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  • 1.
    Ahmed, B. S.
    et al.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi Sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Manno-Lugano, Switzerland.
    Sahib, M. A.
    Software and Informatics Engineering Department, Engineering College, Salahaddin University - Erbil, Iraq.
    Gambardella, L. M.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi Sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Manno-Lugano, Switzerland.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zamli, K. Z.
    IBM Centre of Excellence, Faculty of Computer Systems and Software Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang Lebuhraya Tun Razak, Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.
    Optimum design of PIλDμ controller for an automatic voltage regulator system using combinatorial test design2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0166150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial test design is a plan of test that aims to reduce the amount of test cases systematically by choosing a subset of the test cases based on the combination of input variables. The subset covers all possible combinations of a given strength and hence tries to match the effectiveness of the exhaustive set. This mechanism of reduction has been used successfully in software testing research with t-way testing (where t indicates the interaction strength of combinations). Potentially, other systems may exhibit many similarities with this approach. Hence, it could form an emerging application in different areas of research due to its usefulness. To this end, more recently it has been applied in a few research areas successfully. In this paper, we explore the applicability of combinatorial test design technique for Fractional Order (FO), Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) parameter design controller, named as FOPID, for an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system. Throughout the paper, we justify this new application theoretically and practically through simulations. In addition, we report on first experiments indicating its practical use in this field. We design different algorithms and adapted other strategies to cover all the combinations with an optimum and effective test set. Our findings indicate that combinatorial test design can find the combinations that lead to optimum design. Besides this, we also found that by increasing the strength of combination, we can approach to the optimum design in a way that with only 4-way combinatorial set, we can get the effectiveness of an exhaustive test set. This significantly reduced the number of tests needed and thus leads to an approach that optimizes design of parameters quickly. © 2016 Ahmed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 2.
    Azerkan, Fatima
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Widmark, Catarina
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sparen, Par
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    When Life Got in the Way: How Danish and Norwegian Immigrant Women in Sweden Reason about Cervical Screening and Why They Postpone Attendance2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0107624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden have an increased risk of cervical cancer compared to Swedish-born women. In addition, Danish and Norwegian immigrant women follow the national recommendations for attendance at cervical screening to much lesser extent than Swedish-born women. The aim of this study was to explore how Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden reason about attending cervical screening, focusing on women's perceptions as to why they and their compatriots do not attend. Methods Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with Danish and Norwegian immigrant women living in Stockholm. The women were between 26 and 66 years of age at the time of the FGDs, and were aged between <1 and 48 years old when they immigrated to Sweden. A FGD guide was used, which included questions related to cervical screening, and obstacles and motivators to attend cervical screening. The FGDs were tape recorded and transcribed, and the results analysed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme was "Women have a comprehensive rationale for postponing cervical screening, yet do not view themselves as non-attenders". Investigation of women's rationale for non-attendance after being invited to cervical screening revealed some complex reasons related to immigration itself, including competing needs, organisational and structural factors and differences in mentality, but also reasons stemming from other factors. Postponing attendance at cervical screening was the category that linked all these factors as the reasons to why women did not attend to cervical screening according to the recommendations of the authorities. Conclusions The rationale used to postpone cervical screening, in combination with the fact that women do not consider themselves to be non-attenders, indicates that they have not actively taken a stance against cervical screening, and reveals an opportunity to motivate these women to attend.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University.
    Haggstrom, Olle
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lord's Paradox in a Continuous Setting and a Regression Artifact in Numerical Cognition Research.2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, p. e95949-e95949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we review, and elaborate on, the literature on a regression artifact related to Lord's paradox in a continuous setting. Specifically, the question is whether a continuous property of individuals predicts improvement from training between a pretest and a posttest. If the pretest score is included as a covariate, regression to the mean will lead to biased results if two critical conditions are satisfied: (1) the property is correlated with pretest scores and (2) pretest scores include random errors. We discuss how these conditions apply to the analysis in a published experimental study, the authors of which concluded that linearity of children's estimations of numerical magnitudes predicts arithmetic learning from a training program. However, the two critical conditions were clearly met in that study. In a reanalysis we find that the bias in the method can fully account for the effect found in the original study. In other words, data are consistent with the null hypothesis that numerical magnitude estimations are unrelated to arithmetic learning.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Simpson, Brent
    University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America.
    Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. Art.num. 73364-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players - journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings - are critical to the broader public's continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same - versus different - journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University.
    The hard problem of cooperation2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, p. e40325-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the “hard problem of cooperation” as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  • 6.
    Gusdal, Annelie K
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Univ Borås, Fac Caring Sci Work Life & Social Welf, Borås, Sweden..
    Thors Adolfsson, Eva
    Cty Council Västmanland, Västmanlands Hosp Västerås, Primary Hlth Care, Västerås, Sweden.
    Martin, Lene
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Registered nurses' perceptions about the situation of family caregivers to patients with heart failure a focus group interview study2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 8, p. E1-E18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Heart failure is a growing public health problem associated with poor quality of life and significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of heart failure care is provided by family caregivers, and is associated with caregiver burden and reduced quality of life. Research emphasizes that future nursing interventions should recognize the importance of involving family caregivers to achieve optimal outcomes.

