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  • 1.
    Alam, Sultan
    et al.
    Univ Malakand, Dept Chem, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, Pakistan..
    Ullah, Barkat
    Univ Malakand, Dept Chem, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, Pakistan..
    Khan, Muhammad Sufaid
    Univ Malakand, Dept Chem, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, Pakistan..
    Rahman, Najeeb ur
    Univ Malakand, Dept Chem, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, Pakistan..
    Khan, Luqman
    Univ Malakand, Dept Chem, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, Pakistan.;Univ Peshawar, Natl Ctr Excellence Phys Chem NCE, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan..
    Shah, Luqman Ali
    Zekker, Ivar
    Univ Tartu, Inst Chem, 14a Ravila St, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Inst Forestry & Rural Engn, 5 Kreutzwaldi St, EE-51014 Tartu, Estonia..
    Kallistova, Anna
    Russian Acad Sci, Winogradsky Inst Microbiol, Biotechnol Res Ctr, Leninsky Prospect,33,Build 2, Moscow 119071, Russia..
    Pimenov, Nikolai
    Russian Acad Sci, Winogradsky Inst Microbiol, Biotechnol Res Ctr, Leninsky Prospect,33,Build 2, Moscow 119071, Russia..
    Yandri, Erkata
    East Jakarta Timur, Darma Persadha Univ, Grad Sch Renewable Energy, Jl Taman Malaka, Jakarta 13450, Indonesia..
    Hendroko Setyobudi, Roy
    Univ Muhammadiyah Malang, Dept Agr Sci, Malang 65145, Indonesia..
    Jani, Yahya
    Malmö universitet, Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US), Sweden.
    Zahoor, Muhammad
    Univ Malakand, Dept Biochem, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, Pakistan..
    Adsorption Kinetics and Isotherm Study of Basic Red 5 on Synthesized Silica Monolith Particles2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 20, article id 2803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Silica monolith particles (SMP) were prepared from Tetra-Methyl-Ortho-Silicate (TMOS) and characterized by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and surface area analyzer. FTIR analysis showed the Si-O stretching confirming SMP formation. SEM analysis provided information about the mean diameter of SMP (1-5 mu m). EDX confirmed the presence of silicon and oxygen in the SMP. Moreover, the calculated surface area for SMP was found to be around 367 m(2)/g, whereas BJH pore size distributed particles were 87.15 along with the total pore volume and pore radius of 0.073 cm(3)/g and 16.627 & ANGS;, respectively. Besides, the removal efficiency was found to be about 96%. Various kinetic equations were used to calculate the adsorption parameters. Overall, the results show that the most appropriate model for the kinetics data was the pseudo-second order kinetics model while the mechanism of adsorption was best explained by the Langmuir isotherm. The highest removal of Basic Red 5 dye after 120 min at 298 K was 576 mg/g. Moreover, the thermodynamics parameters (Enthalpy, Gibb's energy, and Entropy) were also estimated. The & UDelta;H & DEG; (0.995 kJ/mol) value depicted the endothermic nature of the process. The non-spontaneous aspect of the process was evident from the & UDelta;G & DEG; values which were 60.431, 328.93, and 339.5 kJ/mol at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively. From the high removal efficiency value, it can be concluded that the prepared adsorbent can be a potential adsorbent in the reclamation of dyes from wastewater.</p>

  • 2.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review2010In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 826-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

  • 3.
    Mabecua, Fastudo Jorge
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lucas, C.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Agro-waste, a solution for rural electrification?: Assessing biomethane potential of agro-waste in inhambane province, southern mozambique2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the biomethane potential of cassava peels from the four most common varieties of cassava grown in Inhambane Province in Mozambique, Chinhembue, Cussi, Cizangara and Nhassumbi. Agro-wastes from coconut wood and jambolan wood processing were also analyzed to give a complete analysis of the most significant sources of agro-waste in the province. The macromolecular composition (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) was determined and used to calculate the theoretical maximum biochemical methane potential (BMP). The results show that cassava fiber and cassava peel, which are considered to be waste, are viable resources for biomethane production. Further, the results show that cassava fiber and cassava peel have a higher biomethane potential compared with sawdust, and are therefore more suitable for biomethane production. A study to investigate the effect of toxic cyanogenic glycosides and lignin on cassava peels, using pre-treatment techniques to enhance biogas yield, should be carried out. An estimate of how much electricity can be generated based on the availability of agro-waste (cassava residues) and the amount of biomethane produced in our laboratory experiment was carried out. The amount of electricity that can be produced is enough to provide a valuable contribution to the production process in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and in the cassava industry, or some other use in the rural setting. 

  • 4. Rahman, Najeeb
    et al.
    Ullah, Ihsan
    Alam, Sultan
    Khan, Muhammad
    Shah, Luqman
    Zekker, Ivar
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Kallistova, Anna
    Pimenov, Nikolai
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Jani, Yahya
    Malmö universitet, Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US), Sweden.
    Zahoor, Mohammad
    Activated Ailanthus altissima Sawdust as Adsorbent for Removal of Acid Yellow 29 from Wastewater: Kinetics Approach2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 13, p. 1-13, article id 2136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Ailanthus altissima sawdust was chemically activated and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X rays (EDX), and surface area analyzer. The sawdust was used as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye; Acid Yellow 29 (AY 29) from wastewater. Different kinetic and equilibrium models were used to calculate the adsorption parameters. Among the applied models, the more suitable model was Freundlich with maximum adsorption capacities of 9.464, 12.798, and 11.46 mg/g at 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C respectively while R2 values close to 1. Moreover, the kinetic data was best fitted in pseudo second order kinetic model with high R2 values approaching to 1. Furthermore, adsorption thermodynamics parameters such as free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated and the adsorption process was found to be exothermic with a value of ∆H° = −9.981 KJ mol−1, spontaneous that was concluded from ΔG° values which were negative (−0.275, −3.422, and −6.171 KJ mol−1 at 20, 30, and 40 °C respectively). A positive entropy change ∆S° with a value of 0.0363 KJ mol−1 indicated the increase disorder during adsorption process. It was concluded that the activated sawdust could be used as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of waste material, especially dyes from polluted waters.

  • 5.
    Sylwan, Ida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Removal of heavy metals during primary treatment of municipal wastewater and possibilities of enhanced removal: A review2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 8, article id 1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource reuse has become an important aspect of wastewater management. At present, use of sludge in agriculture is one of the major reuse routes. Conventional municipal wastewater treatment does not involve any designated process for removal of heavy metals, and these distribute mainly between effluent and sludge. Enhanced removal of heavy metals during primary treatment may decrease the heavy metal concentrations in both effluent and sludge from secondary treatment and promote long-term reuse of secondary sludge. This review considers heavy metal occurrence and removal during primary settling, together with possible treatment technologies for heavy metal removal in primary settlers and their theoretical performance. The variation in total heavy metal concentrations and dissolved fraction in raw municipal wastewater points to a need for site-specific assessments of appropriate technologies for improved heavy metal removal. Studies examining the heavy metal speciation beyond dissolved/particulate are few. Missing or disparate information on process parameters such as hydraulic retention time, pH and composition of return flows makes it hard to generalize the findings from studies concerning heavy metal removal in primary settlers. Coagulation/flocculation and use of low-cost sorbents were identified as the most promising methods for enhancing heavy metal removal during primary settling. Based on the available data on heavy metal speciation and removal during primary settling, sorption technologies may be most effective for enhancing the removal of Cu and Ni, while coagulation may be efficient for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Hg removal (but not as efficient for Ni removal). 

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