stable while specific perceptions and norms, particularly those related to the pandemic, can change rapidly. Our findings provide new evidence for theories of cultural change and have implications for policy, public health, daily life, and future trajectories of our societies.

  • 8.
    Sanwal, Muhammad Usman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Hoang, T. S.
    School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Petre, L.
    Computer Science, Abo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Petre, I.
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Scalable reaction network modeling with automatic validation of consistency in Event-B2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructing a large biological model is a difficult, error-prone process. Small errors in writing a part of the model cascade to the system level and their sources are difficult to trace back. In this paper we extend a recent approach based on Event-B, a state-based formal method with refinement as its central ingredient, allowing us to validate for model consistency step-by-step in an automated way. We demonstrate this approach on a model of the heat shock response in eukaryotes and its scalability on a model of the ErbB signaling pathway. All consistency properties of the model were proved automatically with computer support.

  • 9.
    Vrettou, M.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Yan, L.
    EpigenDx, Inc, Hopkinton, MA, United States.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Centre for Clinical Research Västerås, Uppsala University, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallén-Mackenzie, Å.
    Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nylander, I.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comasco, E.
    Department of Neuroscience, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    DNA methylation of Vesicular Glutamate Transporters in the mesocorticolimbic brain following early-life stress and adult ethanol exposure: an explorative study2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 15322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA methylation and gene expression can be altered by early life stress (ELS) and/or ethanol consumption. The present study aimed to investigate whether DNA methylation of the Vesicular Glutamate Transporters (Vglut)1-3 is related to previously observed Vglut1-3 transcriptional differences in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (Acb), dorsal striatum (dStr) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult rats exposed to ELS, modelled by maternal separation, and voluntary ethanol consumption. Targeted next-generation bisulfite sequencing was performed to identify the methylation levels on 61 5′-cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-3′ sites (CpGs) in potential regulatory regions of Vglut1, 53 for Vglut2, and 51 for Vglut3. In the VTA, ELS in ethanol-drinking rats was associated with Vglut1-2 CpG-specific hypomethylation, whereas bidirectional Vglut2 methylation differences at single CpGs were associated with ELS alone. Exposure to both ELS and ethanol, in the Acb, was associated with lower promoter and higher intronic Vglut3 methylation; and in the dStr, with higher and lower methylation in 26% and 43% of the analyzed Vglut1 CpGs, respectively. In the mPFC, lower Vglut2 methylation was observed upon exposure to ELS or ethanol. The present findings suggest Vglut1-3 CpG-specific methylation signatures of ELS and ethanol drinking, underlying previously reported Vglut1-3 transcriptional differences in the mesocorticolimbic brain. 

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