    AIMS: The aims of this study are to explore registered nurses' perceptions about the situation of family caregivers to patients with heart failure, and registered nurses' interventions, in order to improve family caregivers' situation.

    METHODS: The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach. Six focus group interviews were held with 23 registered nurses in three hospitals and three primary health care centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Two content areas were identified by the a priori study aims. Four categories and nine sub-categories emerged in the analysis process. The content area "Family caregivers' situation" includes two categories: "To be unburdened" and "To comprehend the heart failure condition and its consequences". The content area "Interventions to improve family caregivers' situation" includes two categories: "Individualized support and information" and "Bridging contact".

    CONCLUSIONS: Registered nurses perceive family caregivers' situation as burdensome, characterized by worry and uncertainty. In the PHCCs, the continuity and security of an RN as a permanent health care contact was considered an important and sustainable intervention to better care for family caregivers' worry and uncertainty. In the nurse-led heart failure clinics in hospitals, registered nurses can provide family caregivers with the opportunity of involvement in their relative's health care and address congruence and relationship quality within the family through the use of "Shared care" and or Family-centred care. Registered nurses consider it necessary to have a coordinated individual care plan as a basis for collaboration between the county council and the municipality.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholms University, Sweden.
    Cooperation and Shared Beliefs about Trust in the Assurance Game2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0144191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determinants of cooperation include ingroup vs. outgroup membership, and individual traits, such as prosociality and trust. We investigated whether these factors can be overridden by beliefs about people's trust. We manipulated the information players received about each other's level of general trust, "high" or "low". These levels were either measured (Experiment 1) or just arbitrarily assigned labels (Experiment 2). Players' choices whether to cooperate or defect in a stag hunt (or an assurance game)-where it is mutually beneficial to cooperate, but costly if the partner should fail to do so-were strongly predicted by what they were told about the other player's trust label, as well as by what they were told that the other player was told about their own label. Our findings demonstrate the importance for cooperation in a risky coordination game of both first- and second-order beliefs about how much people trust each other. This supports the idea that institutions can influence cooperation simply by influencing beliefs.

  • 8.
    Jonsson, U.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, G.
    Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Allard, P.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gyllensvärd, H.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tham, A.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, G.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychological treatment of depression in people aged 65 years and over: A systematic review of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 8, article id e0160859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Depression in elderly people is a major public health concern. As response to antidepressants is often unsatisfactory in this age group, there is a need for evidence-based non-pharmacological treatment options. Our objectives were twofold: firstly, to synthesize published trials evaluating efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of psychological treatment of depression in the elderly and secondly, to assess the quality of evidence. Method: The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAL, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched up to 23 May 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological treatment for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms in people aged 65 years and over. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for risk of bias. Where appropriate, the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. The quality of the evidence was graded according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Results: Twenty-two relevant RCTs were identified, eight of which were excluded from the synthesis due to a high risk of bias. Of the remaining trials, six evaluated problem-solving therapy (PST), five evaluated other forms of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and three evaluated life review/reminiscence therapy. In frail elderly with depressive symptoms, the evidence supported the efficacy of PST, with large but heterogeneous effect sizes compared with treatment as usual. The results for life-review/reminiscence therapy and CBT were also promising, but because of the limited number of trials the quality of evidence was rated as very low. Safety data were not reported in any included trial. The only identified cost-effectiveness study estimated an incremental cost per additional point reduction in Beck Depression Inventory II score for CBT compared with talking control and treatment as usual. Conclusion: Psychological treatment is a feasible option for frail elderly with depressive symptoms. However, important questions about efficacy, generalizability, safety and cost-effectiveness remain.

  • 9.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Cultural Evolution of Democracy: Saltational Changes in a Political Regime Landscape2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 11, p. e28270-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions to democracy are most often considered the outcome of historical modernization processes. Socio-economic changes, such as increases in per capita GNP, education levels, urbanization and communication, have traditionally been found to be correlates or 'requisites' of democratic reform. However, transition times and the number of reform steps have not been studied comprehensively. Here we show that historically, transitions to democracy have mainly occurred through rapid leaps rather than slow and incremental transition steps, with a median time from autocracy to democracy of 2.4 years, and overnight in the reverse direction. Our results show that autocracy and democracy have acted as peaks in an evolutionary landscape of possible modes of institutional arrangements. Only scarcely have there been slow incremental transitions. We discuss our results in relation to the application of phylogenetic comparative methods in cultural evolution and point out that the evolving unit in this system is the institutional arrangement, not the individual country which is instead better regarded as the 'host' for the political system.

  • 10.
    Linnman, Clas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    The PET Center in Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
    Engler, Henry
    University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay; Uruguayan Centre of Molecular Imaging, Montevideo, Uruguay; Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Elevated [11C]-D-deprenyl uptake in chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder suggests persistent musculoskeletal inflammation2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 4, p. e19182-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few diagnostic tools for chronic musculoskeletal pain as structural imaging methods seldom reveal pathological alterations. This is especially true for Whiplash Associated Disorder, for which physical signs of persistent injuries to the neck have yet to be established. Here, we sought to visualize inflammatory processes in the neck region by means Positron Emission Tomography using the tracer (11)C-D-deprenyl, a potential marker for inflammation. Twenty-two patients with enduring pain after a rear impact car accident (Whiplash Associated Disorder grade II) and 14 healthy controls were investigated. Patients displayed significantly elevated tracer uptake in the neck, particularly in regions around the spineous process of the second cervical vertebra. This suggests that whiplash patients have signs of local persistent peripheral tissue inflammation, which may potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker. The present investigation demonstrates that painful processes in the periphery can be objectively visualized and quantified with PET and that (11)C-D-deprenyl is a promising tracer for these purposes.

  • 11.
    You, H.
    et al.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Chen, J.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska institutet.
    Wu, Y.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Duan, S.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Ye, C.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Liu, X.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Yu, H.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Diwan, V.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Dong, H.
    Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University.
    Study on the Factors Associated with Postpartum Visits in Rural China2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 2, p. Artnr. e55955-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postpartum visits (PPVs) have been advocated as a way to improve health outcomes for mothers and their infants, but the rate of PPVs is still low in rural China. This study aims to investigate the utilization of PPVs and to explore the factors associated with PPVs in rural China. Parity is the most concerned factor in this study. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was performed in two counties of Zhejiang province. Questions include socio-economic, health services and women's delivery data. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with PPVs. Results: 223 women who had a delivery history in the recent five years were enrolled in analyses. 173 (78%) of them were primiparous. Among the primiparous women, 43 (25%) had not received any PPVs. The majority, 27 (55%) of the 49 multiparous women, had not received any PPVs. Multiparous women were less likely to receive PPVs than primiparous women. Among 223 puerperal women, 47 (21%) had been compensated for delivery fee expenses. Women who received compensation were found to be more likely to receive standard (at least 3) PPVs. Conclusions: It was found that women with "second babies" were less likely to use PPVs. This could be an unintended consequence of the "one-child policy", due to fear that contact with public health facilities could result in sanctions. This phenomenon should be taken seriously by government in order to improve the health of babies and their mothers. Financial compensation for delivery fee charges can improve the use of PPVs, thus free-of-charge delivery should be promoted. © 2013 You et al.

  • 12.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Enel, P.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Ibos, G.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Dominey, P.F.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Baraduc, P.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Hamed, S.B
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, France .
    Comparison of Classifiers for Decoding Sensory and Cognitive Information from Prefrontal Neuronal Populations.2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decoding neuronal information is important in neuroscience, both as a basic means to understand how neuronal activity is related to cerebral function and as a processing stage in driving neuroprosthetic effectors. Here, we compare the readout performance of six commonly usedclassifiers at decoding two different variables encoded by the spiking activity of the non-human primate frontal eye fields (FEF): the spatial position of a visual cue, and the instructed orientation of the animal's attention. While the first variable is exogenously driven by the environment, the second variable corresponds to the interpretation of the instruction conveyed by the cue; it is endogenously driven and corresponds to the output of internalcognitive operations performed on the visual attributes of the cue. These two variables were decoded using either a regularized optimal linear estimator in its explicit formulation, an optimal linear artificial neural network estimator, a non-linear artificial neural network estimator, a non-linear naïve Bayesian estimator, a non-linear Reservoir recurrent network classifier or a non-linear Support Vector Machine classifier. Our results suggest that endogenous information such as the orientation of attention can be decoded from the FEF with the same accuracy as exogenous visualinformation. All classifiers did not behave equally in the face of population size and heterogeneity, the available training and testing trials, the subject's behavior and the temporal structure of the variable of interest. In most situations, the regularized optimal linear estimator and the non-linear Support Vector Machine classifiers outperformed the other tested decoders.

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